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Glossary of Copper TermsA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
70/30 brass with 1% tin added for extra corrosion resistance.
Copper alloys such as copper-beryllium and copper chromium are hardened by heat treatment of solution treatment followed by quenching, then ageing at low temperatures to develop improved mechanical properties.
A copper alloy is a partial or complete solid solution of copper with one or more alloying elements such as zinc, tin, nickel, aluminium or silicon.
Brass containing up to 36% of zinc is usually the single alpha phase with good cold working properties.
Brass containing over 36% of zinc or with other additions usually has two phases present, alpha and beta.
High copper brass with aluminium added for improved corrosion resistance. This is often used for condenser tubes.
Copper-aluminium alloy with up to 13% of aluminium, usually also with other additions such as iron, manganese, nickel and/or silicon.
Heating copper/copper alloys to 500-550oC in order to produce complete softening.
Cast slabs of copper from the fire refining processes used as starters for electrolytic refining.
Copper sulphide ore.
Copper with arsenic additions used primarily for the manufacture of boiler fireboxes. Now obsolete.
Brass with improved corrosion resistance containing arsenic, and frequently aluminium.
American Society for Metals.
American Society for Testing and Materials, responsible for standards for metals.
Copper carbonate ore.
LME term used when the price for cash copper commands a premium over the price for copper in three months time. Caused by temporary shortages in spot supplies.
The highest strength of any copper alloy, achieved by heat treatment (ageing) and cold working.
A brass with very high zinc content may be mostly of beta structure. This is brittle and used only as a brazing filler alloy.
The copper produced after sulphur is removed; it is made by blowing air through the mixture; this produces gaseous sulphur dioxide which forms blister-like bubbles on the surface.
Copper sulphate-lime mixture used as an adherent fungicide, especially for grapevines.
Copper sulphide ore.
Copper-zinc alloy, also used to describe a memorial plate in a church, coinage or bearing block. Originally the term also covered copper-tin alloys now called bronzes. Also used to describe a tin-zinc spelter made for the manufacture of organ pipes.
Miners term for massive iron pyrites (fools gold).
Standard hardness test using a specified load on a ball indenter (HB).
Copper-tin alloy, term also loosely used for some other copper alloys.
Solution of copper sulphate and sodium carbonate developed in 1885 for the prevention of mildew and other diseases on grapevines.
Copper bar or section used for carrying heavy currents. Busbars are generally rigid when compared to cables.
Copper with an addition of cadmium for good strength and wear resistance without significant loss of conductivity.
Pure copper, the product of electrolytic refining supplied for melting for the manufacture of products.
70/30 brass with good cold working properties.
European Standards Organisation. EN standards are being adopted by all European countries.
Chalcocite, copper glance
Cuprous sulphide ore.
Copper sulphide ore.
Copper silicate ore.
Deforming a metal at a temperature below that of recrystallisation so that the metal hardens.
Production method for castings where the molten metal is continuously poured into an open mould while the solidified metal is slowly withdrawn and coiled or cut to length by flying saw. May be a vertical, sidecasting or upcasting process.
63/37 brass, standard cheap brass for cold working. It is now usually a 64/36 alloy to give improved corrosion resistance.
LME term applied when the price quoted for copper due for delivery in three months time is higher than that for cash copper on that day. This is the normal market situation, financing the interest charge.
To sheath the bottom of ships with copper to prevent attack by the Toredo worm and prevent the attachment of biofouling including molluscs that slow the ship, first applied to British ships in 1761. Now used as a term of assurance of quality.
A venomous snake, common in the United States of America
Covers copper alloys with less than 50% of nickel.
Slang term for inflamed nose, acne rosaaca, a bacterial infection treatable by antibiotics.
A polished plate of copper on which a design is engraved for printing.
Term used in sugar making to describe a double row of copper pans served by a common fire.
Copper sulphide ore.
Copper oxide ore.
An alternative term for copper-nickel alloy.
Forming hollow components by using a punch and die to give significant plastic deformation.
Copper that has had deoxidiser added to reduce oxygen. Phosphorus is commonly added but other elements such as boron or magnesium may be used.
Selective corrosion of the beta phase of duplex brass that leaves a copper residue under a meringue of zinc oxide.
German National Standards Organisation
Director General Ships standards - obsolete, replaced by NES series, which in turn has been replaced by DSTAN (UK Defence Standardisation).
Phosphorus deoxidised copper (previously known as Dona copper).
Deoxidised copper, low phosphorus.
Directorate of Technical Development, military specifications.
The process of pulling a metal through a die to reduce the cross section, usually performed cold.
Ease with which material can be formed, for example by drawing, bending or rolling. The property is usually measured as elongation in a tensile test or by a bend or deep-drawability test.
See alpha-beta brass.
Electrolytic tough pitch copper, standard high conductivity copper.
A hot working process in which a heated billet is forced to deform by being pushed through a die to produce a long product of uniform cross-section.
The ratio of the cross-sectional area of a billet to that of the extruded product.
Copper refined by melting and processing in an open hearth or rotary furnace.
When exposed to seawater or any electrolyte, metals show a voltage dependent on the electrochemical series. Metals with near-similar voltages are compatible. Metals with differing voltages are likely to cause galvanic corrosion. It is always the anode which corrodes.
The unwanted rock in copper ore.
Obsolete term for nickel silver.
Brass with high copper, usually 90/10 but sometimes 80/20.
Copper-tin-zinc casting alloy.
An alloy capable of being strengthened by heat treatment, usually involving solution treatment followed by ageing (precipitation) treatment.
High conductivity copper
Standard form of copper with a purity giving a conductivity of 100% IACS or more.
High tensile brass
Brass with additions, typically iron, nickel, manganese and/or aluminium to give better strength and, usually, better corrosion resistance.
A proprietary process for treating metals at very high pressures to compact them to produce good properties.
Plastic deformation of a metal at a temperature high enough to promote recrystallisation, thus preventing cold working.
International annealed copper standard, a value for conductivity agreed in 1913 with copper being given the value of 100%, equivalent to 58MS/m or a mass resistivity of 0.15176 Ωg/m2. Advances in refining mean that high conductivity copper is now frequently of 103% conductivity.
International Copper Association.
International Copper Research Association, now superseded by ICA.
International Standards Organisation.
Usually a duplex brass with an addition of lead to give excellent machinability.
London Metal Exchange.
Copper carbonate ore.
Obsolete term for high tensile brass.
American military specifications.
A nickel-copper alloy, usually 70/30, originally produced directly from a copper-nickel ore in Sudbury, Ontario.
A 60/40 brass with good castability and hot working properties.
Pure copper that occurs in nature without being bound up within an ore.
60/40 brass with 1% tin added for extra corrosion resistance.
Near net shape forming
Forming a product near to final shape so that it needs little further finishing.
Naval Engineering Standards.
Copper melted and cast under controlled atmosphere to give low residual oxygen content.
Oxygen-free electronic copper
Oxygen free copper containing low residual volatile elements.
A protective film that develops on copper on exposure to the atmosphere. In most non-polluted environments it is basic copper carbonate but in industrial and urban areas it is mainly basic copper sulphate.
A copper-tin phosphorous alloy, hard and strong.
Part of the old fire refining process that involves reducing the oxidised charge by submerging green wood in the liquid copper.
American term for copper-tin-zinc alloy (gunmetal).
American term for common brass.
Standard American hardness test with several ranges of loads and indenters, HRB, HRC.
Society of Automotive Engineers (USA)
Obsolete term for copper containing oxygen at about 0.03-0.07% which gave a level set to the top of a wirebar when statically cast horizontally .
A strikingly green corrosion product that forms on copper in some circumstances, a complex basic copper acetate. Unlike a patina, it is water-soluble.
Standard hardness test using a load on a diamond pyramid indenter (HV, VPN or VHN).
Component made by hot or cold deformation of a cast product, removing the original cast structure.
American term for 67/33 brass.
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