success fail Mar JUN Jul 02 2011 2012 2013 18 captures 16 Jan 2012 - 08 Jul 2018 About this capture COLLECTED BY Organization: Alexa Crawls Starting in 1996, Alexa Internet has been donating their crawl data to the Internet Archive. Flowing in every day, these data are added to the Wayback Machine after an embargo period. Collection: Alexa Crawls Starting in 1996, Alexa Internet has been donating their crawl data to the Internet Archive. Flowing in every day, these data are added to the Wayback Machine after an embargo period. TIMESTAMPS
ScandiumScantily scant scandium aptly describes the availability of this, the first member of the rare-earth group of elements.
- High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps use scandium iodide for sports stadium and arena lighting to provide daytime-like color for television.
- Russian MiG fighter jets use scandium-aluminum airframes to make the aircraft lighter and more maneuverable.
- Scandium-aluminum high-strength lightweight alloy is also used in bicycle frames, lacrosse sticks, golf clubs, and baseball bats.
- Laser crystals of gadolinium-scandium-gallium garnet (GSGG) are used in strategic defense applications.
- Dentists use Erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) lasers for cavity preparation and in endodontics.
- Smith and Wesson make a lightweight, high-strength revolver frame using Scandium-aluminum.
- Scandium is more abundant in the Moon than on Earth.
- The blue color of the gemstone aquamarine is attributed to the presence of scandium.
- Scandium is widely dispersed in the Earth but is rarely found in any large concentrations, thus it is "rare".
- Scandium-aluminum in baseball and softball bats creates a "trampoline effect" that deflects the ball off the bat faster and farther.
DefinitionScandium is a silvery-white metal that oxidizes in air to a yellowish or pinkish tint. The metal is lightweight, soft, and ductile. It has a hexagonal close-packed structure, a density of 2.992 gm/cm3, a melting point of 1541 °C, and a boiling point of 2836 °C. Scandium oxide, or scandia, occurs as a trivalent ion and forms a sesquioxide with the formula Sc2O3. The oxide is a white powder with a specific gravity of 3.86 gm/cm3 and a formula weight of 137.9.
Preparation of MetalScandium metal is typically prepared by calciothermic reduction of the trihalide, typically ScF3. Although its melting point is similar to Y, Gd, Tb, and Lu, its vapor pressure at the melting point is much higher. This makes purification of Sc, and similar elements Dy, Ho, and Er with high vapor pressures, comparatively easy. Common interstitial impurities which form stable compounds with nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen remain in the residue when the metal is sublimed at a slow rate (Beaudry and Gschneidner, Jr., 1978).
MiningScandium previously produced in the United States was primarily from the scandium-yttrium silicate mineral thortveitite, and from byproduct leach solutions from uranium operations. The rare thortveitite and associated scandium-bearing minerals from Ravalli County, Montana, USA, are believed to be of magmatic origin and occur in association with a fluorite-bearing granitic pegmatite and host melagabbro within the Crystal Mountain fluorite deposit (Foord, Birmingham, Demartin, Pilati, Gramaccioli, and Lichte, 1993). Thortveitite contains ~34% Sc2O3, ~10% HREE, and ~2% LREE (Horowitz, Gschneidner, Jr., Melson, Youngblood, and Schock, 1975). Scandium was also previously produced as a byproduct during uranium processing at the Bingham Canyon copper mine, Bingham Canyon, Utah. At Climax, Colorado, scandium was recovered from tungsten raffinates during wolframite processing. Some Idaho batholith-derived heavy mineral placers are reported to contain from 200 ppm to 1,500 ppm scandium, mainly in tantalite, columbite, euxenite, and ilmenite (Parker and Adams, 1973).
Selected scandium minerals (all considered rare)Thortveitite (Sc,Y)2Si2O7 Bazzite Be3Sc2(Si6O18) Kolbeckite ScPO4 2H2O Sc-Ixiolite (Nb,Ta,Ti,Sc,Fe,Mn)4O8 Sc-Perrierite (Ce,Ca, Th)4(Fe2+,Sc)Fe23+(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8 Magbasite KBa(Al,Sc)Fe2+Mg5F2Si6O20
Beaudry and Bernard J. and Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr., 1978, Preparation and Basic Properties of the Rare Earth Metals: chapter 2 in Handbook of the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths-Volume 1:Metals, (Gschneidner, Jr. and Eyring, editors), North-Holland, New York, p. 173-232.
Ford, Eugene E., Scott D. Birmingham, Francesco Demartin, Tullio Pilati, Carlo M. Gramaccioli, and Frederick E. Lichte, 1993, Thortveitite and associated Sc-bearing minerals from Ravalli County, Montana: Canadian Mineralogist, v. 31, p. 337-346.
Hedrick, James B., 2010, Scandium: chapter in Mineral commodity summaries 2010, U.S. Geological Survey, p. 140-141.
Horowitz, Chaim T. (ed.), Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr., Gordon A. Melson, David H. Youngblood, and Hans H. Schock, 1975, Scandium?ts occurrence, chemistry, physics, metallurgy, biology, and technology: Academic Press, New York, 598 p.
Nilson, Lars F. 1879, Sur l’ytterbine, terre nouvelle de M. Marginac: Comptes rendus, March 24, no. 88, p. 642-645.
Nilson, Lars F., 1879, Sur le scandium, élément nouveau: Comptes rendus, March 24, no. 88, p. 645-648.
Parker, R.L, and J.W. Adams, 1973, Niobium (columbium) and tantalum: chapter in United States Mineral Resources, (D.A. Brobst and W.P. Pratt, eds.) U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 820, p. 443-454.Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 9, 2 Atomic number,
Protons, Electrons: 21 Number of Neutrons: 24 Atomic Mass: 44.95591 amu Melting Point: 1541 °C Boiling Point: 2836 °C Density @ 293 K: 2.992 g/cm3 Crystal structure: hexagonal Color: silvery