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football (soccer)soccer also called association football or soccer
game in which two teams of 11 players, using any part of their bodies except their hands and arms, try to maneuver the ball into the opposing team’s goal. Only the goalkeeper is permitted to handle the ball and may do so only within the penalty area surrounding the goal. The team that scores more goals wins.
Football is the world’s most popular ball game in numbers of participants and spectators. Simple in its principal rules and essential equipment, the sport can be played almost anywhere, from official football playing fields (pitches) to gymnasiums, streets, school playgrounds, parks, or beaches. Football’s governing body, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), estimated that at the turn of the 21st century there were approximately 250 million football players and over 1.3 billion people “interested” in football; in 2002 a combined television audience of more than 28 billion watched football’s premier tournament, the quadrennial month-long World Cup finals. (For a list of World Cup champions, see table.)FIFA World Cup—men year result 1930 Uruguay 4 Argentina 2 1934 Italy 2 Czechoslovakia 1 1938 Italy 4 Hungary 2 1950 Uruguay 2 Brazil 1 1954 West Germany 3 Hungary 2 1958 Brazil 5 Sweden 2 1962 Brazil 3 Czechoslovakia 1 1966 England 4 West Germany 2 1970 Brazil 4 Italy 1 1974 West Germany 2 The Netherlands 1 1978 Argentina 3 The Netherlands 1 1982 Italy 3 West Germany 1 1986 Argentina 3 West Germany 2 1990 West Germany 1 Argentina 0 1994 Brazil* 0 Italy 0 1998 France 3 Brazil 0 2002 Brazil 2 Germany 0 2006 Italy* 1 France 1 *Won on penalty kicks.
For a history of the origins of football sport, see football.
History » The early years
Modern football originated in Britain in the 19th century. Since before medieval times, “folk football” games had been played in towns and villages according to local customs and with a minimum of rules. Industrialization and urbanization, which reduced the amount of leisure time and space available to the working class, combined with a history of legal prohibitions against particularly violent and destructive forms of folk football to undermine the game’s status from the early 19th century onward. However, football was taken up as a winter game between residence houses at public (independent) schools such as Winchester, Charterhouse, and Eton. Each school had its own rules; some allowed limited handling of the ball and others did not. The variance in rules made it difficult for public schoolboys entering university to continue playing except with former schoolmates. As early as 1843 an attempt to standardize and codify the rules of play was made at the University of Cambridge, whose students joined most public schools in 1848 in adopting these “Cambridge rules,” which were further spread by Cambridge graduates who formed football clubs. In 1863 a series of meetings involving clubs from metropolitan London and surrounding counties produced the printed rules of football, which prohibited the carrying of the ball. Thus the “handling” game of rugby remained outside the newly formed Football Association (FA). Indeed, by 1870, all handling of the ball except by the goalkeeper was prohibited by the FA.
The new rules were not universally accepted in Britain, however; many clubs retained their own rules, especially in and around Sheffield. Although this northern English city was the home of the first provincial club to join the FA, in 1867 it also gave birth to the Sheffield Football Association, the forerunner of later county associations. Sheffield and London clubs played two matches against each other in 1866, and a year later a match pitting a club from Middlesex against one from Kent and Surrey was played under the revised rules. In 1871 15 FA clubs accepted an invitation to enter a cup competition and to contribute to the purchase of a trophy. By 1877, the associations of Great Britain had agreed upon a uniform code, 43 clubs were in competition, and the London clubs’ initial dominance had diminished.
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Table of Contents
- Football around the world
- Play of the game
- Additional Reading
- Related Links
- External Web sites
- Portugal’s goalkeeper Ricardo diving unsuccessfully to stop a penalty kick for a goal by France’s …[Credits : Mark J. Terrill/AP]
- Brazil’s Ronaldo (yellow shirt) maneuvering around opposing German players during the final match …[Credits : Thomas Kienzle—AP/Wide World Photos]
- Pelé, in action for the New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League.[Credits : © Getty Images]
- Mia Hamm, 1999.[Credits : Jed Jacobsohn/Getty Images]
- Ronaldinho (Ronaldo de Assis Moreira), star of the Brazilian national football (soccer) team, 2006.[Credits : TM and © Nike, Inc., all rights reserved/PR NewsFoto/AP Images]
- Positions of the players for the withdrawn centre forward attack.[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.]
- The catenaccio defense, showing the positions of the players and the range of the sweeper.[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.]
- A ball from the 2006 World Cup in the grass in Allianz Arena, Munich, Ger.[Credits : Peter Kneffel—dpa/Landov]
- Lev Yashin diving to save a free kick during the 1966 World Cup semifinal at Goodison Park, …[Credits : © Central Press/Getty Images]
- [Credits : Getty Images]