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Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern — University of Twente Research Information

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Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

A.Y. Hoekstra, A.K. Chapagain

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review

728 Citations (Scopus) 398 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of water used from domestic water resources; the external water footprint is the volume of water used in other countries to produce goods and services imported and consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The study calculates the water footprint for each nation of the world for the period 1997–2001. The USA appears to have an average water footprint of 2480,m3/cap/yr, while China has an average footprint of 700,m3/cap/yr. The global average water footprint is 1240,m3/cap/yr. The four major direct factors determining the water footprint of a country are: volume of consumption (related to the gross national income); consumption pattern (e.g. high versus low meat consumption); climate (growth conditions); and agricultural practice (water use efficiency). Original languageEnglish Pages (from-to)35-48 JournalWater resources management Volume21 Issue number1 DOIs Publication statusPublished - 2007

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water footprint water use Water consumption pattern agricultural practice water use efficiency meat footprint water resource income Meats Water resources

Keywords

  • Virtual water
  • Consumption
  • Water footprint
  • Indicators
  • Water useefficiency
  • External water dependency

Cite this

Hoekstra, A. Y., & Chapagain, A. K. (2007). Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. Water resources management, 21(1), 35-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-006-9039-x Hoekstra, A.Y. ; Chapagain, A.K. / Water footprints of nations : water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. In: Water resources management. 2007 ; Vol. 21, No. 1. pp. 35-48. @article{cb43676ec42642caabd5e9810b2c9595, title = "Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern", abstract = "The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of water used from domestic water resources; the external water footprint is the volume of water used in other countries to produce goods and services imported and consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The study calculates the water footprint for each nation of the world for the period 1997–2001. The USA appears to have an average water footprint of 2480,m3/cap/yr, while China has an average footprint of 700,m3/cap/yr. The global average water footprint is 1240,m3/cap/yr. The four major direct factors determining the water footprint of a country are: volume of consumption (related to the gross national income); consumption pattern (e.g. high versus low meat consumption); climate (growth conditions); and agricultural practice (water use efficiency).", keywords = "Virtual water, Consumption, Water footprint, Indicators, Water useefficiency, External water dependency", author = "A.Y. Hoekstra and A.K. Chapagain", year = "2007", doi = "10.1007/s11269-006-9039-x", language = "English", volume = "21", pages = "35--48", journal = "Water resources management", issn = "0920-4741", publisher = "Springer", number = "1",

}

Hoekstra, AY & Chapagain, AK 2007, 'Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern' Water resources management, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 35-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-006-9039-x

Water footprints of nations : water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. / Hoekstra, A.Y.; Chapagain, A.K.

In: Water resources management, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2007, p. 35-48.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Water footprints of nations

T2 - water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

AU - Hoekstra, A.Y.

AU - Chapagain, A.K.

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of water used from domestic water resources; the external water footprint is the volume of water used in other countries to produce goods and services imported and consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The study calculates the water footprint for each nation of the world for the period 1997–2001. The USA appears to have an average water footprint of 2480,m3/cap/yr, while China has an average footprint of 700,m3/cap/yr. The global average water footprint is 1240,m3/cap/yr. The four major direct factors determining the water footprint of a country are: volume of consumption (related to the gross national income); consumption pattern (e.g. high versus low meat consumption); climate (growth conditions); and agricultural practice (water use efficiency).

AB - The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of water used from domestic water resources; the external water footprint is the volume of water used in other countries to produce goods and services imported and consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The study calculates the water footprint for each nation of the world for the period 1997–2001. The USA appears to have an average water footprint of 2480,m3/cap/yr, while China has an average footprint of 700,m3/cap/yr. The global average water footprint is 1240,m3/cap/yr. The four major direct factors determining the water footprint of a country are: volume of consumption (related to the gross national income); consumption pattern (e.g. high versus low meat consumption); climate (growth conditions); and agricultural practice (water use efficiency).

KW - Virtual water

KW - Consumption

KW - Water footprint

KW - Indicators

KW - Water useefficiency

KW - External water dependency

U2 - 10.1007/s11269-006-9039-x

DO - 10.1007/s11269-006-9039-x

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 35

EP - 48

JO - Water resources management

JF - Water resources management

SN - 0920-4741

IS - 1

ER -

Hoekstra AY, Chapagain AK. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. Water resources management. 2007;21(1):35-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-006-9039-x

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