Wiktionary:International Phonetic AlphabetDefinition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary Jump to navigation Jump to search English Wikipedia has an article on:International Phonetic Alphabet Wikipedia Shortcut:
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. It is intended as a notational standard for the phonemic and phonetic representation of all spoken languages.
This page gives a general overview of the symbols used in the IPA. As it is used for all languages, it would be impractical to explain to English speakers how to pronounce all of the sounds. Therefore, the symbols are grouped based on the features they have, or the parts of the mouth used to pronounce them. A dental consonant, for example, is pronounced using the teeth, while a bilabial consonant uses both lips.
Pages explaining the pronunciation of individual languages can be found in Category:Pronunciation by language.
- 1 Consonants (pulmonic)
- 2 Consonants (non-pulmonic)
- 3 Vowels
- 4 Other symbols
- 5 Suprasegmentals
- 6 Tones and word accents
- 7 Diacritics
- 8 See also
Consonants (pulmonic)BilabialLabiodentalDentalAlveolarPostalveolarRetroflexPalatalVelarUvularPharyngealGlottal Plosivep b p̪ b̪ t̪ d̪ t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʔ Nasalm ɱ n̪ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ Trillʙ r̪ r ʀ Tap or Flapⱱ̟ ⱱ ɾ̪ ɾ ɽ ɢ̆ Lateral Tap or Flap ɺ ʎ̯ ʟ̆ Fricativeɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ Lateral Fricative ɬ ɮ Approximantβ̞ ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Lateral Approximant l̪ l ɭ ʎ ʟ
- Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant.
- Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.
Consonants (non-pulmonic)Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives ʘ Bilabial click ɓ Bilabial voiced implosive ʼ For example: ǀ Dental click ɗ Dental/alveolar voiced implosive pʼ Bilabial ejective ǃ (Post)alveolar click ʄ Palatal voiced implosive tʼ Dental/alveolar ejective ǂ Palatoalveolar click ɠ Velar voiced implosive kʼ Velar ejective ǁ Alveolar lateral click ʛ Uvular voiced implosive sʼ Alveolar fricative ejective
VowelsFront N.-front Central N.-back Back Close i•y ɨ•ʉ ɯ•u ɪ•ʏ ʊ e•ø ɘ•ɵ ɤ•o ə ɛ•œ ɜ•ɞ ʌ•ɔ æ ɐ a•ɶ ɑ•ɒ Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open
- Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.
Other symbolsʍ Voiceless labial-velar fricative w Voiced labial-velar approximant ɥ Voiced labial-palatal approximant ʜ Voiceless epiglottal fricative ʢ Voiced epiglottal fricative ʡ Epiglottal plosive ɕ ʑ Alveolo-palatal fricatives ɧ Simultaneous ʃ and x
- Affricates and double articulations can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary: k͡p t͡s
Suprasegmentalsˈ Primary stress ˌ Secondary stress ː Long ˑ Half-long ˘ Extra-short . Syllable break ǀ Minor (foot) group ǁ Major (intonation) group ‿ Linking (absence of a break)
Tones and word accents˥ Extra-high (top) "key"tone ˦ High tone ˧ Mid tone ˨ Low tone ˩ Extra-low (bottom) tone
Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. ŋ̊.̥ Voiceless ̤ Breathy voiced ̪ Dental ̬ Voiced ̰ Creaky voiced ̺ Apical ʰ Aspirated ̼ Linguolabial ̻ Laminal ˒ More rounded ʷ Labialized ̃ Nasalized ˓ Less rounded ʲ Palatalized ⁿ Nasal release ˖ Advanced ˠ Velarized ˡ Lateral release ˗ Retracted ˁ Pharyngealized ̚ No audible release ̈ Centralized ̴ Velarized or pharyngealized ̽ Mid-centralized ̝ Raised (ɹ̝ = voiced alveolar fricative) ̩ Syllabic ̞ Lowered (β̞ = voiced bilabial approximant) ̯ Non-syllabic ̘ Advanced tongue root ˞ Rhoticity ̙ Retracted tongue root ͍ Labial spreading ͈ Strong articulation ͊ Denasal ͆ Dentolabial ͉ Weak articulation ͋ Nasal escape ̪͆ Interdental/Bidental \ Reiterated articulation ͌ Velopharyngeal friction ̳ Alveolar ͎ Whistled articulation ↓ Ingressive airflow ̼ Linguolabial ͢ Sliding articulation ↑ Egressive airflow
- Wikipedia: International Phonetic Alphabet
- Wikipedia: pronunciation respelling for English
- Wikipedia: rhotic and non-rhotic dialects
- Wikipedia: long vowels
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- This page was last edited on 18 August 2019, at 04:24.