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Appendix:Swadesh lists - Wiktionary

Appendix:Swadesh lists

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Swadesh lists were originally devised by the linguist Morris Swadesh. In the 1940s to 1950s, Swadesh developed word lists of body parts, verbs, natural phenomena, in order to compute the relationships of languages, and in particular their age, by a method called glottochronology. However, for most linguists this method is even more unreliable than lexicostatistics.

A Swadesh list may also be useful to achieve knowledge of some universal terms in other languages. This is because, for basic communication, knowledge of vocabulary is more important than knowledge of grammar and syntax. Sometimes it is even possible to achieve (very) basic communication skills with no knowledge of the target language syntax whatsoever.

To sort the table columns here (or for any other table in any HTML page), copy the javascript link from here (control-click the "sort table" link to copy the link) and once you have come back to this page, paste the javascript code you have copied into your URL window and run it. (The other table scripts there can also be used here.) Alternatively, instead of copying the link, you could drag it into your bookmarks toolbar, allowing the link to be accessible in the future from the toolbar. This sorting feature could be particularly useful if and when the categories of the Swadesh template and/or Basic English template are fleshed out.

Contents

Assorted Swadesh lists[edit]

Swadesh lists Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic: (Standard Arabic, Egyptian, Palestinian, Tunisian, Cypriot) – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Breton – Buginese – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese: (Mandarin, Cantonese, Gan, Min Nan, Min Dong, Old Chinese) – Cornish – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch (Limburgish, Low Saxon, Zeelandic) – Egyptian – English: (Old, Middle) – Elamite – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – French (Old French) – Frisian – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek: (Modern Greek, Ancient Greek) – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese – Javanese – Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – Latin - Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Macedonian – Makasar – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Manx – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Norwegian: (Bokmål, Nynorsk) – Ojibwe – Okinawan – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – Portuguese (Old Portuguese) – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – West Coast Bajau – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian and Iroquoian – Austroasiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Chumashan and Hokan – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Japonic – Kra–Dai – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan: (Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) – Kho-BwaKuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan and Pawnee – South American – Tungusic – Tupian – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Basque – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Slavic – Vulgar Latin

Indo-European languages[edit]

Proto-Indo-European

Other Eurasian languages[edit]

Pacific Rim languages[edit]

North Asian

East Asian

Southeast Asian and Oceanic

See also: Appendix:Vocabulary lists of Mainland Southeast Asian languages

Amerindian languages[edit]

See also: Appendix:Eskimo–Aleut basic vocabulary and Indigenous languages of the Americas

North American

Central American

South American

African languages[edit]

Creoles, pidgins[edit]

Constructed languages[edit]

Lists in need of expansion[edit]

Templates[edit]

For a basis to expand this list into other languages see the basic 207-word Swadesh template. See also this Swadesh template containing a comparative table for 8 different languages, and this Swadesh template with categories and parts-of-speech added. To visit a more extensive list of basic words in various languages (not a Swadesh list, though it includes and is cross-referenced to Swadesh words), see the Basic English word list.

Templates for Swadesh lists
Templates for boxes
Other templates

Swadesh list table of Germanic and Romance languages[edit]

The words from Swadesh's original 100-word list are designated by an asterisk (*). In the composite list on this page, there are actually 207 words, since seven of the words in the 100-word list (breast, fingernail, full, horn, knee, moon, round) were not in the original 200-word list.

No EnglishFrenchGermanItalianSpanishDutchSwedishLatin 1 I * je ich io yo ik jag ego 2 you sing., thou tu, vous (formal) du, Sie (formal) tu, Lei (formal) , usted (formal) jij, je, u (formal) du tu 3 he il er lui, egli él hij han is, ea 4 we * nous wir noi nosotros wij, we vi nos 5 you pl. vous ihr, Sie (formal) voi vosotros, ustedes (formal) jullie, u (formal) ni vos 6 they ils, elles sie loro, essi ellos, ellas zij, ze de ii, eae 7 this * ceci dieses questo este deze, dit det här hic, is 8 that * cela jenes, das quello ese, aquel die, dat det där ille 9 here ici hier qui, qua aquí, acá hier här hic 10 there dort ahí, allí, allá daar där ibi 11 who * qui wer chi quien wie vem quis 12 what * quoi was che que wat vad quid 13 where wo dove donde waar var ubi 14 when quand wann quando cuando wanneer när quando 15 how comment wie come como hoe hur quam, quomodo 16 not * ne...pas nicht non no niet inte, ej non 17 all * tout alle tutto todo al, alle alla omnis 18 many * plusieurs viele molti muchos veel många multi 19 some quelques einige alcuni algunos, unos enkele, sommige några, vissa aliqui, aliquot 20 few peu wenige pochi poco weinig pauci 21 other autre andere altro otro ander annan alter, alius 22 one * un eins uno uno een ett unus 23 two * deux zwei due dos twee två duo 24 three trois drei tre tres drie tre tres 25 four quatre vier quattro cuatro vier fyra quattuor 26 five cinq fünf cinque cinco vijf fem quinque 27 big * grand groß grande grande groot stor magnus, grandis 28 long * long lang lungo largo lang lång longus 29 wide large breit, weit largo ancho breed, wijd bred, vid latus 30 thick épais dick spesso grueso dik tjock creber 31 heavy lourd schwer pesante pesado zwaar tung gravis 32 small * petit klein piccolo pequeño klein liten parvus 33 short court kurz corto corto kort kort brevis 34 narrow étroit eng stretto estrecho, angosto smal trång angustus 35 thin mince dünn sottile delgado, flaco dun tunn macer 36 woman * femme Frau donna mujer vrouw kvinna femina 37 man (adult male) homme Mann uomo hombre man man vir 38 man * (human being) homme Mensch uomo hombre mens människa homo 39 child enfant Kind bambino niño kind barn puer 40 wife femme, épouse Frau, Ehefrau moglie esposa, mujer vrouw, echtgenote hustru, maka, fru uxor, mulier 41 husband mari, époux Mann, Ehemann marito esposo, marido man, echtgenoot man, make maritus 42 mother mère Mutter madre madre moeder mamma, mor mater 43 father père Vater padre padre vader pappa, far pater 44 animal animal Tier animale animal dier djur animal 45 fish * poisson Fisch pesce pez, pescado vis fisk piscis 46 bird * oiseau Vogel uccello ave, pájaro vogel fågel avis 47 dog * chien Hund cane perro hond hund canis 48 louse * pou Laus pidocchio piojo luis lus pedis 49 snake serpent Schlange serpente serpiente, culebra slang orm serpens 50 worm ver Wurm verme gusano worm mask vermis 51 tree * arbre Baum albero árbol boom träd arbor 52 forest forêt Wald foresta bosque woud skog silva 53 stick bâton Stock bastone palo stok pinne fustis 54 fruit fruit Frucht frutta fruta fruit, vrucht frukt fructus 55 seed * graine Samen seme semilla zaad frö semen 56 leaf * feuille Blatt foglia hoja blad löv, blad folium 57 root * racine Wurzel radice raíz wortel rot radix 58 bark * (from tree) écorce Rinde corteccia corteza schors bark cortex 59 flower fleur Blume fiore flor bloem blomma flos 60 grass herbe Gras erba hierba, pasto gras gräs herba 61 rope corde Seil corda cuerda touw, koord rep funis 62 skin * peau Haut pelle piel huid hud cutis 63 meat viande Fleisch carne carne vlees kött caro 64 blood * sang Blut sangue sangre bloed blod sanguis 65 bone * os Knochen osso hueso been, bot ben os 66 fat * (n.) graisse Fett grasso grasa vet fett adeps 67 egg * œuf Ei uovo huevo ei ägg ovum 68 horn * corne Horn corno cuerno hoorn horn cornu 69 tail * queue Schwanz coda cola staart svans cauda 70 feather * plume Feder piuma pluma veer fjäder penna 71 hair * cheveu Haar capelli cabello, pelo haar hår capillus, coma, crinis 72 head * tête Kopf, Haupt testa cabeza hoofd, kop huvud caput 73 ear * oreille Ohr orecchio oreja oor öra auris 74 eye * œil Auge occhio ojo oog öga oculus 75 nose * nez Nase naso nariz neus näsa nasus 76 mouth * bouche Mund bocca boca mond mun os 77 tooth * dent Zahn dente diente tand tand dens 78 tongue * langue Zunge lingua lengua tong tunga lingua 79 fingernail ongle Fingernagel unghia uña vingernagel nagel unguis 80 foot * pied Fuß piede pie voet fot pes 81 leg jambe Bein gamba pierna been ben crus 82 knee * genou Knie ginocchio rodilla knie knä genu 83 hand * main Hand mano mano hand hand manus 84 wing aile Flügel ala ala vleugel vinge ala 85 belly * ventre Bauch pancia barriga, vientre, panza buik mage venter 86 guts entrailles Eingeweide, Innereien intestino entrañas, tripas ingewanden inälvor intestina 87 neck * cou Hals collo cuello nek hals, nacke collum, cervix 88 back dos Rücken schiena espalda rug rygg tergum 89 breast * sein, poitrine Brust petto pecho, seno borst bröst pectus, mamma 90 heart * cœur Herz cuore corazón hart hjärta cor 91 liver * foie Leber fegato hígado lever lever iecur 92 drink * boire trinken bere beber, tomar drinken dricka bibere 93 eat * manger essen mangiare comer eten äta edere 94 bite * mordre beißen mordere morder bijten bita mordere 95 suck sucer saugen succhiare chupar zuigen suga sugere 96 spit cracher spucken sputare escupir spuwen spotta sputare 97 vomit vomir erbrechen vomitare vomitar braken, overgeven kräkas, spy vomere 98 blow souffler blasen soffiare soplar blazen blåsa flare 99 breathe respirer atmen respirare respirar ademen andas spirare 100 laugh rire lachen ridere reír lachen skratta ridere 101 see * voir sehen vedere ver zien se videre 102 hear * entendre hören udire, sentire oír horen höra audire 103 know * (a fact) savoir wissen sapere saber weten veta scire 104 think penser denken pensare pensar denken tänka putare 105 smell sentir riechen odorare, annusare oler ruiken lukta olere 106 fear craindre, avoir peur fürchten temere temer vrezen, angst frukta, rädas timere 107 sleep * dormir schlafen dormire dormir slapen sova dormire 108 live vivre leben vivere vivir leven leva vivere 109 die * mourir sterben morire morir sterven mori 110 kill * tuer töten uccidere matar doden döda necare 111 fight se battre kämpfen combattere pelear vechten strida pugnare 112 hunt chasser jagen cacciare cazar jagen jaga venari 113 hit frapper schlagen colpire golpear slaan slå pellere 114 cut couper schneiden tagliare cortar snijden skära secare 115 split fendre spalten dividere, separare partir splijten dela, klyva scindere, partiri 116 stab poignarder stechen pugnalare apuñalar steken sticka traicere 117 scratch gratter kratzen graffiare arañar, rascar krabben klia radere 118 dig creuser graben scavare cavar graven gräva fodere 119 swim * nager schwimmen nuotare nadar zwemmen simma natare 120 fly * (v.) voler fliegen volare volar vliegen flyga volare 121 walk * marcher gehen camminare caminar lopen gradi 122 come * venir kommen venire venir komen komma venire 123 lie * s'étendre liegen distendersi echarse, acostarse, tenderse liggen ligga iacere 124 sit * s'asseoir sitzen sedere sentarse zitten sitta sedere 125 stand * se lever stehen stare in piedi estar de pie staan stå stare 126 turn tourner drehen girare voltear draaien svänga vertere 127 fall tomber fallen cadere caer vallen falla cadere 128 give * donner geben dare dar geven ge dare 129 hold tenir halten tenere sostener houden hålla tenere 130 squeeze serrer quetschen spremere apretar knijpen klämma premere 131 rub frotter reiben strofinare frotar, restregar wrijven gnida fricare 132 wash laver waschen lavare lavar wassen tvätta lavare 133 wipe essuyer wischen asciugare limpiar vegen rensa tergere 134 pull tirer ziehen tirare tirar trekken dra trahere 135 push pousser drücken spingere empujar duwen trycka pellere, urgere 136 throw jeter werfen tirare tirar werpen, gooien kasta iacere 137 tie lier binden legare atar knopen knyta, binda stringere, ligare 138 sew coudre nähen cucire coser naaien sy suere 139 count compter zählen contare contar tellen räkna numerare 140 say * dire sagen dire decir zeggen säga dicere 141 sing chanter singen cantare cantar zingen sjunga canere 142 play jouer spielen giocare jugar spelen leka, spela ludere 143 float flotter schweben galleggiare flotar zweven flyta fluctuare 144 flow couler fließen fluire fluir vloeien rinna fluere 145 freeze geler frieren gelare helar vriezen frysa gelare 146 swell gonfler schwellen gonfiare hincharse zwellen svälla inflare 147 sun * soleil Sonne sole sol zon sol sol 148 moon * lune Mond luna luna maan måne luna 149 star * étoile Stern stella estrella ster stjärna stella 150 water * eau Wasser acqua agua water vatten aqua 151 rain * pluie Regen pioggia lluvia regen regn pluvia 152 river rivière Fluß fiume río rivier flod fluvius 153 lake lac See lago lago meer sjö lacus 154 sea mer Meer, See mare mar zee hav mare 155 salt sel Salz sale sal zout salt sal 156 stone * pierre Stein pietra piedra steen sten lapis, petra 157 sand * sable Sand sabbia arena zand sand arena 158 dust poussière Staub polvere polvo stof damm pulvis 159 earth * terre Erde terra tierra aarde jord terra 160 cloud * nuage Wolke nuvola nube wolk moln nimbus, nubes 161 fog brouillard Nebel nebbia niebla mist, nevel dimma caligo, nebula 162 sky ciel Himmel cielo cielo lucht himmel caelum 163 wind vent Wind vento viento wind vind ventus 164 snow neige Schnee neve nieve sneeuw snö nix 165 ice glace Eis ghiaccio hielo ijs is glacies 166 smoke * fumée Rauch fumo humo rook rök fumus 167 fire * feu Feuer fuoco fuego vuur eld ignis 168 ashes * cendres Asche ceneri cenizas as aska cineres 169 burn * brûler brennen bruciare quemar branden brinna ardere 170 road * route Straße strada camino weg väg via 171 mountain * montagne Berg montagna montaña berg berg mons 172 red * rouge rot rosso rojo rood röd ruber 173 green * vert grün verde verde groen grön viridis 174 yellow * jaune gelb giallo amarillo geel gul flavus 175 white * blanc weiß bianco blanco wit vit albus, candidus 176 black * noir schwarz nero negro zwart svart niger, ater, fuscus 177 night * nuit Nacht notte noche nacht natt nox 178 day jour Tag giorno día dag dag dies 179 year an, année Jahr anno año jaar år annus 180 warm * chaud warm caldo cálido, tibio warm varm calidus 181 cold * froid kalt freddo frío koud kall frigidus 182 full * plein voll pieno lleno vol full plenus 183 new * nouveau neu nuovo nuevo nieuw ny novus 184 old vieux alt vecchio viejo oud gammal vetus 185 good * bon gut buono bueno goed bra bonus 186 bad mauvais schlecht cattivo malo slecht dålig malus 187 rotten pourri verrottet marcio podrido rot rutten puter, putridus 188 dirty sale schmutzig sporco sucio vies smutsig sordidus 189 straight droit gerade diritto recto recht rak rectus 190 round * rond rund rotondo redondo rond rund rotundus 191 sharp tranchant, pointu, aigu scharf aguzzo, affilato afilado scherp vass acer 192 dull émoussé stumpf noioso desafilado stomp, bot slö hebes 193 smooth lisse glatt liscio suave, liso glad len, slät levis 194 wet mouillé nass, feucht bagnato mojado nat våt, blöt umidus 195 dry * sec trocken asciutto, secco seco droog torr siccus 196 correct juste, correct richtig corretto correcto juist, correct rätt, riktig rectus 197 near proche nah, nahe vicino cerca dichtbij nära propinquus 198 far loin weit, fern lontano lejos ver långt bort, fjärran longinquus 199 right à droite rechts destra derecha rechts höger dexter 200 left à gauche links sinistra izquierda links vänster sinister 201 at à bei, an a a, en, ante aan, te, bij hos, vid ad 202 in dans in in en in i in 203 with avec mit con con met med cum 204 and et und e y en och et 205 if si wenn, falls, ob se si als, indien om si 206 because parce que weil perché porque omdat eftersom, ty quia, quoniam 207 name * nom Name nome nombre naam namn nomen

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