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Appendix:Papiamento Swadesh list - Wiktionary

Appendix:Papiamento Swadesh list

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This is a Swadesh list of words in Papiamentu, compared with that of English.

Contents

Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List[edit]

No.EnglishPapiamento
Papiamentu 1 I mi, ami 2 you (singular) bo, abo 3 he e, el 4 we nos 5 you (plural) boso 6 they nan 7 this aki, esaki 8 that esei, ei 9 here aki 10 there aya, ei 11 who ken, kende 12 what ki, kiko 13 where unda 14 when ki ora, kuant'or 15 how kon 16 not no 17 all tur 18 many hopi, mashá 19 some algun 20 few poko 21 other otro 22 one un, unu 23 two dos 24 three tres 25 four kuater 26 five sinku 27 big grandi 28 long largu 29 wide anchu, hanchu 30 thick diki 31 heavy pisá, duru 32 small chikí, chikitu 33 short kòrtiku 34 narrow smal 35 thin delegá, flaku 36 woman muhé 37 man (adult male) hòmber 38 man (human being) hende 39 child yu, yiu, mucha 40 wife esposa, kasá 41 husband esposo, kasá 42 mother mama 43 father tata, papa 44 animal bestia, animal 45 fish piská 46 bird para 47 dog kachó 48 louse pieu 49 snake kolebra 50 worm bichi 51 tree palu 52 forest mondi 53 stick baston, palu 54 fruit fruta 55 seed simia 56 leaf blachi 57 root rais 58 bark (of a tree) kaska 59 flower flor 60 grass yerba 61 rope kabuya 62 skin kueru 63 meat karni 64 blood sanger 65 bone wesu 66 fat (noun) vèt, sebu 67 egg webu 68 horn kachu 69 tail rabu 70 feather pluma 71 hair kabei 72 head kabes 73 ear orea 74 eye wowo 75 nose nanishi 76 mouth boka 77 tooth djente 78 tongue (organ) lenga 79 fingernail uña 80 foot pia 81 leg pia, pata 82 knee rudia 83 hand man 84 wing ala, hala 85 belly barika 86 guts tripa, mondongo 87 neck garganta, nèk 88 back lomba 89 breast pechu 90 heart kurason 91 liver higra 92 to drink bebe 93 to eat kome 94 to bite morde 95 to suck chupa 96 to spit skupi 97 to vomit arohá, saka 98 to blow supla 99 to breathe hala rosea, respirá 100 to laugh hari 101 to see mira, weta 102 to hear tende 103 to know sa, sabi 104 to think pensa 105 to smell hole 106 to fear tin miedu 107 to sleep drumi 108 to live biba 109 to die muri 110 to kill mata 111 to fight bringa 112 to hunt yag 113 to hit raka, bati, dal 114 to cut kòrta 115 to split separá, apartá 116 to stab hinka 117 to scratch huña, raspa 118 to dig koba 119 to swim landa 120 to fly bula 121 to walk kana, bai 122 to come bin, bini 123 to lie (as in a bed) keda 124 to sit sinta 125 to stand para 126 to turn (intransitive) drai, lora 127 to fall kai, dal abou 128 to give duna 129 to hold tene, nister 130 to squeeze primi, kinipí 131 to rub frega 132 to wash laba 133 to wipe bari 134 to pull hala, trèk 135 to push pusha 136 to throw benta, tira 137 to tie mara 138 to sew kose 139 to count kalkulá, rek 140 to say bisa 141 to sing kanta 142 to play hunga 143 to float drif 144 to flow kore 145 to freeze fris 146 to swell hincha 147 sun solo 148 moon luna 149 star strea 150 water awa 151 rain awaseru 152 river riu 153 lake lago 154 sea laman, lama 155 salt salu 156 stone piedra, baranka 157 sand santu 158 dust stòf, puiru 159 earth tera 160 cloud nubia 161 fog neblina 162 sky shelu 163 wind bientu 164 snow sneu 165 ice eis 166 smoke huma 167 fire kandela 168 ash shinishi 169 to burn kima 170 road kaminda 171 mountain seru 172 red kòrá 173 green bèrdè 174 yellow hel 175 white blanku 176 black pretu 177 night nochi, anochi 178 day dia 179 year aña 180 warm kayente 181 cold friu 182 full yen 183 new nobo 184 old bieu 185 good bon 186 bad malu 187 rotten putrí 188 dirty sushi, fis 189 straight derecho, umbé 190 round rònt, rondó 191 sharp (as a knife) skèrpi 192 dull (as a knife) bòt, stòmpi 193 smooth lizu 194 wet muhá 195 dry seku 196 correct korekto, rason 197 near serka 198 far leu 199 right drechi 200 left robes 201 at na 202 in den, na 203 with ku 204 and i 205 if si 206 because komo, pasobra 207 name nòmber


Credits go to Bart Jacobs for the original 100-word Swadesh list and to Roland Hoyer for his contributions in completing this Swadesh list.


Orthography and spelling

Here the spelling of Curaçao and Bonaire is used, as specified in the Official Papiamentu wordlist of the Fundashon pa Planifikashon di Idioma.

Two different types of orthography and spelling are being used: a more phonetic one in Curaçao and Bonaire, and an etymological orthography is being used in Aruba. Many words in Curaçao and Bonaire end with "u", whereas the same word in Aruba ends with an "o". So the name of the language is called Papiamentu in Curaçao and Bonaire, and Papiamento in Aruba. The letter "k" is often used in Curaçao and Bonaire, where in Aruba the "c" is used. In Curaçao and Bonaire accent marks are used in more official writings.

See also[edit]

Neighbouring wiki's[edit]

External links[edit]


Swadesh lists Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic: (Standard Arabic, Egyptian, Palestinian, Tunisian, Cypriot) – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Berber: (Tashelhit) – Breton – Buginese – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese: (Mandarin, Cantonese, Gan, Min Nan, Min Dong, Old Chinese) – Cornish – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch (Limburgish, Low Saxon, Zeelandic) – Egyptian – English: (Old, Middle) – Elamite – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – French (Old French) – Frisian – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek: (Modern Greek, Ancient Greek) – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese – Javanese – Jeju - Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – Latin - Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Macedonian – Makasar – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Manx – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Norwegian: (Bokmål, Nynorsk) – Ojibwe – Okinawan – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – Portuguese (Old Portuguese) – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – West Coast Bajau – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian and Iroquoian – Austroasiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Chumashan and Hokan – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Japonic – Kra–Dai – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan: (Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) – Kho-BwaKuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan and Pawnee – South American – Tungusic – Tupian – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Basque – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Slavic – Vulgar Latin

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