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Appendix:Makasar Swadesh list - Wiktionary

Appendix:Makasar Swadesh list

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This is a Swadesh list of words in Makasar, compared with that of English.

Contents

Introduction[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

Orthography[edit]

This list applies the common orthography that is an adjusted version of the 1975 orthography established in Ujung Pandang by the Language Body. The 1975 orthography is based on the Indonesian orthography that was established earlier. In the orthography, glottal stop is represented as k. However, since the representation can cause confusion for k is also used to represent the consonant [k], people usually use an apostrophe (') to represent the glottal stop instead.

The common orthography can be found in handwritten notes, on the occasional sign, and in the lyrics sheets of popular songs by artists like Iwan Tompo and Ismail Wahid.

List[edit]

No.EnglishMakasar
basa Mangkasara'Lontara
ᨒᨚᨈᨑ 1 I nakke ᨊᨀᨙ 2 you (singular) kau (common)
katte (honorific) ᨀᨕᨘ (common)
ᨀᨈᨙ (honorific) 3 he ia ᨕᨗᨕ 4 we kambe (exclusive)
katte (inclusive) ᨀᨅᨙ (exclusive)
ᨀᨈᨙ (inclusive) 5 you (plural) ke'nang ᨀᨙᨊ 6 they - - 7 this anne ᨕᨊᨙ 8 that antu (near)
anjo (distant) ᨕᨈᨘ (near)
ᨕᨍᨚ (distant) 9 here anrinni ᨕᨑᨗᨊᨗ 10 there antureng (near)
anjoreng (distant) ᨕᨈᨘᨑᨙ (near)
ᨕᨍᨚᨑᨙ (distant) 11 who nai ᨊᨕᨗ 12 what apa ᨕᨄ 13 where kemae ᨀᨙᨆᨕᨙ 14 when angngapapi (future)
ringapanna (past) ᨕᨂᨄᨄᨗ (future)
ᨑᨗᨂᨄᨊ (past) 15 how antekamma ᨕᨈᨙᨀᨆ 16 not teai
tena ᨈᨙᨕᨕᨗ
ᨈᨙᨊ 17 all ngaseng ᨂᨔᨙ 18 many jai ᨍᨕᨗ 19 some pirang ᨄᨗᨑ 20 few dengke'-dengke', pillo' ᨉᨀᨙᨉᨙᨀᨙ, ᨄᨗᨒᨚ 21 other maraeng ᨆᨑᨕᨙ 22 one se're ᨔᨙᨑᨙ 23 two rua ᨑᨘᨕ 24 three tallu ᨈᨒᨘ 25 four appa' ᨕᨄ 26 five lima ᨒᨗᨆ 27 big lompo ᨒᨚᨄᨚ 28 long la'bu, lambere' ᨒᨅᨘ, ᨒᨅᨙᨑᨙ 29 wide la'ba', sangkara' ᨒᨅ, ᨔᨀᨑ 30 thick kapala' ᨀᨄᨒ 31 heavy battala' ᨅᨈᨒ 32 small ca'di ᨌᨉᨗ 33 short bokki, bodo ᨅᨚᨀᨗ, ᨅᨚᨉᨚ 34 narrow seke', simpiri' ᨔᨙᨀᨙ, ᨔᨗᨄᨗᨑᨗ 35 thin bayang, tipisi' ᨅᨐ, ᨈᨗᨄᨗᨔᨗ 36 woman baine ᨅᨕᨗᨊᨙ 37 man (adult male) bura'ne ᨅᨘᨑᨊᨙ 38 man (human being) tau ᨈᨕᨘ 39 child ana' ᨕᨊ 40 wife baine ᨅᨕᨗᨊᨙ 41 husband bura'ne ᨅᨘᨑᨊᨙ 42 mother amma', anrong, ummi ᨕᨆ, ᨕᨑᨚ, ᨕᨘᨆᨗ 43 father mangge, ua', a'ba, tetta ᨆᨁᨙ, ᨕᨘᨕ, ᨕᨅ, ᨈᨙᨈ 44 animal olo'-olo' ᨕᨚᨒᨚᨕᨚᨒᨚ 45 fish juku' ᨍᨘᨀᨘ 46 bird jangang-jangang ᨍᨂᨍᨂ 47 dog kongkong ᨀᨚᨀᨚ 48 louse kutu ᨀᨘᨈᨘ 49 snake ulara' ᨕᨘᨒᨑ 50 worm gallang-gallang ᨁᨒᨁᨒ 51 tree poko' ᨄᨚᨀᨚ 52 forest romang ᨑᨚᨆ 53 stick tangke ᨈᨀᨙ 54 fruit rappo ᨑᨄᨚ 55 seed lisere' ᨒᨗᨔᨙᨑᨙ 56 leaf leko' ᨒᨙᨀᨚ 57 root aka' ᨕᨀ 58 bark (of a tree) bukkuleng kayu ᨅᨘᨀᨘᨒᨙᨀᨐᨘ 59 flower bunga ᨅᨘᨂ 60 grass ruku' ᨑᨘᨀᨘ 61 rope tali ᨈᨒᨗ 62 skin bukkuleng ᨅᨘᨀᨘᨒᨙ 63 meat dageng ᨉᨁᨙ 64 blood cera' ᨌᨙᨑ 65 bone buku ᨅᨘᨀᨘ 66 fat (noun) janna ᨍᨊ 67 egg bayao ᨅᨐᨕᨚ 68 horn tanru' ᨈᨑᨘ 69 tail ingkong ᨕᨗᨀᨚ 70 feather bulu ᨅᨘᨒᨘ 71 hair uu' ᨕᨘᨕᨘ 72 head ulu ᨕᨘᨒᨘ 73 ear toli, palangngere' ᨈᨚᨒᨗ, ᨄᨒᨂᨙᨑᨙ 74 eye mata ᨆᨈ 75 nose ka'muru, pangngara' ᨀᨆᨘᨑᨘ, ᨄᨂᨑ 76 mouth bawa ᨅᨏ 77 tooth gigi ᨁᨗᨁᨗ 78 tongue (organ) lila ᨒᨗᨒ 79 fingernail kanuku ᨀᨊᨘᨀᨘ 80 foot bangkeng ᨅᨀᨙ 81 leg bangkeng ᨅᨀᨙ 82 knee kulantu' ᨀᨘᨒᨈᨘ 83 hand lima ᨒᨗᨆ 84 wing ka'nyi' ᨀᨎᨗ 85 belly battang ᨅᨈ 86 guts parru' ᨄᨑᨘ 87 neck kallong ᨀᨒᨚ 88 back dongko' ᨉᨚᨀᨚ 89 breast susu ᨔᨘᨔᨘ 90 heart doke' ᨉᨚᨀᨙ 91 liver ate ᨕᨈᨙ 92 to drink inung ᨕᨗᨊᨘ 93 to eat angnganre, akka'do' ᨕᨂᨑᨙ, ᨕᨀᨉᨚ 94 to bite angngalatta', angngokko' ᨕᨂᨒᨈ, ᨕᨂᨚᨀᨚ 95 to suck a'mu'musu', angngiso', angnge'ro' ᨕᨆᨘᨆᨘᨔᨘ, ᨕᨂᨗᨔᨚ, ᨕᨂᨙᨑᨚ 96 to spit appi'ru ᨕᨄᨗᨑᨘ 97 to vomit ta'langnge, ta'lua ᨈᨒᨂᨙ, ᨈᨒᨘᨕ 98 to blow attui' ᨕᨈᨘᨕᨗ 99 to breathe a'mai', a'nappasa' ᨕᨆᨕᨗ, ᨕᨊᨄᨔ 100 to laugh ammakkala' ᨕᨆᨀᨒ 101 to see accini' ᨕᨂᨗᨊᨗ 102 to hear allangngere' ᨕᨒᨂᨙᨑᨙ 103 to know angngasseng, angngisseng, angngito' ᨕᨂᨔᨙ, ᨕᨂᨗᨔᨙ, ᨕᨂᨗᨈᨚ 104 to think ammikkiri' ᨕᨆᨗᨀᨗᨑᨗ 105 to smell angngara' ᨕᨂᨑ 106 to fear malla' ᨆᨒ 107 to sleep attinro ᨕᨈᨗᨑᨚ 108 to live attallasa' ᨕᨈᨒᨔ 109 to die jammeng ᨍᨆᨙ 110 to kill ammuno ᨕᨆᨘᨊᨚ 111 to fight assiba'ji ᨕᨔᨗᨅᨍᨗ 112 to hunt alluru ᨕᨒᨘᨑᨘ 113 to hit amma'ji ᨕᨆᨍᨗ 114 to cut annatta' ᨕᨊᨈ 115 to split ammisa', ammue ᨕᨆᨗᨔ, ᨕᨆᨘᨕᨙ 116 to stab annobo' ᨕᨊᨚᨅᨚ 117 to scratch akkangkang ᨕᨀᨀ 118 to dig akkeke, akkekkese' ᨕᨀᨙᨀᨙ, ᨕᨀᨙᨀᨙᨔᨙ 119 to swim a'lange ᨕᨒᨂᨙ 120 to fly anri'ba' ᨕᨑᨗᨅ 121 to walk a'jappa ᨕᨍᨄ 122 to come ammangei ᨕᨆᨕᨂᨙᨕᨗ 123 to lie (as in a bed) anra'ba-ra'ba ᨕᨑᨅᨑᨅ 124 to sit ammempo ᨕᨆᨙᨄᨚ 125 to stand ammenteng ᨕᨆᨙᨈᨙ 126 to turn (intransitive) a'bilu' ᨕᨅᨗᨒᨘ 127 to fall ammattung ᨕᨆᨈᨘ 128 to give assare ᨕᨔᨑᨙ 129 to hold anneteng ᨕᨊᨙᨈᨙ 130 to squeeze ammacco' ᨕᨆᨌᨚ 131 to rub akkeso' ᨕᨀᨙᨔᨚ 132 to wash a'bissa ᨕᨅᨗᨔ 133 to wipe a'hong ᨕᨖᨚ 134 to pull a'beso' ᨕᨅᨙᨔᨚ 135 to push annyorong ᨕᨎᨚᨑᨚ 136 to throw a'gandong ᨕᨁᨉᨚ 137 to tie annikko' ᨕᨊᨗᨀᨚ 138 to sew anjai' ᨕᨍᨕᨗ 139 to count a'rekeng, ammilang ᨕᨑᨙᨀᨙ, ᨕᨆᨗᨒ 140 to say akkana ᨕᨀᨊ 141 to sing akkelong ᨕᨀᨙᨒᨚ 142 to play akkarena ᨕᨀᨑᨙᨊ 143 to float ammawang ᨕᨆᨏ 144 to flow assolong ᨕᨔᨚᨒᨚ 145 to freeze a'donteng ᨕᨉᨚᨈᨙ 146 to swell akkambang ᨕᨀᨅ 147 sun dalle ᨉᨒᨙ 148 moon bulang ᨅᨘᨒ 149 star bintoeng ᨅᨗᨈᨚᨕᨙ 150 water je'ne' ᨍᨙᨊᨙ 151 rain bosi ᨅᨚᨔᨗ 152 river binanga ᨅᨗᨊᨂ 153 lake tamparang la'ba ᨈᨄᨑ ᨒᨅ 154 sea tamparang ᨈᨄᨑ 155 salt ce'la ᨌᨙᨒ 156 stone batu ᨅᨈᨘ 157 sand kassi' ᨀᨔᨗ 158 dust alimbu'bu' ᨕᨒᨗᨅᨘᨅᨘ 159 earth butta ᨅᨘᨈ 160 cloud rammang ᨑᨆ 161 fog saliu' ᨔᨒᨗᨕᨘ 162 sky langi' ᨒᨂᨗ 163 wind anging ᨕᨂᨗ 164 snow - - 165 ice ese' ᨕᨙᨔᨙ 166 smoke romba, ambu ᨑᨚᨅ, ᨕᨅᨘ 167 fire pepe' ᨄᨙᨄᨙ 168 ash au ᨕᨕᨘ 169 to burn attunu ᨕᨈᨘᨊᨘ 170 road agang ᨕᨁ 171 mountain bulu' ᨅᨘᨒᨘ 172 red eja ᨕᨙᨍ 173 green moncongbulo ᨆᨚᨌᨚᨅᨘᨒᨚ 174 yellow kunyi' ᨀᨘᨎᨗ 175 white kebo' ᨀᨙᨅᨚ 176 black le'leng ᨒᨙᨒᨙ 177 night bangngi ᨅᨂᨗᨂᨗ 178 day allo ᨕᨒᨚ 179 year taung ᨈᨕᨘ 180 warm bambang ᨅᨅ 181 cold dinging ᨉᨗᨂᨗ 182 full rassi ᨑᨔᨗ 183 new beru ᨅᨙᨑᨘ 184 old toa ᨈᨚᨕ 185 good baji' ᨅᨍᨗ 186 bad kodi ᨀᨚᨉᨗ 187 rotten bo'nyo' ᨅᨚᨎᨚ 188 dirty ra'masa' ᨑᨆᨔ 189 straight jurusu' ᨍᨘᨑᨘᨔᨘ 190 round bo'dong ᨅᨚᨉᨚ 191 sharp (as a knife) tarang ᨈᨑ 192 dull (as a knife) pokkolo' ᨄᨚᨀᨚᨒᨚ 193 smooth ni'ni' ᨊᨗᨊᨗ 194 wet a'masa' ᨕᨆᨔ 195 dry kalotoro' ᨀᨒᨚᨈᨚᨑᨚ 196 correct annaba ᨕᨊᨅ 197 near ambani ᨕᨅᨊᨗ 198 far bella ᨅᨙᨒ 199 right kanang ᨀᨊ 200 left kairi ᨀᨕᨗᨑᨗ 201 at ri ᨑᨗ 202 in lalang ᨒᨒ 203 with na, siagang , ᨔᨗᨕᨁ 204 and na, siagang , ᨔᨗᨕᨁ 205 if punna ᨄᨘᨊ 206 because ka, lanri, saba' , ᨒᨑᨗ, ᨔᨅ 207 name areng ᨕᨑᨙ

References[edit]

  • Arief, Aburaerah. 1995. Kamus Makassar–Indonesia. Yayasan YAPIK DDI, Ujung Pandang.
  • Jukes, Anthony. 2006. Makassarese (basa Mangkasara’); A description of an Austronesian language of South Sulawesi. PhD thesis, University of Melbourne.
Swadesh lists Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic: (Standard Arabic, Egyptian, Palestinian, Tunisian, Cypriot) – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Berber: (Tashelhit) – Breton – Buginese – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese: (Mandarin, Cantonese, Gan, Min Nan, Min Dong, Old Chinese) – Cornish – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch (Limburgish, Low Saxon, Zeelandic) – Egyptian – English: (Old, Middle) – Elamite – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – French (Old French) – Frisian – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek: (Modern Greek, Ancient Greek) – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese – Javanese – Jeju - Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – Latin - Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Macedonian – Makasar – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Manx – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Norwegian: (Bokmål, Nynorsk) – Ojibwe – Okinawan – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – Portuguese (Old Portuguese) – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – West Coast Bajau – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian and Iroquoian – Austroasiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Chumashan and Hokan – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Japonic – Kra–Dai – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan: (Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) – Kho-BwaKuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan and Pawnee – South American – Tungusic – Tupian – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Basque – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Slavic – Vulgar Latin

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