學 - Wiktionary

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary Jump to navigation Jump to search See also: U+5B78, 學 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B78 ← 孷
[U+5B77]
CJK Unified Ideographs 孹 →
[U+5B79]

Contents

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order Stroke order
(alternative)

Han character[edit]

(radical 39, +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 竹月弓木 (HBND), four-corner 77407, composition𦥯)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 280, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7033
  • Dae Jaweon: page 549, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1019, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5B78

Chinese[edit]

trad. simp.* variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character 學 ShangWestern ZhouWarring StatesShuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Oracle bone scriptBronze inscriptionsBronze inscriptionsChu Slip and silk scriptQin slip scriptSmall seal scriptTranscribed ancient scripts Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) Old Chinese *kruːʔ *kruːɡs, *kruːɡ *ɡruːʔ, *sɡruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ *ɡruːɡs *ɡoːɡs, *quːɡ *kʰruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ *kʰruːɡ, *ɡ·rɯːɡ, *ɡoːɡ, *ɡuːɡ *ŋɡruːɡ, *ɡruːɡ, *quːɡ *ɡruːɡ *ɡruːɡ, *qruːɡ

Ancient forms: , . The former is constructed from the skeleton of (“to teach”) with the addition of two extra components: 1) a 𦥑 component around the top-left part, signifying hands (hands-on learning); 2) a (“cover”) over (“child”), representing the cover of a building or school, i.e. the child learns in a roofed place. Shuowen regards 𦥑 as the phonetic component in the character, which may be true according to some Old Chinese reconstructions such as that of Pan Wuyun's, though probably not others. See for more. The earliest structure may suggest its relationship with , with reconstruction *rug.

Etymology[edit]

May be an endopassive derivation of (OC *kruːɡs, *kruːɡ, “to awake, get insight”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • xué - major reading (colloquial and literary);
  • xiáo - rare, very colloquial or dialectal, used in xiangsheng.
  • Cantonese
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • ò̤ - vernacular;
    • hă - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • ŏ̤h - vernacular;
    • hŏk - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • o̍h - vernacular;
    • ha̍k - literary.
    Note:
    • oh8 - vernacular;
    • hag8 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 5hhoq - vernacular;
    • 5hhiaq - literary.

    • Dialectal data▼
    VarietyLocationedit 學 MandarinBeijing/ɕyɛ³⁵/ Harbin/ɕiau²⁴/
    /ɕyɛ²⁴/ Tianjin/ɕiɑu⁴⁵/
    /ɕye⁴⁵/ Jinan/ɕyə⁴²/ Qingdao/ɕyə⁴²/ Zhengzhou/ɕyo⁴²/ Xi'an/ɕyo²⁴/ Xining/ɕyu²⁴/ Yinchuan/ɕye¹³/
    /ɕye⁵³/ Lanzhou/ɕyə⁵³/ Ürümqi/ɕyɤ⁵¹/ Wuhan/ɕio²¹³/ Chengdu/ɕyo³¹/ Guiyang/ɕio²¹/ Kunming/ɕio³¹/ Nanjing/ɕioʔ⁵/ Hefei/ɕyɐʔ⁵/ JinTaiyuan/ɕyəʔ⁵⁴/ Pingyao/ɕiʌʔ⁵³/ Hohhot/ɕyaʔ⁴³/ ~习
    /ɕiɔ³¹/ ~话 WuShanghai/ɦoʔ¹/
    /ɦiaʔ¹/ Suzhou/ɦioʔ³/
    /ɦoʔ³/ Hangzhou/ɦiɑʔ²/ Wenzhou/ɦo²¹³/ HuiShexian/ɕiɔ²²/
    /xɔ²²/ Tunxi/xo¹¹/ XiangChangsha/ɕio²⁴/ Xiangtan/ɕio²⁴/ GanNanchang/hɔʔ²/ HakkaMeixian/hok̚⁵/ Taoyuan/hok̚⁵⁵/ CantoneseGuangzhou/hɔk̚²/ Nanning/hɔk̚²²/ Hong Kong/hɔk̚²/ MinXiamen (Min Nan)/hak̚⁵/
    /oʔ⁵/ Fuzhou (Min Dong)/oʔ⁵/ Jian'ou (Min Bei)/xa²⁴/
    /ɔ⁴²/ Shantou (Min Nan)/hak̚⁵/
    /oʔ⁵/ Haikou (Min Nan)/hiɔk̚⁵/
    /o³³/
    Rime Character Reading #1/1 Initial (聲) (33) Final (韻) (10) Tone (調)Checked (Ø) Openness (開合)Open Division (等)II Fanqie切 Reconstructions Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠʌk̚/ Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚɔk̚/ Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɔk̚/ Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaɨwk̚/ Li
    Rong
    /ɣɔk̚/ Wang
    Li
    /ɣɔk̚/ Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɔk̚/ Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xué BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014) Character Reading #1/1 Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xué Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hæwk › Old
    Chinese
    /*m-kˤruk/ Englishstudy; imitate

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary. Zhengzhang system (2003) Character Reading #1/1 No.14079 Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡruːɡ/ Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to comprehend; to realise; to understand
    2. (transitive) to learn; to study
      /   ―  xué  ―  to study; to learn
      打算攝影。 / 打算摄影。  ―  Wǒ dǎsuàn xué shèyǐng.  ―  I plan to learn photography.
    3. to imitate; to copy; to mimic
      鸚鵡。 / 鹦鹉。  ―  Yīngwǔ xué rén yǔ.  ―  Parrots imitate human speech.
    4. school
    5. learning; knowledge
    6. theory; doctrine
    7. subject; branch of learning; science; -ology
      /   ―  huàxué  ―  chemistry
      生物 / 生物  ―  shēngwùxué  ―  biology

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Derived terms from 學

    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    See also: Category:Japanese terms spelled with 學

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Learning, student, study
    2. School, education
    3. Subject, field of study, science
    4. Understanding, knowledge

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 배울 (bae-ul hak))

    1. learn, take lessons, be taught, study

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (học)

    1. to learn, to study

    Compounds[edit]

    Usage notes[edit]

    • Chữ Nôm. The modern Vietnamese equivalent is học.
    • This is the regular form of the character. The common form is .

    References[edit]

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