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三 - Wiktionary

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary Jump to navigation Jump to search See also: Ξ, , , , , and U+4E09, 三 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E09 ← 丈
[U+4E08]
CJK Unified Ideographs 上 →
[U+4E0A]
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Contents

Translingual

Stroke order

Han character

(radical 1, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一一一 (MMM), four-corner 10101, composition or ⿱𠄟)

  1. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №4

Derived characters

Descendants

References

  • KangXi: page 76, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 12
  • Dae Jaweon: page 138, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 4, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E09

Chinese

simp. and trad.
alternative forms financial

𢦘 Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character 三 ShangWestern ZhouWarring StatesShuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Oracle bone scriptBronze inscriptionsBronze inscriptionsChu Slip and silk scriptQin slip scriptAncient scriptSmall seal scriptTranscribed ancient scripts
Oracle bone script

j00545

j00546

j00547

j00548

j00549

j00550

j00551

j00552

j00553

j00554


Bronze inscriptions

b00355

b00356

b00357

b00358

b00359

b00360

b00361

b00362

b00363

b00364

b00365

b00366

b00367

b00368

b00369

b00370

b00371

b00372

b00373

b00374

b00375


Small seal script

s00097


Transcribed ancient scripts

L12758

L12759

L12760

L12761

L12762


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) Old Chinese *suːm, *suːms *suːm

Ideogram (指事) - three parallel lines. Compare with , one line meaning “one”, , two lines meaning “two”, and , four lines meaning “four”. Triplication of (“one”).

Etymology

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-sum.

Pronunciation 1


Note: sānr - (1) "the other woman; the other man", (2) "rfdef". Note:
  • saⁿ - vernacular;
  • sam - literary.
Note:
  • san1 - vernacular;
  • sam1 - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime Character Reading #1/2 Initial (聲) (16) Final (韻) (143) Tone (調)Level (Ø) Openness (開合)Open Division (等)I Fanqie切 Reconstructions Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sɑm/ Pan
    Wuyun
    /sɑm/ Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɑm/ Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sam/ Li
    Rong
    /sɑm/ Wang
    Li
    /sɑm/ Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sɑm/ Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    sān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014) Character Reading #1/2 Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    sān Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sam › Old
    Chinese
    /*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?) Englishthree

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary. Zhengzhang system (2003) Character Reading #1/2 No.10963 Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3 Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*suːm/

    Definitions

    1. three
    2. (Mainland China, slang, neologism) the other woman; the other man
    3. (Mainland China, slang, neologism) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    4. A surname​.

    Descendants

    Sino-Xenic (三):

    Others:

    Compounds

    Derived terms from 三

    Pronunciation 2



    Rime Character Reading #2/2 Initial (聲) (16) Final (韻) (143) Tone (調)Departing (H) Openness (開合)Open Division (等)I Fanqie切 Reconstructions Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sɑmH/ Pan
    Wuyun
    /sɑmH/ Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɑmH/ Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /samH/ Li
    Rong
    /sɑmH/ Wang
    Li
    /sɑmH/ Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sɑmH/ Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    sàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014) Character Reading #2/2 Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    sān Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ samH › Old
    Chinese
    /*s.r[u]m-s/ (*s.r- > *s-, infl. by 四 *s-?) Englishthree times

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary. Zhengzhang system (2003) Character Reading #2/2 No.10965 Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3 Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*suːms/

    Definitions

    1. repeatedly; thrice
        ―  sān  ―  to think carefully

    Compounds

    Derived terms from 三

    See also

    Chinese numbers 0123456789101021031041081012 Normal
    (小寫小写) 亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China) Financial
    (大寫大写) Playing cards in Chinese · 撲克牌扑克牌 (pūkèpái) (layout · text) 尖兒尖儿 鉤兒钩儿 圈兒圈儿, 皮蛋 (regional) K 小王 (black), 大王 (red), 小鬼 (black), 大鬼 (red)

    References


    Japanese

    Kanji

    See also: Category:Japanese terms spelled with 三

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. three

    Readings

    Compounds

    Compounds

    Alternative forms

    • (Financial/formal form):

    Etymology 1

    Japanese cardinal numbers  <  2 34  >  Cardinal : Kanji in this term さん
    Grade: 1 on’yomi

    */sam/ → /samu/ → /saɴ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC sɑm, sɑmH). Compare modern Mandarin (sān).

    In Old Japanese, this kanji was used phonetically to transcribe さむ (samu).

    Pronunciation

    Numeral

    (hiragana さん, rōmaji san)

    1. three, 3
      Synonym: スリー (surī)
    2. third
    Derived terms
    Derived terms

    Etymology 2

    Kanji in this term さん
    Grade: 1 on’yomi

    Borrowing from Chinese (sān), with the pitch accent different from etymology 1. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation

    Numeral

    (katakana サン, rōmaji san)

    1. three
    Derived terms
    Derived terms

    Etymology 3

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 1 kun’yomi

    ⟨mi1⟩ → /mi/

    From Old Japanese.

    Likely an apophonic form of (mu, “six”), compare (yo, “four”) with (ya, “eight”). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation

    Numeral

    (hiragana , rōmaji mi)

    1. three
      一 (ひ)二 (ふ)三 (み)四 (よ)、[…]
      hi, fu, mi, yo, […]
      one, two, three, four, […]
    Derived terms
    Derived terms

    Etymology 4

    Kanji in this term みい
    Grade: 1 Irregular

    /mi/ → /miː/

    Shift from mi above.[1]

    Pronunciation

    Numeral

    (hiragana みい, rōmaji )

    1. (colloquial) three
      一 (ひい)二 (ふう)三 (みい)四 (よお)五 (いつ)六 (むう)七 (なあ)八 (やあ)九 (こお)十 (とお)
      hī, fū, , yō, itsu, mū, nā, yā, kō, tō
      one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten

    Coordinate terms

    Japanese numbers 012345678910 Regular零 (れい) (rei)
    零 (ゼロ) (zero) 一 (いち) (ichi) 二 (に) (ni) 三 (さん) (san) 四 (よん) (yon)
    四 (し) (shi) 五 (ご) (go) 六 (ろく) (roku) 七 (なな) (nana)
    七 (しち) (shichi) 八 (はち) (hachi) 九 (きゅう) (kyū)
    九 (く) (ku) 十 (じゅう) (jū) Formal壱 (いち) (ichi) 弐 (に) (ni) 参 (さん) (san) 拾 (じゅう) (jū) 901003006008001,0003,0008,00010,000100,000,000 Regular九 (きゅう)十 (じゅう) (kyūjū) 百 (ひゃく) (hyaku)
    一 (いっ)百 (ぴゃく) (ippyaku) 三 (さん)百 (びゃく) (sanbyaku) 六 (ろっ)百 (ぴゃく) (roppyaku) 八 (はっ)百 (ぴゃく) (happyaku) 千 (せん) (sen)
    一 (いっ)千 (せん) (issen) 三 (さん)千 (ぜん) (sanzen) 八 (はっ)千 (せん) (hassen) 一 (いち)万 (まん) (ichiman) 一 (いち)億 (おく) (ichioku) Formal一 (いち)萬 (まん) (ichiman) 10128×1012101310166×1016 8×1016 10171018 一 (いっ)兆 (ちょう) (itchō) 八 (はっ)兆 (ちょう) (hatchō) 十 (じゅっ)兆 (ちょう) (jutchō) 一 (いっ)京 (けい) (ikkei) 六 (ろっ)京 (けい) (rokkei) 八 (はっ)京 (けい) (hakkei) 十 (じゅっ)京 (けい) (jukkei) 百 (ひゃっ)京 (けい) (hyakkei)

    References

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean

    Hanja

    (eumhun (set sam))

    1. Hanja form? of (“three”).

    Compounds


    Vietnamese

    Han character

    三: Hán Việt readings: tam (()(cam)切(thiết))[1][2][3][4]
    三: Nôm readings: tam[1][2][3][4][5][6], ba[1], tám[5]

    1. Hán tự form of tam (“three”).

    Compounds

    References

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Nguyễn (2014).
    2. 2.0 2.1 Nguyễn et al. (2009).
    3. 3.0 3.1 Trần (2004).
    4. 4.0 4.1 Bonet (1899).
    5. 5.0 5.1 Génibrel (1898).
    6. ^ Taberd & Pigneau de Béhaine (1838).
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