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Mining in Sweden: Difference between revisions - Wikipedia

Mining in Sweden: Difference between revisions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Browse history interactively Revision as of 10:55, 10 June 2018 (edit) Newroderick895 (talk | contribs) (‎Iron) (Tag: Visual edit) ← Previous edit Revision as of 07:18, 14 June 2018 (edit) (undo) SounderBruce (talk | contribs) (Added {{cleanup}} tag to article (TW)) Next edit → Line 1: Line 1: + {{cleanup|reason=grammar|date=June 2018}} [[File:Gruvhål (Svärta 435).JPG|thumb|431x431px|Water-filled mine pit in [[Nyköping]], Södermanland]] [[File:Gruvhål (Svärta 435).JPG|thumb|431x431px|Water-filled mine pit in [[Nyköping]], Södermanland]] The''' mining industry in [[Sweden]]''' had a vital history of mining that traces back to 6,000 years, with the famous known mine in Sweden named [[Falun Mine]], located in [[Dalarna]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.investindalarna.se/municipalities/falun/|title=Falun {{!}} Invest in Dalarna|date=2016-10-10|work=Invest in Dalarna|access-date=2018-06-08|language=en-US}}</ref> The mine funded almost all wars Sweden were involved in and were the source of [[falu red]] that painted building such as castles and churches.<ref name=":0">{{Cite news|url=https://www.routesnorth.com/things-to-do-in-sweden/falu-mine-where-swedens-cottages-get-their-colour/|title=Falu Mine: where Sweden's cottages get their colour – Routes North|date=2016-10-14|work=Routes North|access-date=2018-06-08|language=en-US}}</ref> The''' mining industry in [[Sweden]]''' had a vital history of mining that traces back to 6,000 years, with the famous known mine in Sweden named [[Falun Mine]], located in [[Dalarna]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.investindalarna.se/municipalities/falun/|title=Falun {{!}} Invest in Dalarna|date=2016-10-10|work=Invest in Dalarna|access-date=2018-06-08|language=en-US}}</ref> The mine funded almost all wars Sweden were involved in and were the source of [[falu red]] that painted building such as castles and churches.<ref name=":0">{{Cite news|url=https://www.routesnorth.com/things-to-do-in-sweden/falu-mine-where-swedens-cottages-get-their-colour/|title=Falu Mine: where Sweden's cottages get their colour – Routes North|date=2016-10-14|work=Routes North|access-date=2018-06-08|language=en-US}}</ref>

Revision as of 07:18, 14 June 2018

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: grammar Please help improve this article if you can. (June 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Water-filled mine pit in Nyköping, Södermanland

The mining industry in Sweden had a vital history of mining that traces back to 6,000 years, with the famous known mine in Sweden named Falun Mine, located in Dalarna.[1] The mine funded almost all wars Sweden were involved in and were the source of falu red that painted building such as castles and churches.[2]

Sweden, today is one of the largest source of iron and ore in the Europe, having approximately 92% of Europe's iron and 5% of the worlds iron reserves.[3][4][5] Today, the mines produced 80 million tons of ore in Sweden alone and the metals were mostly made in Kiruna Mine, which in 2008, produced 27.5 million tonnes of iron.[6][7][8] In 2012, Sweden was one of the most active major mining countries in Europe.[9][10]

Sweden is mainly part of the metallic Baltic Shield, which has the oldest rock in Europe, covers Fennoscandia and northwest parts of Russia. The Baltic Shield was considered one of the largest and active mining areas in the European continent, where the majority of all Sweden mines were located in.[11] The shield was considered to be a source of diamonds, due to its extreme and similar resemblance of the Canadian Shield and cratons in South Africa and parts of unexplored mines in the country may have a possibility to be exploitable source of gold.[12][13]

Contents

History

Sweden had a long history of mining that dates back to thousands of years, the earliest mining company in the were Stora Kopparberg which operated on the copper Falun Mine.[14] There were many German miners and merchants, who for instance, came from Lübeck, came into Sweden to start their own businesses earned their rights to do so, and they influence the iron exports of Sweden, who mainly came to Lübeck and Danzig in modern day Poland.[15]

Commodities

Copper

In the Bronze Age, people in modern day Sweden were known to trade with merchants from the Levant, and a 3,600 year old Swedish copper axes were made in Cyprus, which were extremely important source of copper, as most of copper in europe were made in places such a Sicily and Iberia.[16] Europe's economy at the time were heavily relied on copper, as it was instrumental to create bronze, which the very civilizations in the Near East depended on.[17]

The Falun Mine was the single largest copper mines in Sweden, It produced Europe's copper needs by two-thirds and even was the largest industrial work place in Sweden, At it peak in 1650 the mine produced as much as three kilotons of raw copper.[18][19]

Iron

Iron is a major importance to mining as 4,9 million tonnes of crude steel were made, two thirds of them are made from iron ore.[20] Sweden's iron was important to both Nazi Germany and the Allies of World War II.[21] Long into the High Middle Ages, the iron industry were on the eastern branch of the iron production, which made the bowl furnace develop.[22] By far one of the most important type of iron was osmund, which were made from pig iron that weigh no more than 300 grams, but it was later shifted and refined to bar iron.[22][23][24] It was also clear the Swedish iron-smelters were connected to major iron market outside of Sweden and they also influenced the osmund production, which were sold by merchants part of the Hanseatic League.[25]

Gold

Sweden is the second biggest gold producer in the European Union after Finland, and there, large amounts of gold that could be mined in the future.[13][26] Bolider is another, yet major producer of gold in Sweden since their polymetallic mines could produce as much as 2000 kilograms per year.[27] Some gold is commonly recovered from copper mines in Sweden and Finland.[28] It was boosted by the gold boom in recent years that stimulated the Swedish gold industry that more or less increased gold mining.[29] Despite these, the allergy to gold in the world is quite high as 13%, today, gold allergy is the second most common metallic allergy after nickle in Sweden.[30][31][32]

Impacts on the environment

Kiruna relocation

Since the town of Kiruna is located near the Kiruna mine, the largest iron ore mine pit in Europe, there have been plans to expand the mine, but it can erode the city so serious, that in the next 100 years, over 18,000 people and the entire town could move 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) east to safer areas.[33][34] These were caused by exploitation of iron and ore in the mine by the state-owned company LKAB, which will fund the town's relocation to continue mine in the Kirunavaara until 2023.[35] The relocation has caused concern among the locals who feared not only the town's relocation, but the relocation of 5,000 of houses and buildings , and the town's historic landmarks like the Kiruna Church, too, which indirectly caused the artist Bigert & Bergström to build the egg-shaped Solar Egg, to symbolise the relocation of Kiruna.[36][37]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Falun | Invest in Dalarna". Invest in Dalarna. 2016-10-10. Retrieved 2018-06-08.
  2. ^ "Falu Mine: where Sweden's cottages get their colour – Routes North". Routes North. 2016-10-14. Retrieved 2018-06-08.
  3. ^ Alexander Perez, Alberto (2014). "2014 Mineral yearbook" (PDF).
  4. ^ "Swedish ore mines". www.sgu.se. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  5. ^ Brief Outline of the Metallic Mineral Resources of Sweden. na. 1975.
  6. ^ "Swedish Iron Ore Going Strong | Investing News Network". Investing News Network. 2013-05-23. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  7. ^ "iron ore mining equipment in sweden". bluteam.eu. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  8. ^ "New record for Swedish ore production". www.sgu.se. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  9. ^ "isbn:1433047950 - Sök på Google". books.google.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-08.
  10. ^ "isbn:1443855871 - Sök på Google". books.google.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-08.
  11. ^ Publications, USA International Business (2007-02-07). Sweden Mineral & Mining Sector Investment and Business Guide. Int'l Business Publications. ISBN 9781433047954.
  12. ^ "investment opportunities in fennoscandian shield" (PDF). Via Västerbotten Investment Agency. 2012.
  13. ^ a b "Golden prospect in Europe" (PDF).
  14. ^ "Investment opportunities in mining North Sweden" (PDF). Via Västerbotten Investment Agency. November 2009.
  15. ^ "The history of Swedish iron and steel industry". The history of Swedish steel industry - Jernkontoret. Retrieved 2018-06-08.
  16. ^ Bohstrom, Philippe (2016-05-11). "3600-year-old Swedish Axes Were Made With Copper From Cyprus". Haaretz. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  17. ^ "Copper: A World Trade in 3000 BC? - Eye Of The Psychic". Eye Of The Psychic. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  18. ^ "1600-talet – Storhetstiden". Falu Gruva (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  19. ^ "Sweden Minerals Strategy - For sustainable use of Sweden's mineral resources that creates growth throught the country". Swedish Official Goverment.
  20. ^ "Production". Production - Jernkontoret. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  21. ^ karlborm, rolf. "Sweden iron ore export to germany".
  22. ^ a b Böethius, B. (1958). "Swedish iron and steel, 1600-1955". Scandinavian Economic History Review.
  23. ^ "isbn:0520267583 - Sök på Google". books.google.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-10.
  24. ^ ABLOY, ASSA. "Lock springs". historicallocks.com. Retrieved 2018-06-10.
  25. ^ "isbn:1461462029 - Sök på Google". books.google.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-10.
  26. ^ "Sustainable gold mining in Europe" (PDF). Euromines.
  27. ^ "isbn:1411336712 - Sök på Google". books.google.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-10.
  28. ^ Weston, Rae (2013-05-13). Gold (Routledge Revivals): A World Survey. Routledge. ISBN 9781136223310.
  29. ^ Sugar News. Sugar News Press. 1936.
  30. ^ "isbn:0080547079 - Sök på Google". books.google.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-10.
  31. ^ "isbn:0824746848 - Sök på Google". books.google.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-10.
  32. ^ "isbn:1420005421 - Sök på Google". books.google.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-06-10.
  33. ^ Rathi, Akshat. "A Swedish mining company is moving an entire town of 18,000 people—including its buildings—to a new location". Quartz. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  34. ^ Perry, Francesca (2015-07-30). "Kiruna: the arctic city being knocked down and relocated two miles away". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  35. ^ "Plans take shape to move the city of Kiruna" (PDF). 22 May 2014.
  36. ^ "This giant golden egg is a place for sweaty Swedes to get together and incubate new ideas". MNN - Mother Nature Network. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  37. ^ "Solar Egg / Bigert & Bergström". ArchDaily. 2017-10-19. Retrieved 2018-06-09.

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