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Cape Town Rifles: Difference between revisions - Wikipedia

Cape Town Rifles: Difference between revisions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Browse history interactively Revision as of 19:41, 9 January 2018 (edit) 41.114.38.159 (talk) (→‎World War I) ← Previous edit Revision as of 08:16, 19 June 2018 (edit) (undo) Illegitimate Barrister (talk | contribs) (allegiance is for things like parties and monarchs) Next edit → Line 6: Line 6: |dates=28 November 1855 to present |dates=28 November 1855 to present |country={{ZAF}} |country={{ZAF}} − |allegiance={{plainlist| − * {{flag|South Africa|1928|name=Republic of South Africa}} − * {{flag|South Africa|1994|name=Republic of South Africa}} − }} |branch={{plainlist| |branch={{plainlist| * {{army|South Africa|1981}} * {{army|South Africa|1981}}

Revision as of 08:16, 19 June 2018

Cape Town Rifles "Dukes" SANDF Cape Town Rifles emblem Active28 November 1855 to present Country South Africa Branch TypeInfantry RoleMotorised infantry SizeOne battalion Part ofSouth African Infantry Formation
Army Conventional Reserve Garrison/HQCape Town Motto(s)Semper Eadem Anniversaries28 November (Regimental Day) Commanders Current
commanderLt Col Francois Marais MMM, B Mil Honorary ColonelColonel Les Masterson Insignia Company level Insignia SA Motorised Infantry beret bar circa 1992
SA Motorised Infantry beret bar

The Cape Town Rifles (nicknamed Dukes) is an infantry regiment of the South African Army. As a reserve unit, it has a status roughly equivalent to that of a British Army Reserve or United States Army National Guard unit.

Contents

History

Origin

The Regiment was founded on 28 November 1855, as the Cape Rifle Corps. It was the first volunteer unit in the Cape Colony.

Other names

It was also known as the "Cape Royal Rifles", and later as the "Cape Town Volunteer Rifles".

Association with Prince Alfred

On 30 September 1867, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh granted the CTVR the title "Duke of Edinburgh's Own", after it had formed a guard of honour for him during a visit to Cape Town. The nickname "the Dukes" appears to have come into use in the 1880s.

Role

The Regiment's original purpose was home defence, to supplement the British Army garrison which was stationed in Cape Town. It initially consisted of two companies, but later grew to five, the fifth (formed in 1859) being a Scottish company. The Scottish company left the Regiment, and became a unit in its own right, in 1861, and disbanded in 1866. During the depression of the 1860s and early 1870s, the Regiment shrank to only one company, and was one of the few volunteer units to remain in existence

Early Campaigns

On the outbreak of the 9th Frontier War in 1877, the Regiment volunteered for active service, and fielded a small contingent which served in the Transkei from October 1877 to January 1878. Hundreds of volunteers joined the Regiment, and it was reorganised in April 1878, into six companies.

Another contingent served in the Transkei from February to May 1879, to take the place of a British garrison unit which had been re-deployed to Zululand because of the Anglo-Zulu War.

Half the Regiment served in the Basutoland Gun War in Basutoland (now Lesotho) from September 1880 to March 1881, and it was there that the Regiment suffered its first casualties.

The Regiment continued to grow after this period of campaigning, and a new Scottish company was formed in 1882. It transferred to the newly formed Cape Town Highlanders in July 1885. In 1891, the Dukes took over the Cape Town Irish Volunteer Rifles, and in 1894 the Regiment formed a mounted company.

From February to August 1897, the Dukes were on active service in Bechuanaland, as part of a government military operation to capture dissident Tswana leaders who had taken refuge in the Langberg mountains.

Anglo-Boer War

The Regiment played an active role in the Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902). Initially, it was deployed to protect a long stretch of the railway line through the Western Cape. In May 1900, it was assigned to Lt Gen Sir Charles Warren's column, to recapture areas of Griqualand West from Boer and Cape Rebel forces. The Dukes' commanding officer, Lt Col William Spence, was killed in action during a Boer attack on the column's base on the farm Fabers Puts on 30 May 1900.

From June 1900 until the end of the war in May 1902, the Regiment was split up into small detachments, which manned outposts and blockhouses in the northern Cape.

A second battalion was formed in Cape Town in January 1901, and in October 1901 it became a separate unit and was renamed the Colonial Light Horse. It disbanded after the end of the war.

Citizen Force

Together with most colonial volunteer units, the Dukes were embodied in the Active Citizen Force of the new Union Defence Force on 1 July 1913. The word "volunteer" was removed from the title, which then became "2nd Infantry (Duke of Edinburgh's Own Rifles)". The numerical designation was dropped in 1932.

World War I

Like other CF units, the Dukes played a limited role in World War I, because the South African forces were restricted to operations in southern Africa. The Regiment was on garrison duty in Cape Town from October 1914 to January 1915, and was deployed in German South West Africa (now Namibia) from February to July 1915. It was used in a supporting role, and saw no action.

After the Dukes returned from GSWA, more than a hundred members volunteered for service in the new 1st SA Infantry Regiment, which served in Egypt and then on the Western Front in France. Some others volunteered for service in the British forces, and one "Duke", Andrew Beauchamp-Proctor, became a Royal Air Force pilot and finished the war as South Africa's most highly decorated serviceman ever.

World War II

The Dukes served again in World War II. As a unit of the 1st SA Infantry Brigade, the Regiment served in East Africa (Kenya, Somaliland and Ethiopia) from July 1940 to May 1941, and in North Africa (Egypt and Libya) from June 1941 to December 1942 as part of the 1st SA Infantry Division. The Dukes earned eleven battle honours in these two campaigns.

From February 1943 to March 1945, the Regiment was based in the Transvaal, in South Africa, as a tank training battalion. Being under-strength, it was temporarily amalgamated with the Rand Light Infantry. In March 1945, the DEOR/RLI amalgamated with the Transvaal Scottish, to form the "DSR" battalion for service in Italy. However, operations in Italy ended before the battalion was ready for deployment. It was used for peacekeeping and security duties in Italy until the end of 1945.

Post-war

When South Africa became a republic on 31 May 1961, the Duke of Edinburgh's Own Rifles were renamed the "Cape Town Rifles". The official title was changed again, in October 1966, to "Cape Town Rifles (Dukes)". The Regiment was granted the Freedom of the City of Cape Town on 10 October 1967. National service, i.e. conscription of all medically fit White men, was introduced in 1968.

Border War

Main article: South African Border War

The Dukes were converted into a counter-insurgency (COIN) unit in 1974, and served several tours of duty in the Border War, i.e. South African operations against the People's Liberation Army of Namibia. The whole battalion served in Owambo in 1977, and a small contingent served there again in December 1978. Companies served in East Caprivi in 1979, in Kavango in 1980, and in Owambo in 1981 and 1983.

State of Emergency

The Dukes were deployed on internal security duties in various part of South Africa in 1985, 1986, 1988, and 1990, during the 1985-1990 State of Emergency, which was the government's response to the armed liberation struggle by the African National Congress and others.

Present

Since 1994, the Regiment has been a volunteer unit again, and membership is now open to men and women of all races. It celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2005.

RSM Colin Drummond Smith, the oldest surviving member, with 73 years of service to the Dukes, died at age 93 on 2 August 2010.

The Regiment continues to serve both on external as well as internal deployments.[1]

Regimental Symbols

  • The regimental badge, worn since 1964, is an eight-pointed star, with a battlemented turret covering the top point. An anchor is superimposed on the turret. In the centre of the star is a stringed bugle horn, surrounded by a buckled strap inscribed "Semper Eadem".
  • The previous badge, dating from the 1880s, was the star of the Order of the Thistle, with a royal duke's coronet covering the top point, and the regiment's title around the thistle in the centre of the star.
  • The regimental helmet flash is pale gold with a pointed top, and a cherry red chevron across the centre. A hackle (plume) of cherry and gold feathers is worn behind it. The beret flash, worn behind the badge, is a diamond-shape divided horizontally into pale gold over cherry red.
  • The Cape Town Rifles are the oldest regiment of Cape Town's five traditional volunteer regiments: the Cape Field Artillery, the Cape Town Rifles (Dukes), the Cape Town Highlanders, the Cape Garrison Artillery and Regiment Westelike Provinsie.[2]

Previous Dress Insignia

SADF era Cape Town Rifles insignia

Alliances

Battle honours

See also: List of South African Battle Honours

Leadership

Leadership From Colonel-In-Chief To 1930 Major General the Earl of Athlone KG GCB GCMG GCVO DSO PC ADC(P) FRS 1957 From Honorary Colonel To 1935 Colonel Cecil James Sibbett JP 1967 1968 Colonel Neil Herman Hare ED 1989 1991 Colonel Helm Roos 1992 1993 Colonel Patrick Joseph O'Sullivan 2006 2007 Colonel Les Masterson Present From Commanding Officer To 1855 Col. the Hon. William Hope 1858 1858 Col. John Thomas Eustace 1858 1862 Capt. Rice Daniel Jones 1872 1872 Capt. Francis Rennie 1874 1874 Capt. William Keal 1877 1877 Maj. Francis Gimber Goodliffe 1878 1878 Col. Zachary Stanley Bayly 1879 1879 Maj. Francis Gimber Goodliffe 1880 1880 Col. Archibald Graham Wavell 1881 1881 Maj. Francis Gimber Goodliffe 1882 1882 Maj. Henry Hamilton Jones 1884 1884 Col. Richard George Southey 1890 1890 Lt Col. William Alfred Spence VD 1900 1900 Brevet Col. John Lewis 1900 1900 Col. Henry Woodhead, CMH, VD 1914 1914 Lt Col. William Frederick Gregory VD 1921 1921 Lt Col. George Rose DSO VD 1925 1925 Lt Col. Charles Ernst Samuel Bull MC 1929 1929 Lt Col. Bertram Maynard Woodhead DSO VD 1933 1933 Lt Col. James Edward Harker VD 1933 1934 Lt Col. John Hewitt VD 1935 1935 Lt Col. Colin Graham Botha VD 1937 1937 Lt Col. John Hewitt VD 1938 1938 Lt Col. George Thomas Senescall DSO 1941 1941 Lt Col. Harold Lewis Silberbauer MC 1941 1941 Lt Col. George Thomas Senescall DSO 1942 1942 Lt Col. Johannes Mattheus De Beer 1942 1942 Maj. Leslie Lees 1942 1942 Maj. Alexander Georgeu 1942 1942 Lt Col. Sydney Burdett Gwillam MC 1943 1943 Lt Col. Pieter Gerhard Vincent dan der Byl MC 1944 1944 Maj. Neil Herman Hare ED 1945 1945 Lt Col. William Hedding DSR 1945 1945 Cmdt. Alexander Douglas Foxwell Sales MC 1953 1954 Cmdt. Colin Ray Titteron JCD 1955 1956 Cmdt. Donald Ivan Moodie SM JCD 1961 1961 Cmdt. Albert Joseph Bick JCD 1970 1971 Cmdt. Brian Donald Davison JCD 1973 1973 Cmdt. Albert Joseph Bick JCD 1974 1975 Cmdt. Leslie Clifford Masterson MMM, JCD 1981 1982 Cmdt. Manfred Albert Krecklenberg MMM, JCD 1988 1988 Lt Col. James Charles Anthony Gerstner 2001 2001 Lt Col. Ray Nesset MMM, JCD 9 Feb 2014 9 Feb 2014 Lt Col. Francois Marais MMM, B Mil Present From Regimental Sergeants Major To 1878 RSM James Fergus McQuade 1902 1903 RSM John Edgar Pearson 1913 1913 RSM R. Bell 1915 1926 RSM J.A. Hallas 1926 1927 RSM C.J. Hunter 1929 1929 RSM W. Britton 1933 1933 RSM Lionel Higginbotham 1939 1939 RSM Douglas Saville Hoyle 1940 1940 RSM Christopher William Noel Gautier MC 1941 1941 RSM Charles Wilfred Gudgeon MC 1943 1943 RSM Louis Harry Nuns 1944 1944 RSM Dene Weitz Melvill DSR 1945 1946 RSM Ronald Andrews 1947 1947 RSM Colin Drummond Smith JCD 1964 1965 RSM Johannes Ignatius Jakobus du Toit MMM, JCD 1969 1970 RSM Roy Maxwell Kirsten PMM, MMM, JCD 1987 1987 RSM Colin Jon Faure 1996 1996 RSM Kevin Wayne Bey-Leveld 2000 2000 RSM John Henry Tuck 2005 2005 RSM Pedro Miguel Dias Lobo Present

References

  1. ^ Helfrich, Kim. "Reserves add value to Army operations". defenceweb.co.za. DefenceWeb. Retrieved 27 October 2014. Operation Corona deployment comprising a battalion of Western Cape Army Reserve Force units drawn from the Cape Town Rifles and the Cape Town Highlanders Regiment.
  2. ^ Englebrecht, Leon (17 June 2010). "Fact file: Cape Town Rifles (Dukes)". defenceweb.co.za. DefenceWeb. Retrieved 26 October 2014.

Bibliography

  • McKenzie, A.G. (1957). The Dukes. Regimental Trust.
  • Orpen, Neil (1985). The Dukes 1855-1984. Regimental Trust.
  • Anon (1989). Cape Town Rifles Dukes (Booklet).
  • Dorrington, John (1989). Semper Eadem - The Cape Town Rifles (Dukes). Regimental Trust.
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