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Appendix:Chumashan and Hokan Swadesh lists - Wiktionary

Appendix:Chumashan and Hokan Swadesh lists

This is a Swadesh list of Hokan and Chumashan languages, specifically Ipai, Kiliwa, Cocopa, Mojave, Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai, Achumawi, Yana and Salinan and one or more others, compared with that of English.

This list includes:

  • Ipai (Northern Diegueño) — Southern California, United States (Mesa Grande dialect)
  • Kiliwa (Spanish orthography used) — Baja California Norte, Mexico
  • Cocopa — Arizona, United States; Sonora, Mexico (Note: dotted consonants, such as ṣ, are written as ss, while ł is is written as ll.)
  • Chumash, Inezeño (Samala) — Southern California, United States

Note: Additional vocabulary words have been added after word no. 207 ("name"), since the original lengths of Swadesh lists are either 100 or 207 words.

ListEdit

EnglishHokan languagesChumashan languages
(various) IpaiKiliwaCocopaMohaveHavasupai–Hualapai language
(Havasupai dialect)Pomo languages
(various)AchumawiYanaSalinan 1 I 'enyaach, 'e- ñaap nyaap nya k- 2 you
(singular) maa, me- may mapú ma p- 3 he puuch, ke- ñipáa (he/she) p- nyihá, nyithá s- 4 we 'enyaawapch páñaap nya, nyáji 5 you
(plural) menyaawap ñipáa chaaú ma, máji 6 they pupch ñipáat nyihá, nyiháji 7 this peyaa mí, eñoom pii 8 that puu ñiaat puu 9 here peyii míl puy 10 there puy ñák ssay 11 who maap maa luuny, luup kune' 12 what 'uuch kwit luuny, luup suk'u 13 where maay abel taka' 14 when kumyum, ma'yum mat piim knyayúm 15 how meyuu, mu'yuu pojooy, p’iim 16 not umaaw mat lax 'insil 17 all nyaamat kospíl maam yila' 18 many 'ehmiiy, hemiiy ulooy máto, siwá llyay, nyaam 19 some marway set 20 few 'ehiink teelt yaaw 21 other kwa'hin kpar (other side) 22 one 'ehink, 'uun msíg shitt 'aséntik isíte tato ha'mís bai(gu)- t'oy paka's 23 two hewuk juwak xwak havík xuwáge ko ha'k ux(si)- kákesh 'ishko'm 24 three hemuk jmik xmuk hamók humúge sibo 'cásdi bul(mic'igu)- lápay masɨx 25 four chepup mnak spap cimpáp hop'á duoko had:á:má daumi(gu)- késha' skumu 26 five sawrrup, saarap salchipam ssrap tharáp thêtrápe natsui lád:íw zhimad(gu)- 'óltat' yitipaka's 27 big 'iikuu tay ptay 28 long 'equll kíss kwlly 29 wide 'all teeyp 'aally 30 thick menuttk kuteey (fat) kwiish 31 heavy wenah, wenih mechaa maay nyix xulxul 32 small 'estik mudit lycash 33 short meputtk nmooj xly'utt 34 narrow helyumk shily 'i 35 thin kwalkwaal, wekwiirp jo'on rssaaw, ss'iitt 36 woman siny kekóo, yiskô s'ak, yesʔak thinyaʔaak pakri mata amitéucan mariʔmi letsʔé 'eneq 37 man
(adult male) 'iikwich kumeey 'apá 'ɨhɨ'y 38 man
(human being) 'iipay ipaa capáy ku 39 child
(a youth) 'elymaam sáaup kwaramáss (plural) ch'ich'i', ichtɨ'n 40 wife paasiny, unyeway (spouse) wàswáy ta'lik 41 husband paachuuy kwr'ak is-hɨ'y 42 mother kuhkwany, paataly eñoo (ny)caa tɨk' 43 father paataat esñoo (ny)'aa koko' 44 animal nyechehaatt ("their") tukuipaay (ny)xatt (domestic) 45 fish chee teet si'ílly 'a'lilimuw 46 bird 'aashaa tuwálo sha wic' 47 dog 'ehatt that xatt huchu 48 louse emilly jlpok xllis, 'i'ílly 49 snake 'ewii uwi’ yacáác xshap 50 worm ill ma'íílly 51 tree 'ily tajak (tay) 'ayáá po'n 52 forest jaal jak, semel jak 53 stick
(of wood) 'ily lpá (ny)ssu'ár 54 fruit paay xpally (of ironwood) 55 seed 'esemay, eyach (corn) yíit yas 56 leaf smak wal qap 57 root pehemaa (also tendons) ousmáa maat kwshamá 58 bark
(of tree) haaseyall yiaal ssxuyál 59 flower taps piyáuup supány spe'y 60 grass 'esemay semeel ssmal xweq 61 rope chekoot, hellytay j’ñieel yu'ár skɨnɨt' 62 skin
(of a person) ekwally, kweerr kojaan (ny)kw'áll pax 63 meat
(as in flesh) kukwaayp jak 'imáác 64 blood 'ehwatt kujat (ny)xwatt 65 bone aq ják (ny)yaak se 66 fat
(noun) weshay shay 67 egg 'ur jmá yítl xma ssu'áp tumun 68 horn ekwaa kwa (ny)kwa 69 tail heyull pelsa' shyully teleq' 70 feather
(rather not down) lemis tajpa aayu ssuumí, shawál qap 71 hair hellytaa (head), lemis (body) iy unmí lmiss 72 head hellytaa iy mkur 73 ear hemall smákal shmaal tu' 74 eye eyiiw yuu 'iyú tɨx 75 nose ehuu phí 'ixú noxsh 76 mouth aa ha' 'iyá 'ɨk 77 tooth
(rather not molar) eyaaw yaw (kuchipi’) 'iyàwíí sa 78 tongue enepall há paal mpally 'elew 79 fingernail salyehwuuw (sal) jaau 'isháálly llkaxwáw 80 foot emily miy 'imíí 81 leg emily miy ijá 'imíí 'ɨ'l 82 knee mehetun miy pók 'imíí ttaakáány 'apa'm 83 hand esally sal 'isháálly pu 84 wing wirewir wálu 'irwír, 'isháálly 85 belly etuu pa' 'icú (stomach) 86 guts pehaa pmaay guajú (ny)pxa 87 neck eyepuk, iipuk chimi’ jak mpuk (nape of neck) 88 back hetat yikók sí, jkueey
(upper back) llamák, 'imák nokok' (spine) 89 breast nyemaay smiil 'imáy 90 heart iichih, eyay koti’p 'iyááy 'ayapis 91 liver chepesii leepé (ny)cpussú 'a'l 92 to drink wesii chee ssi aqmil 93 to eat wemaa, wesaaw tmaa ma 'uw, ashɨn 94 to bite chuukuw, weshaa chía ssaa 95 to suck chepesii, wepis sucúk 96 to spit chehutt sxttu, sxyall 97 to vomit weyuuq yuuq 98 to blow
(as wind) hepesuuy (mouth) ciixáy (wind), xpssuu (mouth) 99 to breathe yaas yaass 100 to laugh uusay chiin 'uussáy 101 to see ewuuw saaw (to look) wii kuti 102 to hear yip kuee 'ii'ííp itaq 103 to know
(a fact) nur, uuyaaw 'uu'yáá 104 to think iichaa, wematt, yip elti paatu lly-yuum aqniwil 105 to smell
(sense odor) wehwii xwi yuxsh 106 to fear meheyaay mshyaa 107 to sleep hemaa smaa shma we' 108 to live nyewaayp wa’y (ny)way atɨk 109 to die melay pí (dead) msspa aqshan 110 to kill aamuuch eñoo nak 111 to fight mat menyuup, mat wetoo eñoop nyup 112 to hunt
(transitive) wenyay jkwigu nyay 113 to hit chetoo (to punch),
wetoo (with sick) sttu (to punch) 114 to cut aakatt jkáaw cukátt 'ɨwɨn 115 to split uuhwaq, wechall ttap 116 to stab
(or stick) uushaa 'uushá 117 to scratch
(an itch) hesak, sehwan llyqshaq 118 to dig wehwall 'uupún, xwally pul 119 to swim aapull nuup aqiwɨwɨn 120 to fly weman man xonowon 121 to walk wamp aaw p'aw nana'n 122 to come weyiw jaa yii 123 to lie
(as on one's side) welyak p’páa patt, yak oto'yin 124 to sit wenak jowaa wa ɨlɨk'ɨn 125 to stand pehekwii, hetaat (stand up) p'aa kuta', nowon 126 to turn
(change direction) apekwiilp kwany 127 to fall
(as in drop) tuushup (fruit),
wenall (person) j’paam pam, nyaly tol 128 to give winy juwee ii 129 to hold
(in one's hand) weyuuw shawín u'lish 130 to squeeze uukwis llkwiss 131 to rub chehwar, penyaa,
tuuhwar kuxáy 132 to wash allehwas (Spanish) canúp, ss'ul uxmaniwon 133 to wipe chemally sswi 134 to pull aalul, tepenii ajñaat ckyaw, cxpaly 135 to push cheherii ulchin s'att, shvuutk 136 to throw wetom, topk (towards),
topm (away) cha’ki cap 137 to tie aannak xir aqsik 138 to sew peyuur p’jpaab u’ shukwílly 139 to count tetseebo saaw 140 to say wii há maal (to talk) 'i 'ip, axutiwil (to talk) 141 to sing 'echweyuuw ltechaja’y syaa expech 142 to play suunaarr l'uy 143 to float yályál 'i 144 to flow wenuw kup 145 to freeze shemetii siimís 146 to swell waarp skwa 147 sun 'enyaa eñiaay nya qsi 148 moon hellyaa ja’la’ xlly'a 'awa'y 149 star kwenmesaap msi' kwlyap 'aqiwo 150 water 'ehaa ja' xa 'ha 'o' 151 rain 'ekwiy kwiiy p'ay tuhuy 152 river 'ehaa kwenuw ja’ kos’jiin xawílly 153 lake 'ehaa kwariw ja’ jpí tay xnyu 154 sea
(as in ocean) 'ehaasilly ja' tay ("big water") xakwss'ílly sxa'min 155 salt 'esily kwi ss'ir tip 156 stone 'ewily ujá wii, xuur xɨp 157 sand mes-haraay llysh'a 158 dust 'empill maat sa’ mak/piki' (to dust off) miipútt 159 earth
(as in soil) 'emat maat matt 160 cloud 'ekwiiy kwii 'iqc'i' 161 fog haamaa ssa smomoy 162 sky 'emaay ma’y maa(lly) 163 wind
(as in breeze) kuyaayp, yaayp ja’k cxa saxtakhɨt 164 snow aalap k’mtiiy xsa 165 ice shemetii smis smis 166 smoke 'uuhuy chuu (verb) xyay to'w 167 fire 'aaw a'aw 'a'á nɨ 168 ash 'empill ku’pal kiimá 169 to burn
(intransitive) aaraw llymar 170 road 'uunyaa uña’ wanyá ch'ayash 171 mountain matetay, matekun weey wii milimol 172 red 'ehwatt kwal xwatt tasɨn 173 green hepeshiw msoow xpisw 'aqulapshan 174 yellow 'ekwas ku’seey qwass 175 white nemeshap msaap xmaally 'o'wow 176 black nyilly ñleeg nyiilly shoyin 177 night hunn, kuhunn téey cnyam saxiyi' 178 day
(daytime) 'enyaa, kupilly eñiaay nya qsi 179 year 'aany (Spanish) maat màttkáám 180 warm
(as in weather) mgaaw (hot) piny, llyap ishaw, yulkla (hot) 181 cold
(as in weather) hechuur jschiaak xsuur axc'ac'ax, toxo'm 182 full hup, temur, wehaarp cm'ur 183 new 'ehay, wehay xany 'ikɨmin 184 old wenuuy ku'/pa' tay (fem., masc.) luulp 'equn 185 good 'ehan mgaay xany, miixáán chho-chhoho 186 bad wellich ulooy xcaq 'axɨmɨk' 187 rotten
(as, a log) weshah shax 188 dirty taketak jpill 'iimátt nuyich 189 straight halettuk mírmír lukumel 190 round tepechuurp, 'elul
(small objects) tux, xyal
(small objects) 191 sharp
(as a knife) werraaw yaaw yuu jooy
(to sharpen) yaap c'ɨc'ɨ 192 dull
(as a knife) xlqay 193 smooth heleqay, rii wii qalqáy 194 wet 'ehar, tehelumk xay 'och' 195 dry
(adjective) saay saay ss'ar aqawan 196 right
(correct) 'ehan nyayáám ("that's right") 197 near helyepay yaay kuwaa yío xrpay 198 far 'ekur kur 199 right
(side) eyewiik, iiwiik chpeeyp kxanyk 200 left
(side) kesark kssark 201 at 202 in 203 with
(accompanying) kuuyum -m 204 and may, nyaapum kakááp ("and then") na 205 if ny-, nya- 206 because 207 name chehichf muly 208 house 'ewaa uwa’ wa 'ap 209 wall 210 deer 'ekwak jak píikuyac kwak wɨ 211 mouse 'emekay mákal, tkáan (larger) 'awáá 212 rabbit 'ephar págu xlly'a ma' 213 eagle 'ihpaa ti’paayu shpa slo'w 214 spider hellytutt (black widow) uwi’ il xllycuc ktut 215 face eyiiw 'iyú tɨx 216 body emaat 'imáác 217 navel milyepuu mpí ('i)yakál 218 finger esally sal 'isháálly mimi 219 sick
(painful) henoo (kw)rap (sickness) yuxpan 220 needle pa'yur tjapáp u’ shuukwíílly, shwakwíílly 221 clothing tehiilly chigoow nyu'áál haxwi' 222 thunder shuullaw shuukír (verb) 223 lightning shuuluk ji’ñaam shuulám (verb) qunt'aw 224 above 'emaay na’tiaal maay 225 below 'eyaak maatu, maat múgu mattk 226 to cough uh jojo 'a'úx 227 to buy pe’ñao yeewi 'uukwíí 228 to choose nymsu'úr 229 to grow hemii j’wino, tejiip xmii 230 to open uuttaq kaap 'uukúp, cumán 231 to steal shuuhuu jcheet walísh 232 to dream hemach shmaap 233 to cry wemii jmee mi mish 234 to yawn waaps xkwaak shashan 235 to cook wellyully tamaaw (kitchen) nyawíí rar 236 six hamhuuk msígl paayb xmxuuk si:nta tacpê' tsadi lád:íwade ha'mís a:yé'qdi bunxad?i páy-at'el yitishko'm 237 seven pekai juwakl paayb pxkaa vi:ka xuwagacpê'k koina lád:íwade ha'k a:yé'qdi uxmami- tep' yitimasɨx 238 eight chepuuk jmikl paayb spxuuk mu:ka humugêcpê'k kokodol lád:íwade 'cásdi a:yé'qdi bulmami- sha-at'él malawa 239 nine nimhamuuk msigl tmat xmxmuk pa:ye halêthúia namilkacom lád:íwade had:á:má a:yé'qdi daumima- téte-top'e spa 240 ten shatuuk, shahuk chipam msíg ssaaxúúk arrapa viwá'ave namilkatek malús:i xaazhad- tóp'e ch'iyaw

SourcesEdit

  • Dictionary of Mesa Grande Diegueño. Ted Couro and Christina Hutcheson. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press, Inc., 1973.
  • AULEX Spanish-Kiliwa dictionary
  • Crawford, James M. (1989). Cocopa dictionary. University of California publications in linguistics (Vol. 114). Berkeley: University of California Press. →ISBN.

External linksEdit

  English Wikipedia has an article on:Hokan languages Wikipedia Swadesh lists Individual languages

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Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

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Constructed auxiliary languages

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Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Basque – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Slavic – Vulgar Latin

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