Elementymology & Elements MultidictThis site comprises 120 pages of text and photos, one for each element, and several pages for access. – For captions or explanatory texts move your mouse over illustrations, links etc. 39 Yttrium Yttrium – Yttrium – Yttrium – Itrio – イットリウム – Иттрий – 釔 Y Multilingual dictionary
Indo-European Yttrium Latin
Yttrium Frisian (West)
Ytriu Romanian - Moldovan
Итрий [Itrij] Bulgarian
Iтрый [itryj] Belarusian
Итриум [Itrium] Macedonian
Иттрий [Ittrij] Russian
Итријум [Itrijum] Serbian
Iтрій [itrij] Ukrainian
Itriam Gaelic (Irish)
Itriam Gaelic (Scottish)
Yttrium Gaelic (Manx)
Υττριο [yttrio] Greek
Իտրիում [itrium] Armenian
Itrium, ²Yttriumi Albanian
Иттрий [Ittrij] Ossetian
Иттрий [Ittri'] Tajik
ইটরিয়াম [iṭriẏāma] Bengali
ایتریم [aytrym] Persian
ઇટ્રીયમનો [iṭrīyamano] Gujarati
इत्रियम [itriyama] Hindi
Иттрий [Ittrij] Komi
Иттрий [Ittrij] Mari
Итри [itri] Moksha
Иттри [Ittri] Chuvash
Иттрий [ittrij] Kazakh
Иттрий [Ittrij] Kyrgyz
Иттри [ittri] Mongolian
ئىتترىي ['ittriy] Uyghur
იტრიუმი [itriumi] Georgian
يتريوم [ītriyūm] Arabic
איטריום [itrium] Hebrew
Ittrijum, ²Ittrju Maltese
Yet (釔) Hakka
イットリウム [ittoriumu] Japanese
이트륨 [iteuryum] Korean
อิตเทรียม [itthriam] Thai
釔 [yi1 / yuet9] Chinese
യിട്രിയം [yiṭriyam] Malayalam
யிற்றியம் [yiṟṟţiyam] Tamil
Yetibu (Yb?) Lingala
North-America Itrio Nahuatl
South-America Itriyu Quechua
Creole Itrimi Sranan Tongo
Artificial Itrio Esperanto
Itrion Atomic Elements
melting point 1522 °C; 2772 °F
boiling point 3338 °C; 6040 °F
density 4.47 g/cc; 278.99 pounds/cubic foot 1794 Johan Gadolin, Finland Ytterby, village in Sweden (just as Ytterbium, Erbium, and Terbium!)
named by Anders Gustaf Ekeberg History & Etymology
The chemist Lieutenant Carl Axel Arrhenius (1757-1824), student of the Swedish chemist Berzelius, found in 1787 in the dumps of the Ytterby quarry (for information and illustrations of Ytterby's quarry and a location map see the Rare Earths page) an interesting find, an exceptionally heavy piece of black broken rock. He named it ytterbite after the location with the standard suffix -ite added to indicate a mineral. This stone was sent to, among others, Johan Gadolin (1760-1852), professor at Åbo University.
Gadolin found that the "black stone of Ytterby" was composed of 38% of a new "earth type" ("earths" are compounds of elements, usually oxides). He concluded his analysis in 1794 and named this new earth ytterbia . His analysis was confirmed three years (1797) later when Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (1767-1813) analysed a larger sample. Ekeberg shortened the name to yttria. In the decades after Antoine Lavoisier developed the new chemistry built on the concept that earths could be reduced to their elements, the discovery of a new earth (with name ending in "a") was regarded as equivalent to discovering the element within. Thus the element reducible from the earth yttria would be Yttrium.
However, yttria was in fact it was a mixture of a number of metal oxides. In 1843, Carl Gustav Mosander (1797-1858) separated yttria into three parts, one of which kept the original name:
- Yttria (with a colorless salt and colorless oxide),
- Erbia (yellow oxide, colorless salt), and
- Terbia (rose oxide, red salt).
(Later Erbia and Terbia were interchanged).
In more than a century of research, ten new elements were found in Gadolin's yttria (see table above). To commemorate Johan Gadolin, the mineral was renamed by Martin Klaproth into gadolinite.
Until the 1920s the chemical symbol Yt was used (note).Chemistianity 1873 LAYAN
YTTRIUM, a metal of great scarceness,
Is known only in blackish gray powder;
Its Oxide (Yttria) is yellowish white
In colour. Yttrium never yields a Spectrum.
Yttria is found in Yttrotantalite,
In Orthite, (each extremely rare min'rals),
And Ytterbite from Ytterby, Sweden.
By ignition you can obtain Yttrium
From Yttrium Chloride and Potassium. J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, p. 130-131
Peter van der Krogt in Ytterby, Summer 2009.
Click here for more photos
Ytterby, a village in Sweden on the island of Resarö, close to Vaxholm (east of Stockholm) is a deposit of many unusual minerals, containing rare earth and other elements.
A Chronological list of discovery of the rare earths and their names and information and illustrations of Ytterby's quarry and a location map is on the Rare Earths page.Further reading
- Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Henry M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 667-699.
- Seltene Erden. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganische Chemie, 8. Aufl.; System-Nummer 39 (1938).
- Lauri Niinistö, "Discovery and Separation of Rare Earths". In Rare Earths, ed. Regino Sáez Puche & Paul A. Caro, 25-42. Madrid: Editorial Complutense, 1997.
- Peter B. Dean, and Kirsti I. Dean, "Sir Johan Gadolin of Turku: The Grandfather of Gadolinium." (on-line PDF file).
Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements