For All Britannica Sites, Services and Applications
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Effective as of December 12, 2017
Ownership. The content on the Services is the property of Britannica, its affiliated companies or licensors, and is protected by international copyright, patent, and trademark laws.
If you want to reproduce or use content for any purpose or in any manner other than as described above, you will need Britannica's permission. Requests should be directed to .
User Generated Content. This section applies to the extent we have enabled posting of user-submitted comments, audio, video, text or other materials in the Services or otherwise allow you to send information or materials through the Services (collectively, “UGC”).
You are responsible for your own UGC and are responsible for the consequences of sending it through the Services. You must not do the following things: send or post UGC that is copyrighted, unless you are the copyright owner or have the permission of the copyright owner to post it; send or post UGC that reveals trade secrets, unless you own them or have the permission of the owner; send or post UGC that infringes on any other intellectual property rights of others or on the privacy or publicity rights of others or is otherwise unlawful; send or post UGC that is obscene, defamatory, threatening, harassing, abusive, hateful or embarrassing to any other person or entity; send or post a sexually-explicit image; send or post advertisements or solicitations of business; send or post chain letters or the like; or impersonate another person.
By sending or posting UGC, you warrant and represent that you own or otherwise control all of the rights to the content and use of your UGC by Britannica will not infringe or violate the rights of any third party. By sending UGC, you automatically grant to Britannica, a royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable, non-exclusive license to use, reproduce, modify, publish, edit, translate, distribute, perform, and display it alone or as part of other works in any form, media, or technology whether now known or hereafter developed, and to sublicense such rights through multiple tiers of sublicensees. You retain the right to reuse your UGC as submitted to Britannica.
You may not use the Services or other communication mechanisms to sell, to trade, or for other commercial purposes. You may not send UGC through the Services that violates the rights of any third party or contains a virus or other harmful component. Nor may you use language or engage in any activity that is threatening, abusive, vulgar, discourteous, disruptive, or unlawful.
Please be aware that once you post UGC, there is the potential for the general public to read your words, even years from now. Britannica suggests that you exercise caution when posting UGC on the Services and that you not disclose personal identifiable information like your location, medical record number, financial information, etc.
Britannica does not have any obligation to monitor, edit or delete UGC, but may do so in its sole discretion. UGC including, but not limited to, the following may be deleted or edited by Britannica:
- Abusive or hurtful UGC about a commentor or another participant;
- Off-topic and redundant UGC (this includes promotion of events, groups, pages, Web sites, organizations and programs not related to or affiliated with Britannica);
- UGC that uses foul or hateful language;
- Personal attacks or defamatory statements or comments;
- UGC that violate the privacy of our users;
- UGC that is obscene, threatening, harassing, deceptive or fraudulent;
- UGC directed at children under the age of 13;
- UGC that may infringe any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other intellectual or proprietary right of any party or individual; and
- UGC that violates applicable laws or regulations.
By submitting UGC, you understand and acknowledge that this information is available to the public, and that we may use this information for internal and external promotional purposes. Please note that other visitors of the Services may use your posted UGC beyond the control of Britannica. If you do not wish to have the UGC you have made available via the Services used, published, copied and/or reprinted, please do not post UGC on the Services.
Linking to the Services. For details on how to link to the Services, click here. Please contact Britannica when you link to the Services, so that Britannica can better understand how its content is being accessed and so that you can be contacted when changes are made to the Services that could invalidate your links. Any linking to the Services will be at your own risk and expense.By linking to the Services, you agree that you will not:
- imply in any way, by manner of presentation of the link or otherwise, that Britannica endorses your site, products or services, or that you are affiliated with Britannica in any way;
- frame Britannica content, surround it with your own advertising or identity, or charge a fee for any link to the Services;
- link to the Services from any Web page or Web site containing libelous, obscene or criminal material, or material that infringes, violates, or advocates the infringement or violation of any third party rights; or
Service-Specific Terms. Some of our Services include additional, Service-specific terms that govern your use of the Service in question. Please click here to view our Service-specific terms. If you do not agree with the Service-specific terms, please do not use the Service in question.
Idea Submission Policy. I recognize that Britannica is always innovating and working on ideas, products, processes, and technologies for use in new and existing products. For this reason, Britannica does not accept or consider unsolicited ideas, including without limitation ideas for new or improved products, creative works, marketing plans, or product names (collectively, “Ideas”). Please do not submit any unsolicited Ideas in any form to Britannica. If, despite our request that you not send us Ideas, you still submit an Idea, then regardless of what you say in your submission, the following terms shall apply: You agree that:
- Your Idea and its contents will automatically become the property of Britannica without any compensation of any kind owed to me by Britannica or any of its affiliates. Britannica may redistribute your Idea and its contents for any purpose and in any way.
- Neither Britannica nor any of its affiliates is obligated to keep confidential your Idea or any of the information that you submit to us. You agree and acknowledge that all Ideas and information submitted by you will be treated as non-confidential information.
- Britannica does not have any obligation to evaluate your Idea.
Disclaimer of Warranties. THE SERVICES AND ALL INFORMATION, PRODUCTS, AND OTHER CONTENT INCLUDED IN OR ACCESSIBLE FROM THE SERVICES ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" AND WITHOUT WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND (EXPRESS, IMPLIED, AND STATUTORY, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE), ALL OF WHICH BRITANNICA EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW.
Limitation of Liability. IN NO EVENT SHALL BRITANNICA, ITS DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, SHAREHOLDERS, PARENTS, SUBSIDIARIES, AFFILIATES, AGENTS AND LICENSORS, OR CONTENT PROVIDERS BE LIABLE: (i) FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THE USE, INABILITY TO USE, PERFORMANCE OR NONPERFORMANCE OF THE SERVICES, EVEN IF BRITANNICA WAS PREVIOUSLY ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES AND REGARDLESS OF WHETHER SUCH DAMAGES ARISE IN CONTRACT, TORT, UNDER STATUTE, IN EQUITY, AT LAW, OR OTHERWISE; AND (ii) FOR ANY DAMAGES, LOSSES AND/OR CAUSES OF ACTION EXCEEDING ONE THOUSAND U.S. DOLLARS (US $1,000) IN THE AGGREGATE.
SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATIONS ON IMPLIED WARRANTIES OR THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF CERTAIN DAMAGES, SO SOME OF THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS AND EXCLUSIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
This section applies to any dispute EXCEPT DISPUTES RELATING TO THE ENFORCEMENT OR VALIDITY OF BRITANNICA’S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. The term “dispute” means any dispute, action, or other controversy between you and Britannica or its directors, officers, shareholders, parents, subsidiaries, affiliates, agents, licensors or content providers concerning the Services or this Agreement, whether in contract, warranty, tort, statute, regulation, ordinance, or any other legal or equitable basis. “Dispute” will be given the broadest possible meaning allowable under law.
Binding arbitration. Any dispute will be conducted exclusively by binding arbitration governed by the U.S. Federal Arbitration Act. You are giving up the right to litigate (or participate in as a party or class member) all disputes in court before a judge or jury. Instead, all disputes will be resolved before a neutral arbitrator, whose decision will be final and binding. Any court with jurisdiction over the parties may enforce the arbitrator’s award.
Class action waiver. Any proceedings to resolve or litigate any dispute in any forum will be conducted solely on an individual basis. Neither you nor Britannica will seek to have any dispute heard as a class action, private attorney general action, or in any other proceeding in which either party acts or proposes to act in a representative capacity. No arbitration or proceeding will be combined with another without the prior written consent of all parties to all affected arbitrations or proceedings.
Claims or disputes must be filed within one year. To the extent permitted by law, any claim or dispute must be filed within one year. The one-year period begins when the arbitration notice first could be filed. If such a claim or dispute is not filed within one year, it shall be permanently barred.
Opting Out of Pop Under Ads. Some of our pop-under ads are not detected by Safari and other browsers. To opt out of pop-under ads visit [optmd.com].
Not Advice. Information contained in the Services is not intended to be medical, legal, tax, financial or other advice and should not be considered medical, legal, tax, financial or other advice, nor is it intended to replace consultation with a qualified physician, attorney or other professional.
Definitions. As used in these additional terms, "you" or "yours" refers to each person who establishes a subscriber account ("Account") or who is authorized to access and use any of the Subscription Services.
Account. You are responsible for all use of your Account under any user ID (username or email address) or password by any person and for ensuring that all use of your Account complies fully with the provisions of this Usage Agreement.
Subscription Fees and Changes. Subscription charges begin on the date your Services subscription is activated or, if applicable, on the date your free trial period ends, and will be billed to your credit or charge card each month (for monthly subscriptions) or year (for annual subscriptions) thereafter. You acknowledge and agree that you will not receive a bill in the mail for your subscription. Britannica reserves the right to increase subscription rates at any time. Changes to standard subscription rates will be posted at [corporate.britannica.com] or in a Britannica communication to you. Increases in subscription rates will apply to existing accounts at the time of their renewal and will not exceed the standard subscription rate that has been in effect and posted for at least 30 days. Reductions in the standard subscription rate will not necessarily be reflected in your renewal subscription rate. Customers subscribing at specially discounted promotional rates may be subject to varying rate increases, none of which shall exceed the standard posted subscription rate.
Termination of Subscription and Free Trial. Either party shall have the right to terminate your subscription at any time by providing notice of termination to the other. In the event of termination of your subscription by either party, you shall have no claims against Britannica or its affiliates. Termination of your subscriptions or free trial automatically terminates your license to use the Subscription Services and any content or other material contained therein. If you acquired an annual subscription to one of the Subscription Services and you terminate your subscription within 30 days of the date of activation of your Account, you are eligible to receive a refund of the subscription fee paid to Britannica; you must contact Britannica Customer Support to receive this refund. If you are a resident of the Netherlands, you can terminate at any time during your annual subscription, on 30 days notice, and receive a pro-rated refund. If you acquired a monthly subscription to the Subscription Services or if your subscription is acquired with a Promotion Certificate and you terminate your subscription, you will not receive any refund of the subscription fee paid to Britannica. If your subscription to the Subscription Services was acquired with a Gift Certificate and you terminate your subscription within 30 days of the date your Gift Certificate was acquired from Britannica, you are eligible to receive either: (a) a refund of the subscription fee paid to Britannica (available only to the party acquiring your Gift Certificate from Britannica); (b) a credit towards the price of acquiring other Britannica products or services; or (c) a credit towards the future subscription fee for an existing Subscription Services subscription. You must contact Britannica Customer Support to receive these remedies. If Britannica terminates your subscription, other than as a result of your breach of this Agreement, Britannica will refund to you a pro rata portion of the subscription fee paid to Britannica, if any, for the unexpired portion of your subscription.
Subscription Changes. If you acquired an annual subscription to the Subscription Services and you wish to change to another Subscription Service offering you may do so without penalty within 30 days of the activation of your Account. You must contact Customer Service to request this or other changes from one Subscription Service to another. If you acquired a monthly subscription to the Subscription Services and you wish to change to another Subscription Service offering, contact Customer Service, the change will be made effective when your current monthly term ends.
Renewals and Cancellations. Your subscription will renew automatically unless we terminate it or you notify us by telephone or email (receipt of which must be confirmed by email reply from us) of your decision to cancel your subscription. You must cancel your subscription before it renews in order to avoid billing of subscription fees for the renewal term to your credit card. Instructions on how to cancel your subscription are available at [account.britannica.com]. In the event that you cancel your subscription, unless otherwise required by law, subscription fees will not be refunded, applied to another subscription, or transferred to anyone else and are not convertible to cash or other form of credit. Payments made as part of a monthly subscription cannot be used as credit toward annual subscription charges and are non-transferable.
Credit Cards or Charge Cards. You agree that you will provide a major credit or charge card (e.g., MasterCard, Visa, American Express, or Discover) that Britannica may charge for all subscription fees or other amounts payable to Britannica. With respect to such charges, you give the following authorization:
I authorize automatic credit or charge card billing by Britannica. I agree that the charges described above will be billed by Britannica to the credit or charge card that I have provided to Britannica in my Account information, or otherwise when I applied for the Subscription Services. I understand that all fees and charges are nonrefundable. I agree that Britannica will not be responsible for any expenses that I may incur resulting from overdrawing my bank account or exceeding my credit limit as a result of an automatic charge made under this Agreement.
Account Information. You agree to provide current, complete, and accurate information for your Account in order to receive access to the Subscription Services. You agree to promptly update all Account information to keep your account current, complete, and accurate (such as a change in billing address, credit or charge card number, or credit or charge card expiration date) and you must promptly notify Britannica if your credit or charge card is cancelled (for example, for loss or theft) or if you become aware of a potential breach of security, such as the unauthorized disclosure or use of your log-in and password. Changes to such information can be made by going to the Account Maintenance area at [account.britannica.com]. If you fail to provide Britannica any of the foregoing information, you agree that Britannica may assume that your credit or charge card is either still valid or that it has been renewed and may continue charging you for the Subscription Services to which you have subscribed, unless you have cancelled your subscription.
Definitions. Institutional Subscribers may be a business (“Business”), government agency (“Agency”), school and related facilities (“School”), college or university (“University”) or public library (“Library”). “Authorized Users” are the following: (i) employees, agents or representatives in the case of Businesses and Agencies; (ii) students of Subscriber, its faculty members, administrators, and employed staff in the case of Schools; (iii) full or part-time students of Subscriber, its faculty members, administrators and employed staff in the case of Universities; and (iv) patrons, employees, agents or representatives in the case of Libraries.
Remote Access. Only Authorized Users are permitted to access the Services remotely. Authorized Users are (a) in the case of Schools: its students, its faculty members, administrators, and employed staff; (b) in the case of Universities: its full or part-time students, its faculty members, administrators and employed staff; (c) in the case of Businesses and Government Agencies: employees, agents and representatives; and (d) in the case of a National, State or Public Library, its Library patrons, Library customers, and Library users, employees, agents and representatives. Only these individual persons are permitted to access the Services remotely. Schools, Universities, Businesses and Government Agencies who are members of a National, State or Public Library are not Authorized Users under a Library’s license agreement with Britannica.
Nglish™ and Britannica English Arabic Translation
Ownership. All rights to the content contained in the Translation Products, including any words, definitions, idioms, expressions, translations (in English, Spanish, Arabic or any other language), diacritics and vowel signs, links between words' voice files, grammatical inflections, topical word lists, graphic and game content, and any other content that appears in the Translation Products, are the sole property of Britannica, its affiliated companies or licensors.
User Registration. With respect to Nglish™ specifically, in order to save words in your personal file, you must register for "Nglish Dictionaries." Registration to "Nglish Dictionaries" may be done through an online account you may have with a third party social networking site, using your email address, or any other valid registration process offered from time to time by Britannica. By registering with a Translation Product, you grant Britannica your explicit consent to notify you of version upgrades and changes to and promotions for the Translation Products provided by or through Britannia. If you wish to cease these notifications, please email your request to Britannica using the contact information provided within the related Translation Product.
All contents of the Services are © Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. or its licensors. All rights reserved. Encyclopædia Britannica is copyrighted 1994-2017 by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
The 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 Britannica Books of the Year are copyrighted 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 respectively, by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Britannica claims no compilation copyright in images or materials that are subject to the GNU Free Documentation License or similar licenses.
Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary (Eleventh Edition), Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, and Merriam's Webster's Student Dictionary (Third Edition), are all copyrighted by Merriam-Webster, Incorporated.
Photographs and illustrations are copyrighted by their respective owners, as noted in the credits.
"Encyclopædia Britannica" and other marks that appear throughout the Services belong to Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., its affiliates, or third-party trademark owners.
Google Drive™ is a trademark of Google Inc. Use of this trademark is subject to Google Permissions.
Except as permitted by applicable laws, you are prohibited from using any of the marks appearing on the Services without express written consent from Britannica or the respective trademark owners.
Copyright Infringement Claims
If you believe that any copyright infringement exists on any of the Services, please use the following process to notify Britannica. We will act expeditiously to remove infringing material once informed. All claims of copyright infringement should be in writing and should be directed to our Designated Agent below:
Carmen E. Pagán, Copyright ManagerYour notice must contain the following information:
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
325 North LaSalle Street, Suite 200
Chicago, Illinois 60654
E-mail: [email protected]
- Your physical or electronic signature (as either the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed or as a person authorized to act on behalf of such owner).
- Identification of the copyrighted work claimed to have been infringed or, if multiple copyrighted works at a single online site are covered by a single claim, a representative list of such works at that online site.
- Identification of the material that is claimed to be infringing or to be the subject of infringing activity and that is to be removed or access to which is to be disabled and information reasonably sufficient to permit Britannica to locate the material.
- Information reasonably sufficient to permit Britannica to contact you, such as an address, telephone number and, if available, an electronic mail address.
- A statement that you believe in good faith that use of the material in the manner complained of is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent or the law.
- A statement that the information in the notice is accurate and that, under penalty of perjury, you are the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed or are authorized to act on behalf of such owner.
Britannica has a policy of terminating in appropriate circumstances the subscriptions of users who are infringers of copyrights held by others. If your material is removed or access to it is disabled and you believe in good faith that a claim has been wrongly made against you, you may submit a counter-notification to Britannica. Your counter-notification must be in writing and sent to:
Carmen E. Pagán, Copyright ManagerYour counter-notification must contain the following information:
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
325 North LaSalle Street, Suite 200
Chicago, Illinois 60654
E-mail: [email protected]
- Your physical or electronic signature.
- Identification of the material that has been removed or to which access has been disabled and the location at which the material appeared before it was removed or access to it was disabled.
- A statement under penalty of perjury that you have a good faith belief that the material was removed or disabled as a result of mistake or misidentification of the material to be removed or disabled.
- Your name, address, and telephone number, and a statement that you consent to the jurisdiction of Federal District Court for the judicial district in which you are located, or if you are outside of the United States, for any judicial district in which Britannica may be found, and that you will accept service of process from the person who notified Britannica of the alleged infringement or an agent of such person.