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Bell's New Pantheon: Or, Historical Dictionary of the Gods, Demi-gods ...

By John Bell

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GYAS, one of the attendants of Aeneas, who distinguished himself in the games occasioned by the death of Anchises. GYGES, one of the giants who set Jupiter at liberty when he was imprisoned by a junto of the deities. He was brother of Briareus, and called to this friendly office in behalf of Jupiter, along with Cottus and Briareus, by Thetis.— How these, with others of their race, afterwards revolted, and in what manner they were overthrown, may be seen under the article Giants. Also the name of a Lydian usurper, who slew Candaules his master, and leapt into his throne and his bed. He is fabled to have possessed a ring, which, when turned towards the palm of his hand, rendered him invisible, although he could see every one about him. GYGEs, a leader under Aeneas, who was killed by Turnus. GYMNASIARCH, the master or direétor of a Gymnasium. GYMNASIUM, a place fitted for performing bodily exercise. Among the ancients it was a public edifice destined for that purpose, in

which those who resorted thither were taught, and regularly disciplined under proper instructors. See Games Olympic. GYMNASTIC AND GYMNIC, belonging to the exercise of the body, whether for health, defence, or diversion. In these consisted the chief diversions of the Olympic, Nemaean, Pythian, and Isthmian games, or the four sacred games of the Greeks. See Games Olympic. GYMNOPAEDIA, a kind of sacred dance in use among the Lacedemonians, performed during their sacrifices by young persons who danced naked, singing at the same time a hymn in honour of Apollo. Terpander is recorded as the inventor of this dance. Athenaeus describes it as a Bacchic dance, performed by youths stripped quite naked, with certain irregular, though agreeable motions and gestures of the body, the arms and legs being so disposed as to represent a peculiar sort of wrestling. GYNAECEAS, the wife of Faunus, and reputed mother of Bacchus and Midas.

HADES, a surname of Pluto, signifying dark, gloomy, melancholy, or invisible, from his sitting in darkness, and therefore not to be SCCI). HADES. See Hell. HAECATEUS, father of the Oreades. reades. HAEMON, a chief under Nestor at the siege of Troy. Also a chara&ter in the Aeneid. HAEMON, son of Creon, king of Thebes, who, on being told that Antigone had been put to death at the command of his father, killed himself on her tomb. See Antigone. HAEMONIUS, the father of Amalthea. HAFEDAH, an idol of the Adites, that is, the people of a tribe of Arabians, who inhabited the country of Hadhramouth, in Iemen, or Arabia Felix, who were extirpated in the time of the prophet Houd, that is, the patriarch Heber. This idol was principally invoked for obtaining a prosperous journey or voyage. HAGNO, the name of a Nymph, and likewise of a fountain in Arcadia. HALAESUS, or HALESUS, son of Agamemnon, but uncertain by what mother. Being exiled from his native country, he settled on Mount Massicus, in Campania, and after having made considerable carnage amongst the troops of Aeneas, was himself killed by Pallas, the son of Evander. HALCYON DAYS, days of peace and tranquil. lity. The expression is taken from a sea-fowl called, among naturalists, Halcyon, or Alcyon, which is said to build its nest about the winter solstice, when the weather is observed to be still and calm. Halcyon Days, according to ancient tradition, are the seven days before, and as many after, the brumal solstice, called also St. Martin’s summer, famous for the calmness of the weather, which emboldens the Halcyon to build, and brood its eggs upon rocks, on the very verge of the sea. Columella also gives the denomination Dies Halcyonii to a

See O

number of days commencing with the 8th of the calends of March, on account of the great stillness of the Atlantic ocean, usually observed at that season. The Halcyon is the bird Alcedo, or King-fisher. HALCYONE, one of the Pleiades, or seven daughters of Atlas, by his wife Pleione. Also daughter of Aeolus, and wife of Ceyx. See Cey.r. * HALESUS. See Halaesus. HALIA, a festival at Rhodes, in honour of the Sun. Also the name of one of the Nereids. HALIMEDE, a Nereid. HALIROTHIUS, son of Neptune. tius. HALITHERSUS, an old man, in the Odyssey styled “ the Prince of Augurs,” who not only foretold the return of Ulysses, but the fate also of Penelope's suitors. . HALIUS, son of Alcinous, renowned for his skill in dancing, was killed by Ulysses. Also a chieftain of Aeneas, killed by Turnus. HALMUS, father of Chryse, mother of Phle. gyas, by Mars. See Phlogyas. Also son of a king of Orchomenos, who was son of Sisyphus, and father of Chrysogone. HALOCRATES, son of Hercules and Olympusa. HALOTIA, a festival observed in Tegea. HALYAEETUS, a man mentioned in Ovid, as transformed to a bird so called. HALYATTES. See Alyattes. HALYS, a leader under Aeneas, killed by TurIn Uls. HAMADRYADES, or HAMADRYADS, certain rural divinities in the Pagan theogony, or Nymphs of the Woods, whose fate depended on particular trees, together with which they were , supposed to be born, and to die. It was principally to oaks that these Henadryades were thus united ; their name being derived from guz together with, and 33.3, an oak. Ovid has elegantly described the complaints and misfortunes of an Hamadryad, whom the impious

See Aliro.

Erisichthon was going to destroy: She is habited an oak of a prodigious size, and the servants of Erisichthon not daring to obey their master, who had ordered them to fell this venerable tree, he undertook the performance himself, for which atrocious ačt he was persecuted by Ceres. The Hamadryads were extremely grateful to those who rescued them from death, a particular instance of which the Scholiast of Apollonius hath related. A certain person named Rhaecus, perceiving an oak ready to fall, ordered his sons to support and fix it: the Hannadryad, who must have perished had the oak fallen, appeared to Rhaecus, and thanked him for saving her life, permitting him, at the same time, to demand what recompense he pleased: Rhaecus, emboldened by an offer so unreserved, demanded the last favour, and the Hamadryad granted his request; but on this condition, that Rhaecus should abstain from all other women. A bee was appointed by the Hamadryad as the messenger between them ; but happening to arrive inopportunely for Rhaecus, it incurred his displeasure ; in conse. quence of which, the Hamadryad exasperated, occasioned his mutilation. Another story of an Hamadryad, with a more fortunate conclu

sion, is related by the same Scholiast, for which

the reader is referred to the article Areas, Those who destroyed the trees on which the life of an Hamadryad depended, were sure to be punished for it in an exemplary manner; as appears not only from the instance of Erisichthon, but from many others. The Hamadryades in the opinion of some authors, were the longest lived of all mortal beings; as the following recital may shew. “ The age of man is ninety-six years; the raven lives nine times as long as a man, the stag four times as long as the raven; the crow three times as long as the stag ; the phoenix nine times as long as the crow, and the Hamadryads ten times as long as the pl.oenix” according to which poetical arithmetic, the raven lives eight hundred and sixty four years, the stag three thousand four hundren and fifty-six, the crow ten thousand three hundred and sixty-eight, the phoenix ninetythree thousand three hundred and twelve, and the Hamadryad nine hundred thirty-three thousand one hundred and twenty-one years, which

computation Pliny very justly censures as ridi

culous and absurd. It was natural for the Gen

tiles to fall into the opinion of these sort of divi

nities, for as they entertained a kind of religi

ous veneration for such trees as were very old,

and of uncommon bulk, it was an easy transi

tion to the belief that they were the abodes of some divinity: the oak which Erisichthon cut

down was revered for its size and antiquity, and

was hung round with monuments of devotion.

“The vulgar notion of Hanadryads now, as I

take it,” says the author of Polymetis, “ is that

of certain Geniuses or Nymphs vitally annexed

to trees. The notion of the old Scholiasts is

that of a set of Nymphs coeval with certain oaks,

or at least fated to perish with them: neither of these seen to me to agree with the notion of Hamadryads in the mythology of the old Ro

mans. The Roman poets use the word Hama

dryads rather as a charaćter of the Nymphs in

general, than as the name of any particular

class of Nymphs: they use it sometimes in speak

ing of the Dryads themselves, and sometimes of the other Nymphs, the companions of the Dry

ads, as the word naturally seems to signify.—

Virgil, I think, never uses the word Hama

dryads but once, and that is where he seems to

be speaking of the rural Nymphs in general.

In the two or three places where Ovid mentions

them, he is speaking either of Wood-nymphs,

or of the followers of Diana. The Water-nymphs

were such frequent companions of the Wood

nymphs, or Dryads, that Virgil calls them

sisters, and when the other Roman poets speak

of Nymphs, either as presiding over single

trees, or as more intimately united with them,

they mention Naiads under these chara&ters, just as freely as Dryades. This common idea

among the ancients, of Nymphs, or intellec

tual beings, annexed to trees, must have made

the story of Erisichthon in Ovid, and that of Polydorus in Virgil, appear much more natu

ral and obvious to their readers then, than they

do to us now ; it will account, too, for their

worshipping of trees, as we find they some

times did, not only from their poets, but their

historians. Livy speaks of an ambassador's ad

dressing himself to an old oak, as to an intelli

gent person and a divinity.”

HAMITHEA. See Hemithea.

HAMMON, or AMMON, the Jupiter of the Africans. See jupiter. - ". HAMOPAON, a Trojan chieftain, killed by TeuCer". HAPPINESS. See Felicity. HARMONIA, or HERMIONE, daughter of Mars and Venus, and wife of Cadmus. See Cadmus. HARMONIDES, a Trojan, who was favoured by Minerva. The vessel in which Paris embarked with Helen, it is said, was built by him. HARPALEUS, the son of Lycaon. HARPALICE. See Harpalyce. HARPALION, son of Pylamenes, was killed be. fore Troy, by Merion of Crete. HARPALYCE, a beautiful young woman, daughter of Clymenus and Epicaste, of Argos. Her father becoming enamoured of her, found means, by the contrivance of her attendant, to gain access to her person. Soon after, Alaster, to whom Harpalyce had been betrothed, arriving to consummate the marriage, magnificent preparations were made, the nuptials were solemnized, and the bridegroom departed with his bride. Her father, however, mortified that he had yielded his consent, not only pursued them, but, having overtaken, slew Alastor, and returned with his daughter to Argos. Harpalyce, to revenge herself for the treatment of her father, murdered, and served up to him as food, her younger brother; after which, imploring the gods to take her out of life, she was changed by them to a bird. Hyginus, however, relates that the child she prepared for Clymenus to eat, was her own offspring by him, and that Clymenus discovering the transa&tion, killed both Harpalyce and himself. HARPALYCE, daughter of Harpalycus, king of the Amymneans in Thrace, was brought up on the milk of a cow and a mare, and trained early to arms by her father, to whom she was of singular service: for, had she not come to his aid when Neoptolemus, (or Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles) attacked and wounded him, he must inevitably have fallen. Harpalyce, however, charging the enemy with great fury, routed Neoptolemus. Her father soon after perishing in a civil war, Harpalyce retired into forests, and there subsisted on plunder and

Tapine. The attempts which were made to se. cure her, were all found to fail ; for such was her speed that, when pursued even on horseback, she could not be taken. At length, however, being intercepted by nets, spread as if designed for the capture of brutes, she was killed. Nevertheless, the perpetrators of the faćt rued their temerity; for a contest having arisen in ascertaining the claims of the proprietors to the articles she had pillaged, a battle ensued, in which many were killed. A custom was afterwards established of meeting on stated

occasions at the tomb of Harpalyce, there to celebrate tournaments in atonement of her

death. HARPALYCE, a young female, who being passionately in love with Iphiclus, died of grief because he negle&ted her. A poetic composition relating her story was denominated Harpalyce from her. HARPALYCUS, son of Mercury and Panope, was said to have taught Hercules the art o wrestling, and other manly exercises. Also the name of a Thracian king, father of Harpalyce. See Harpalyce. HARPALYCUS, a charaćter in the Aeneid, killed by the heroine Camilla. HARPE, the name of the falchion with which Mercury killed Argus: he lent it to Perseus, who performed his greatest exploits with it, and among others, that of cutting off the head of Medusa. Its shape, in the antiques which represent both these stories, is alike: it is a longer kind of weapon than was in ordinary use, at least among the Romans, with a singular hook or spike on its back. The descriptive epithets given it by the poets agree entirely with the figures of the ancients. HARPIES. See Harpyiae, or Harpyes. HARPOCRATES, the Egyptian god of Silence. He was said to have been the son of Osiris and Isis. We know but little of this deity. His statues were usually placed in the temples, and near the images of Osiris and Isis, to intimate, as Varro and St. Austin imagine, that the people should observe silence, and not divulge that these divinities had ever been mortals. He was exhibited under the form of a young man, half naked, crowned with an Egyptian mitre, holding in his left hand a cornucopia, and a finger of the other, placed on his lips, as if to enjoin silence. The Egyptian sculptors represented Harpocrates upon precious stones, which they engraved under certain constellations, and preserved to cure distempers, and guard men from dangers. The Romans wore on their rings figures of Harpocrates and other Egyp. tian gods. The several cabinets of Europe furnish a number of figures of Harpocrates, all having a finger on the mouth, though in other particulars they vary. Ovid ranks Harpocrates amongst the Egyptian deities which appeared to Telethusa, but avoids to mention his name. Harpocrates is likewise called Sigalion, from the Greek Xiyn, silence. A late author observes that the Romans, who borrowed this image from Egypt, entirely mistook its meaning ; and maintains that Harpocrates was the Horus, or emblematical statue which denoted the peace or repose of winter; that the cornucopia a. mong the Egyptians signified plenty, and the finger placed on the lips denoted moderation and temperance, both necessary to a proper enjoyment of the bounties of Providence.

HARPYIAE, or HARPYES, were three in number, their names Celaeno, Aello, and Ocypete. Some mention them as daughters of O. ceanus and Terra, whence, says Servius, it is that they inhabitan island half on land, and half

in water. Valerius Flaccus makes them daugh

ters of Typhon ; others give them Thaumus and Ele&tra, for their parents. The ancients looked on the Harpycs as a sort of Genii, or Daemons. Hesiod, who names them Iris, Aello and Ocypete, styles them, also, daughters of Thaumus and Elcétra; and affirms, that they had wings, and moved with the rapidity of the wind. Zephyrus is said to have begotten of them Balius and Xanthus, the horses of Achilles. They had the faces of virgins, the ears of bears, the bodies of vultures, human arms and feet, and long claws, hooked like the talons of carniverous birds. They dwelt in Thrace. Phineus, king of Arcadia, being a prophet, and revealing the mysteries of Jupiter to mortals, was by that deity struck blind, and so tormented with the Harpyes, that he was ready to perish for hunger; they devouring whatever was set before him ; till the sons of Boreas, Zethes and Calais, who attended Jason in his Vol. I.

HARUSPEX.

expedition to Colchis, delivered the good old king, and drove these monsters to the islands called Strophades; compelling them to swear never more to return. Vossius thinks, that what the ancients have related of the Harpyes agree to no other birds so well as the bats found in the territories of Darien in South America, which animals kill not only birds, but dogs and cats, and are also very troublesome to men.—But the ancients, as the same author observes, being strangers to these birds, could mean by the Harpyes nothing more than the winds, on

which account they were described as the oss. spring of Elečtra, the daughter of Oceanus.— The Harpyes, according to the ingenious Abbé la Pluche, had their original in Egypt. He further observes, in respect to them, that during the months of April, May, and June, especially the two latter, Egypt being very subjećt to tempests, which laid waste their olive grounds, and carried thither numerous swarms of grasshoppers, and other troublesome inse&ts from the shores of the Red Sea ; the Egyptians gave to their emblematic figures of these months a female face, with the bodies and claws of birds, calling them Harop, or a norious volatile. This solution of the fable corresponds with the opinion of Le Clerc, who takes the Harpyes to have been a swarm of locusts, the word Arbi whence Harpy is formed, signifying in their language a locust.

See Augitry, under the article of

health, or rather erected a goddess to whom they supposed the care of health to belong.— The Greeks worshipped her under the name of Hygeia, making her daughter of Aesculapius and Meditrina, and the Latins under that of Salus. The place of her worship at Rome was on the Mons Quirinalis, where she had not only a temple, but in it a celebrated statue crowned with medicinal herbs. She was represented as a female sitting on a thronc, and holding a globe. Near her was an altar, encompassed by a snake, with its head writhing above it. Some. times she bore a serpent turning round her left arm, to which she held a patera; the in5 3 B

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