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The Evolution of Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological Evidence from the North Pacific

Ben Fitzhugh Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 31, 2003 - History - 332 pages 0 Reviews Complex hunter-gatherers have captivated anthropological and archaeological interest in the past two decades. Where it was once commonplace to view hunting and gathering as little more than a starting point for social evolution, today scholars appreciate great diversity in past and present hunter-gatherer societies. The challenge of explaining the development of complexity in hunter-gatherer groups breathes new life into hunter-gatherer studies, focusing not only on adaptive variation but also on evolution and history. This book makes a contribution to the developing field of complex hunter-gatherer studies with an archaeological analysis of the development of one such group. This book examines the evolution of complex hunter-gatherers on the North Pacific coast of Alaska. It strives to account for the dynamics and processes that transformed a population from low density, disaggregated, relatively mobile, and relatively egalitarian organizations into the demographically dense, sedentary, aggregated, militaristic, and ranked/stratified populations around the North Pacific by the time of ethnographic contact. To do so, this book examines seven thousand years of archaeological history on the Kodiak Archipelago - a region that 250 years ago was part of a broader phenomenon of complex hunter-gatherers ringing the North American Pacific Northwest Coast from California to the Aleutian Islands. This is one of the first books available to examine in depth the social evolution of a specific complex hunter-gatherer tradition on the North Pacific Rim. As such, it provides readers with an intimate look at archaeological evidence integrated into a problem-oriented study of emergent complex hunter-gatherers. It will be of interest to professional archaeologists, anthropologists, students of archaeology and anthropology, and general readers interested in social evolution, complex hunter-gatherers, and/or Alaskan prehistory. Preview this book »

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Contents

The Evolution of Complex HunterGatherers 1 111 Social ComplexityA Definition 2 12 The North Pacific Rim 4 121 Causality 5 13 Theoretical Orientation 8 The Kodiak Environment 11 22 Geology 12 23 Ecology 16 Effects of Technological and Labor Intensification 115 624 Act IVEmergence of Social Asymmetry 121 63 Conclusion 129 The Sitkalidak Archaeological Survey Project 133 722 Site Identification 136 723 Site Documentation 138 724 Analytical Units and Precision 139 73 Site Chronology 141

More232 Littoral Ecozone 19 233 Marine Ecozone 21 234 Riverine Ecozone 27 24 Temporal Dimensions of Environmental Variability 29 242 Subseasonal Variation 32 244 Long Scale Variation 36 A Historical Framework 39 32 Ocean Bay I and II 75003500 BP 40 33 Ocean Bay to Kachemak Transition 46 34 Early KachemakOld Kiavak 32002500 BP 47 35 Late KachemakThree Saints Phase 2500800 BP 49 Transition Discontinuity or Replacement? 53 37 Koniag 800200 BP 54 38 AlutiiqRussianAmerica AD 17841864 58 39 AlutiiqUS America AD 1867present 63 310 Summary 66 Complex HunterGatherers on the Kodiak Archipelago 67 42 Feast and Famine for the Kodiak Alutiiq 68 43 Potlatch Feasting 70 44 Gender Relations 74 45 Leadership 76 46 Property Ownership 79 47 Trade 81 48 Warfare 83 49 Slavery 84 410 Summary 85 Colonization 87 53 Evidence for the Earliest Occupants of Kodiak 90 531 Estimating the Timing of Colonization 91 54 Lifeways of Early Holocene Coastal Peoples 99 Modeling Emergent Complexity on the North Pacific 101 612 Outline of Theoretical Orientation 104 62 Modeling Kodiak Social Evolution 105 621 Act IA Beginning 106 622 Act IIInitial Effects of Circumscription 111 732 Typological Dating 146 74 Material Analysis 148 75 Excavations 149 751 Tanginak Spring Site KOD 481 150 752 Bear Island Site KOD 564 156 753 Partition Cliff Site KOD 473 161 754 Lighthouse Site KOD 089 164 Site Scale Analyses 171 83 Site Size Measures of Population Aggregation 174 832 Number of Houses Per Site 180 84 Site Function Variability 182 841 Site Functions from Spatial and Geographical Parameters 183 842 Artifacts Assemblage Character 187 85 Settlement Patterns 191 86 Summary 199 Social Inequality and Demography 201 92 Trends in Population Change 210 922 The CarbonDate Frequency Method 213 93 Summary 217 Reconciliation Extension and Implications 219 101 Interrogating the Model 220 The Second ActExpansion to DensityDependence 227 The Third ActDensityDependence or Near Extinction? 230 The Fourth ActCompetition and Cooperation in a New World Order 231 102 Overtures to Emergent Properties 234 103 Summary and Conclusion 238 Appendix A 245 Appendix B 257 Appendix C 267 Appendix D 271 Endnotes 293 References 297 Index 323 Copyright

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The Evolution of Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological Evidence from the ...
Ben Fitzhugh
Limited preview - 2003
The Evolution of Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological Evidence from the ...
Ben Fitzhugh
Limited preview - 2012
The Evolution of Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological Evidence from the ...
Ben Fitzhugh
No preview available - 2003

Common terms and phrases

Alaska Peninsula Aleutians Alutiiq archaeological area m2 artifacts assemblages behavioral Chapter charcoal chert Clark coastal colonization competition complex hunter-gatherers components cultural Davydov defensive deposits Early Kachemak ecological economic Ecozone egalitarian emergence endemic warfare evidence evolution evolutionary excavation faunal Figure fish Fitzhugh foraging ground-slate groups Gulf of Alaska H H H hammerstones Holmberg Holocene hunter-gatherer hunting increase inequality Kachemak and Koniag Kachemak period Kachemak phase Karluk Kodiak Archipelago Koniag period Kopperl labor larger Late Kachemak locations Northwest Coast occupation Ocean Bay period Old Harbor patches patterns political population densities potlatch predictions processing production r-selected radiocarbon dates relatively residential resource Russian salmon sample sea mammals seasonal settlement side-rooms Sitkalidak social societies Steffian streams structures subsistence suggests survey Tanginak Spring technologies tephra Three Saints Bay Tlingit variability variation villages warfare whale Winterhalder year-round zone

Popular passages

Page 305 - Series 4. 1988b, Trends and Traditions in Alaskan Prehistory: A New Look at an Old View of the Neo-Eskimo. In The Late Prehistoric Development of Alaska's Native People, edited by RD Shaw, RK Harritt and DE Dumond, pp.Appears in 6 books from 1888-2003 Page 303 - G. 1996: This old house: cultural complexity and household stability on the northern north-west coast of North America.Appears in 9 books from 1904-2005

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Bibliographic information

Title The Evolution of Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological Evidence from the North Pacific
Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology, ISSN 1568-2722 Author Ben Fitzhugh Edition illustrated Publisher Springer Science & Business Media, 2003 ISBN 0306478536, 9780306478536 Length 332 pages Subjects History  › Ancient  › General

History / Ancient / General
Social Science / Anthropology / General
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