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Preparing your manuscript

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Next page: submitting your manuscript

Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published figures, tables, or parts of text are to be included, the copyright-holder’s permission must have been obtained prior to submission. For more information on how to obtain permissions, please consult Rights and Permissions.

Manuscripts should be submitted as Word or LaTeX files unless stated otherwise on the journal website. Consult the journal website for guidance on word limits, structure, and required elements for individual manuscript-types, and for points of house style.

Avoid submitting mathematical symbols and special characters as images. Use Word’s ‘Insert equation’ and ‘Insert symbol’ functions. Times New Roman and Arial Unicode MS typically provide the widest range of symbols and special characters.

The submitted manuscript should be clearly-written and presented to support peer review: a basic guide is provided below. After initial review, you may be asked to supply editable files to match journal formatting requirements, and high-resolution figures.  For more details, please consult the journal's website.

Basic formatting guide

The following is a basic checklist for formatting your manuscript. Please read this in conjunction with any specific requirements listed on your chosen journal’s website.

  1. On the first page (or on a separate title page if required) include manuscript title, complete author names and affiliations, and the address (including email) of the corresponding author.
  2. Check the journal website for any other generic or subject-specific elements that may be required as part of the article front matter, for instance keywords, clinic trial reference, JEL codes, mathematics subject classification, LSID, suggested short title/running head.
  3. Provide a short abstract, avoiding abbreviations and reference citations.
  4. Define non-standard abbreviations at the first occurrence.
  5. Number tables and figures consecutively by appearance, and provide a legend for each. If used, define the meaning of any bold or italic formatting in the table. Avoid overcrowding in tables and unnecessary clutter in figures. The initial submission can have figures and text in one file, if desired. Upon request, please be prepared to provide high-resolution figures separately, in a common image format (e.g. .eps, .tif, .jpg).
  6. Videos can be published in the online article, with a still image representing the video appearing in the print version. Submit videos in .mp4 format if possible. All videos should have an accompanying legend. The still image should be provided at intended print size, in the format and resolution described for figures.
  7. References can be formatted in any readable style at submission. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. Later, authors may be asked to comply with the journal’s citation convention (eg author–date, numerical, or footnote-based).
  8. Include acknowledgements, conflict-of-interest declarations and details of funding sources and grant numbers at the end of the text. Acknowledgements and details of funding sources should normally be provided separately, under distinct headings within the manuscript. Use author initials to indicate which authors were in receipt of grants (the journal website may require you to provide these separately at initial submission if the manuscript is to be anonymized to support double-blind peer review).
  9. If applicable, please include a statement of data availability at the end of the text. For example: Data available at doi:10.5061/dryad.XXXX; Data available at GEO Series accession number GSE123456 and Proteome Xchange database PXD1234567;  Data available in supplementary material; Data not publically available.
  10. Include at submission all files containing supplementary material cited in the text.


Consult the journal website to determine whether a LaTeX template and class file are available for the journal. Many OUP journals also have templates available at Overleaf.

If the journal does not make a LaTeX template available, compile a PDF output using article.cls, follow the journal’s referencing system using \bibitem and the bibliography environment, and avoid the use of locally-created macros and style files.

Use common LaTeX tags like \ref, \cite, etc., for the automatic referencing to figures, tables, reference citations, etc. If these are not used, the manuscript may be held up during production.

When submitting, provide all supporting files (including any .bib files used) alongside the main .tex file. Only submit macros used in the manuscript, and do not submit entire macro libraries. Some journals require only a single PDF file at first submission, with source files requested later in the process.

Non-Latin scripts

If you are using Microsoft (MS) Word, we recommend using standard MS Word fonts for non-Latin characters wherever possible. Standard fonts are more likely to display correctly and consistently across different software or operating systems, and characters are more easily converted during the production process.

The MS Word font ‘MS Mincho’ is recommended for Japanese scripts, and ‘Simsun’ for Chinese characters. Greek, Cyrillic and Hebrew scripts are supported in standard MS typefaces such as Times New Roman, Arial and Courier New, while a number of dedicated options for Arabic and Indian alphabets are available here.

If MS Word fonts do not provide the required characters, we recommend exploring Google Noto and STIX Two for alternatives. For LaTeX users, we recommend XeTeX and LuaTeX for display of non-Latin characters (for more information, see []).

Please note that during the production process, non-Latin characters will be converted to the typeface used by the journal, and to Unicode for HTML display. If the character is not featured in that font family, the nearest matching font will be used; characters that cannot be reproduced in available fonts will be captured as images from the original manuscript.

Language services

Manuscripts should be written in clear English and will be copyedited to correct grammar, and to ensure consistency and adherence to house style after acceptance.

See this page for information about language editing services which can improve the quality of your manuscript prior to submission. Please note that language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication.


Sizing, resolution and format

Supply figures at the intended print size. Resolution at this size should be no less than 300dpi for halftone images, 600dpi for composite images, and 1200 dpi for line art, and at no less than 1080px width. Typical print page sizes are as follows:

The dimensions of the printed journal or online PDF should also be considered when choosing figure layout, to minimize white space when reproduced at the intended size.

Most standard figure formats are acceptable, but .tiff is recommended for halftone and composite images, .eps for line art and vector graphics. Images embedded into Microsoft Word are often not good quality. Images created with multiple layers should be flattened to a single layer prior to submission.

Multi-panelled figures should be supplied as a single file with each panel lettered clearly, according to journal style. Avoid placing letters over shaded areas if possible.

Figure lettering, legend, and citation

Text within figures is typically not edited during production. Ensure that a consistent, embedded typeface is used. Common typefaces such as Times New Roman, Arial, Helvetica, Courier or Symbol are recommended to ensure clear reproduction and the retention of any special characters. As a rule of thumb, text should appear no smaller than 7pt at intended size (6pt for superscript and subscript characters), and should be of consistent size throughout the figure.

Make sure that a figure legend is provided in an editable format with the main manuscript file, defines abbreviations, and contains enough information so the figure can be understood independently of the text. Footnotes relating to parts of the figure should be provided as part of the figure legend.

All figures provided should be cited within the article text.

Colour and accessibility

Figures may be submitted in RGB or CMYK colour mode. Note that figures supplied in RGB mode will be converted to CMYK for print, and that this conversion may introduce minor changes in hue or intensity.

Figures supplied in colour will be published in colour online at no charge to the author, unless stated otherwise on the journal website. Most journals apply a charge for colour reproduction in print, or permit a greyscale version for print at no additional charge. In the latter case, avoid reference to colour in the figure legend, and ensure the content of the image can be easily viewed and understood without colour.

To achieve optimal readability online and in print, use patterns rather than shading to distinguish elements in line graphs and bar charts, and set line weight at between 0.3pt (0.1mm) and 1.5pt (0.5mm). Thinner lines may be visible on an electronic device but may not display accurately in print.

Note that the use of red and green in figures is particularly problematic for approximately 5% of the male population. Advice on the preparation of colour-friendly figures is provided [].


We encourage the inclusion of video content within published articles. Videos should be submitted in a common file-type (eg .mp4, .mov, .wmv), at the highest possible resolution, and should be accompanied by a still image to represent the video in the print PDF.

If supplied alongside the manuscript and cited within the article text, published videos will appear as streamable content within the article body. Video hosted at other third-party sites (eg Youtube) is not permitted due to the increased risk of link expiry.


Tables should be supplied in an editable format (eg Microsoft Word), not as an image file. Avoid excessive formatting and the use of tabbed spacing to indicate alignment, and ensure that any formatting or superscript symbols such as asterisks are explained in the table footnote. Unless the journal’s house style indicates otherwise, provide units in column or row headers, rather than in the table body. Consider the size and layout of the printed journal (or online PDF) when deciding on the dimensions of your table. All tables provided should be cited within the article text.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material should substantially enhance understanding of the written article, without being integral to that understanding.

Unless stated otherwise on the journal website, supplementary material will not be edited or typeset during production, but will be published online in the same format as submitted. Files should be provided separately from the main article file to avoid confusion. Appendices included in the main article file will be set as part of the main article, rather than as supplementary material. Filenames should be self-explanatory (eg Supplementary Figure 1) and will be named as submitted upon publication. All items of supplementary material provided should be cited in the article text to indicate relevance.

No limits are placed on the length, format or file-type of supplementary material unless stated otherwise on the journal website. File size should be no more than 1GB: compressed files are acceptable and can reduce file size. Consider the reader’s experience as well as any journal-specific guidance when deciding on length, format, file-type and size.

Supplementary material may be hosted on OUP’s website or at one of our preferred partner sites, such as Dryad—se the journal webpage for details of any partner sites for deposit of data. Material hosted elsewhere (eg the author’s personal or institutional website, Google Docs, Youtube) is not permitted due to the increased risk of link expiry.


Any funding for the research presented should be cited, providing the grant number and the funder name. If the funder is listed in the Crossref funder registry, the funder name should appear exactly as presented in that database. Where grants were received by specific members of the author group, they should be identified by initial. Provide this section in a separate document if the journal operates double-blind peer review.

See this page for further information on compliance with funding agency requirements.

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Next page: submitting your manuscript


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