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Angus and Robertson--1949


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WADDELL, THOMAS (1854-1940),


son of John J. Waddell, was born in Ireland in 1854. He was brought to Australia when a few months old, and grew up on the land in the south of New South Wales. Beginning life as a shop assistant Waddell afterwards became a clerk of petty sessions before acquiring interests in station properties in the west of New South Wales. He was successful in his management of these properties, and in 1887 entered politics as member for Bourke in the New South Wales legislative assembly. In March 1901 he was made colonial treasurer in the See (q.v.) ministry, and held this position until June 1904 when he became premier. His ministry resigned on 27 August following a general election. In May 1907 Waddell became chief secretary in the Carruthers (q.v.) ministry, and on the coming in of the Wade (q.v.) ministry became colonial treasurer and held this position for just over three years. He did not hold office again, but in 1917 was nominated to the legislative council. He retired from politics in 1934 and died on 25 October 1940. He married in 1887 Elizabeth, daughter of J. James, who survived him with three sons and three daughters.

The Sydney Morning Herald, 26 October 1940; Who's Who in Australia, 1938.

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schoolmaster and clergyman,

was born at Carcoar, New South Wales, on 8 January 1875. He was the son of Richard A. Waddy, bank-manager and his wife, a daughter of Dr Stacy, botanist, a woman of ability, charm and force of character. Waddy's paternal grandfather was a general in the British army. Soon after Waddy's birth the family removed to Morpeth on the Hunter River. Going first to the East Maitland Grammar School, Waddy in 1890 went on to his father's old school, The King's School, Parramatta, where he became captain of the school and of the cricket and football teams, won several prizes, and was awarded the Broughton and Forrest scholarships of £100 a year. In the summer vacation of 1893 he entered at Balliol College, Oxford. He played in the Oxford eleven for two years, read law intending to become a barrister, but in his third year decided to enter the ministry. He took a second class in classical moderations and in jurisprudence and graduated B.A. in 1897, M.A. in 1901; After experience in the east end of London at Oxford house, he was ordained deacon in 1898 and priest in 1899. He was a curate at Bethnal Green from 1898 to 1900, and in December 1900 returned to Australia. From that time he dropped his first name and was always known as Stacy Waddy. After acting for a short period as curate to Bishop Stretch at Newcastle, he was given the difficult parish of Stockton on the other side of the harbour, then much overloaded with debt. Waddy tackled his task with enthusiasm, wrote his first book, a short one on confirmation, Come for Strength, published in London in 1904, and by the middle of the same year had succeeded in paying off the parish debts. His energy was boundless, as in this year he wrote various tracts, gave over 40 lantern lecture averaged over six services a Sunday in his own parish, travelling about 30 miles on his bicycle, became bishop's chaplain and secretary of the clerical society, and also managed to fit in some very successful cricket. In December 1903 at West Maitland against P. F. Warner's English eleven which included such well-known bowlers as Hurst, Braund, Arnold, Bosanquet and Fielder, he made 93 and 102. Had he accepted the suggestion that he should get a position in Sydney and play cricket, it is likely that he would have gained a place in the New South Wales eleven.

In 1907 Waddy was asked to apply for the head mastership of his old school, The King's School, Parramatta. He did not want to leave his parish work, he had had no experience or training in teaching, but he was told that the need for him was great and he gave way. He was a success from the first day of his appointment, the number of boys at the school increased very much, the house system was introduced, and a preparatory school was started. Sport was given its due place and its standard went up immensely, scholarship was not neglected, and Waddy took the beginners for classics so that the boys might realize from the start that Latin and Greek need not be dull subjects; but all the time character-building was treated as the most important part of school life. In 1913 he had a temporary break-down partly from over-work, went to England on six months' leave, and soon after war broke out in August 1914, acted as a chaplain at the Liverpool camp. He applied for a year's leave of absence from his school to go to the front in 1916, but the council of the school would not grant it, and Waddy with much regret resigned and said good-bye to the school at the prizegiving on 16 June. He sailed on 22 August, and whether on a troopship, in camp in England, at the front in France or in Palestine, had the same understanding comradeship with the men as he had had with the boys of his school. He was invalided home to Australia in July 1918 and arrived in September. Soon afterwards he was offered a canonry of St George's cathedral, Jerusalem, with the task of re-organizing the education work of the Anglican Church there. He was at Jerusalem for over five years, and in July 1924 was appointed secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

When Waddy began his new work in England he was nearly 50 years of age, but his energy was undiminished though he had had an operation shortly before leaving Palestine. He did an enormous amount of work both at his office and after hours at home, and made many journeys to South Africa, Canada, the Far East, the United States, India and West Africa. On his way home from West Africa he fell ill of malaria in January and died in hospital in England on 8 February 1937. He married in 1901 Etheldred, daughter of the Rev. John Spittal, who survived him with two daughters and three sons. It was a marriage of great happiness. Waddy was made an honorary canon of Peterborough cathedral in 1931. He published in 1913 The Great Moghul, and in 1928 Homes of the Psalms. Other works, mostly booklets, are listed at the end of his biography.

Waddy was over six feet in height, athletic in body, frank in manner, humorous and understanding. He was a good organizer, a somewhat forceful administrator, yet modest, and completely sincere in his piety. He was a good preacher with a fine voice and as a clergyman in a coalmining district, as head of a great school, as chaplain in the army, or secretary of a great missionary organization, was equally successful; he was a force for good, an abiding influence on all associated with him.

Etheldred Waddy, Stacy Waddy, Cricket, Travel and the Church; The Times, 10 February 1937; J. H. M. Abbott, The Bulletin, 17 February 1937; Crockford's Clerical Directory, 1937.

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premier of New South Wales,

was born at Singleton, New South Wales, on 26 January 1863. He was the son of W. Burton Wade, a civil engineer. Educated at All Saints' College, Bathurst, and The King's School, Parramatta, Wade won the Broughton and Forrest scholarships and went to Merton College, Oxford. He had a distinguished career, both as a scholar and an athlete, graduating with honours in classics and representing his university and England at Rugby football. He was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1886 and in the same year returned to Sydney. He made a reputation as a barrister and was appointed a crown prosecutor at an early age. In September 1903 he was elected to the legislative assembly as member for Willoughby, and within a year joined the J. H. Carruthers (q.v.) ministry as attorney-general and minister of justice. When Carruthers resigned Wade became premier on 2 October 1907, but still retained his previous portfolios. He was an energetic leader and a large number of acts were passed by his government dealing with among others, industrial disputes, neglected children, minimum wage, employers' liability, the liquor problem, and closer settlement. There was some remission of taxation and each year the treasurer was able to show a surplus. The great Burrinjuck dam for which the Carruthers government was responsible was started, and special care was taken that the consequent increase in the value of the land should be preserved for the people generally and not merely the landholders. In spite of his good record Wade was defeated at the general election, and a Labour government came in on 21 October 1910, Wade becoming leader of the opposition. When the national ministry was formed in November 1916 he was prominent in the negotiations, but the state of his health did not allow him to seek office. He also declined the office of agent-general for New South Wales but went to London on holiday. A few months later, finding his health much improved, he became agent-general. A series of seven lectures on Australia delivered at University College, London, was published in 1919 under the title Australia, Problems and Prospects. In December of that year Wade was appointed a judge of the supreme court at Sydney and took up his duties in March 1920. He died after a short illness on 26 September 1922 and was survived by Lady Wade, two sons and two daughters. He was knighted in 1918 and created K.C.M.G. in 1920.

Wade was a public-spirited man of high character. His ability, honesty and courage were quickly recognized and, though he could not be called a great leader, he was either in office or leader of the opposition for nearly the whole of his political life of 14 years. His career as a judge was short, but his sense of justice and grasp of principles and details, eminently fitted him for that position.

The Sydney Morning Herald, 27 September 1922; The Wade Ministry; Its Record and Its Platform, Policy Speech, 30 August 1910; H. V. Evatt, Australian Labour Leader.

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artist, writer, and poisoner,

was born about October 1794 at London, the son of Thomas Wainewright and his wife Ann, daughter of Dr Thomas Griffiths. His mother died at his birth, his father a few years later, and the boy was brought up by his maternal grandfather, Dr Griffiths, a man of means, and after his death, by his uncle, George Edward Griffiths. Wainewright was educated at Greenwich academy, whose headmaster was the well-known Charles Burney, D.D., and when 19 years of age began studying painting under Thomas Phillips, R.A. In April 1814 he became an ensign in the army but left it 13 months later. A severe illness accompanied with hypochondria followed, and it is not unlikely that he never fully recovered from the effect of this illness. He had been left the income from £5000 by his grandfather, he was a pleasant and amusing companion' and he had the good fortune to become friendly with Charles Lamb and his associates. Wainewright, like Lamb, began to write for the London Magazine, under the pseudonyms of "Janus Weathercock", "Egomet Bonmot", and "Van Vinkbooms", but the modest income of £250 a year was not sufficient for his desires, and in 1822 he forged the signatures of his trustees and obtained £2250 of the capital sum from the Bank of England. He had in the previous year married Frances Ward, daughter of a Mrs Abercromby by a former marriage. In 1823 he published a little volume in verse, Some Passages in the Life, etc. of Egomet Bonmot, Esq. He entertained various distinguished literary men, but his money had run out and debts were accumulating. In 1828 he obtained some relief when with his wife he went to live with his uncle, George Edward Griffiths. A few months later his uncle died. There is no evidence, but it has generally been assumed that he was poisoned by his nephew. The house and some money was left to Wainewright, but probably the money was largely used to pay old debts. In August 1830 his wife's mother having made her will in favour of Mrs Wainewright, died suddenly a few days later, but her death does not seem to have aroused any suspicion in her family for during the next two months Wainewright succeeded in assuring the life of his wife's half-sister, Helen Abercromby, for £16,000, and in December 1830 she too died in great agony. The assurance offices, however, declined to pay. Wainewright then brought an action against one of the companies. He was still being pressed by his creditors, and in May 1831 left for Boulogne, leaving his wife and child in England. He stayed on the continent for six years and little is known of his life except that on occasions he was practically destitute. In January 1835 the Bank of England discovered his forgeries; there had been a second one in May 1824, and a warrant was issued for his arrest. The delayed action against the life assurance company did not come on until June 1835, when the jury disagreed. The action was renewed in December and resulted in a verdict for the defendant company. Wainewright had been safe in France but returned to England in May and was arrested on 9 June 1837. He pleaded guilty to having endeavoured "to have stock transferred at the bank by virtue of a forged power of attorney" and was sentenced to transportation for life. He arrived in Hobart on 21 November 1837.

Wainewright's conduct as a convict was always good and after a time he was allowed to exercise his artistic talents. Several of his pictures, mostly portraits, are in existence at Hobart and Sydney. In 1844 he addressed an appeal to the governor for a remission of his sentence, and he was then receiving third-class wages as a hospital warder. He was in bad health and he seems to have been allowed a good deal of liberty. Nine months before his death he was recommended for a pardon, but the answer from England could scarcely have had time to arrive before he died on 17 August 1847. His wife and son survived him.

Wainewright was a man of unusual ability. He was a capable writer and artist, he exhibited six pictures at the Royal Academy between 1821 and 1825, and did good painting in his later days of adversity. There appears to be little reason to doubt that he poisoned Helen Abercromby, and quite possibly his uncle and his mother-in-law too, but he was never even brought to trial for one of these crimes, and his guilt cannot be proved. His contemporary, Vice-chancellor Bacon, seems to have had no doubt about his guilt. Writing to Canon Ainger many years later about the contributors to the London Magazine he includes "James (sic) Weathercock (Wainewright), who, if he escaped it deserved hanging" (Edith Sichel, The Life and Letters of Alfred Ainger). It seems likely, as Havelock Ellis suggested, that Wainewright was never normal after the hypochondriac period of his life when he was on the verge of insanity if not actually insane. His Essays and Criticisms were collected and published by W. Carew Hazlitt in 1880. His portrait by himself and several of his other works are reproduced in Janus Weathercock by Jonathan Curling. The evidence that the view of "Sydney Harbour", plate XVIII, was painted by Wainewright, does not, however, appear to be conclusive.

Jonathan Curling, Janus Weathercock; Ed. by T. Seccombe, Lives of Twelve Bad Men; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; The Herald, Melbourne, 16 July 1938; A. Graves, The Royal Academy Exhibitors; W. Carew Hazlitt, Introduction to Wainewright's Essays and Crititisms; Oscar Wilde, "Pen, Pencil and Poison" in Intentions, Wilde's essay is based on Hazlitt.

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was born at Leeds, England, on 5 May 1866. He received his scientific education at the Victoria university of Manchester, and in 1888 was appointed sub-curator of the Leeds museum. He was soon afterwards made curator, but in 1893 became zoologist at the Australian museum, Sydney. His first interest had been ornithology, but he now extended his studies to other vertebrates, in particular fishes and reptiles. In 1898 he published his Popular Account of Australian Snakes. He was with the trawling expedition conducted by the Thetis and wrote the report on the fishes, and he also reported on the fishes trawled by the Western Australian government. In 1906 he became curator of the Canterbury museum at Christchurch, New Zealand, and did some very valuable work on the fishes of New Zealand. In 1907 he was with the Canterbury Philosophical Institute's expedition to the sub-antarctic islands of New Zealand, and he was zoologist on the Aurora in 1912 during the first sub-antarctic cruise of the Mawson expedition. In March 1914 Waite was appointed director of the South Australian museum at Adelaide. He did some excellent work on the fishes collected by the Mawson expedition, and did not neglect other departments. In 1916 he led an expedition into Central Australia, and he helped to build up an aboriginal collection at his museum which became one of the best in the world. Two years later he went on a collecting expedition to New Guinea, New Britain and New Ireland, and in 1926 spent much time studying European and American museums. While in New York he arranged the Australian section of the museum. He had contracted malaria while in New Guinea and at the beginning of 1928 had a recurrence, which led to his death on 19 January while he was at Hobart attending a meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. He was married and left a widow and a son.

Though of a somewhat retiring disposition Waite was a man of great versatility. He was a good linguist and musician, could draw and paint in water-colour, was an expert modeller, had some knowledge of mechanics, and was a capable photographer. Most of these things were useful in his work as curator of a museum, and as such his reputation stood very high. As a scientist his most important work was on the vertebrates. He was fellow of the Linnean Society from an early age, and at the time of his death was a vice-president of the Royal Society of South Australia. He contributed over 200 papers to various scientific publications. His work on The Fishes of South Australia was published in 1923.

Transactions and Proceedings Royal Society of South Australia, vol. LII, p. 1; The Register, and The Advertiser, Adelaide, 20 January 1928; The Argus, Melbourne, 20 January 1928.

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WAITE, PETER (1834-1922),

pastoralist and public benefactor,

was born at Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire, Scotland, on 9 May 1834. On leaving school he was apprenticed to an ironmonger and spent nine years in commercial pursuits. When 25 years of age he sailed to Australia and, landing at Melbourne, went on to South Australia. There he joined his brother James who was part owner of Pandappa station near Terowie. Waite worked on this station for some years and acquired a thorough knowledge of the pastoral industry. He then in conjunction with Sir Thomas Elder (q.v.) bought Paratoo station, and gradually obtained interests in other properties. He was one of the first to realize the value of fenced as against open runs, and spent Over £200,000 in fencing and providing water. For many years he lived in the country and kept a strict eye on the management of his various properties. Later on he was able to hand over much of this management to a son, while he worked from Adelaide. He thoroughly understood the needs of pastoralists, and in 1885 the business of Elder Smith and Company was formed at Adelaide to arrange for their supplies and manage the disposal of their wool and sheep. Waite was elected chairman of directors of the new company and held the position for 37 years, resigning only a few months before his death. The development of this great business owed much to Waite's acumen and foresight. In 1913 he presented to the university of Adelaide his valuable Urrbrae estate comprising 134 acres and house, to which in 1915 was added the adjoining Claremont and Netherby estates of 165 acres. He desired to help the university to deal with problems connected with agriculture, botany, entomology, horticulture and forestry. Three years later he added to these gifts 5880 shares in Elder Smith and Company, then worth about £60,000, to provide an endowment for these estates after his death. With these benefactions the university was able to establish "The Waite Agricultural Research Institute", now a large organization employing many scientists, Waite also gave an adjoining estate of 114 acres to the government of South Australia for the purpose of founding an agricultural high school. This has not yet been done, but in 1928 the government gave the institute the use of this land, which has been subdivided and developed for conducting field investigations on crops and pastures. Waite was working until a few months before his death in his eighty-eighth year, on 4 April 1922. He married in 1864 a daughter of James Methuen of Leith, Scotland, who survived him with a son and three daughters. One of his daughters, Mrs Elizabeth Macmeikan, who died on 5 April 1931, left the residue of her estate, some £16,000, to the university of Adelaide to be used for the study of sciences relating to the land, either in connexion with the Waite research institute or otherwise.

Waite was a modest, shrewd, kindly man who could never be persuaded to talk about his career. His advice was much sought by pastoralists and he was always glad to give them the benefit of his experience. He was generous to the Salvation Army and the various charitable institutions, and among other things, gave £10,000 for the purpose of establishing a provident fund in connexion with Elder Smith and Company. He provided the funds for the Adelaide soldiers' memorial and of his private charities it was said that no deserving person sought his help in vain.

The Advertiser and The Register, Adelaide, 5 April 1922; Calendar of the University of Adelaide, 1940.

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was born on 20 March 1796 at London. He came of a family of some distinction and his father, Edward Wakefield, who had married Susanna Crash, a farmer's daughter, when he was 17, was well known as a writer and educationist. His Account of Ireland, Statistical and Political was published in two volumes in 1812. Edward Gibbon Wakefield, his eldest son, was largely brought up by his grandmother. He was educated at Mr Haigh's school at Tottenham, and though lovable was a wilful and difficult child. His father was over-indulgent and unable to impose any authority on the boy, who at 11 years of age was sent to Westminster School. When he was 14 he returned to his home and refused to go back to his school. He was then sent to the high school at Edinburgh, but unsatisfactory reports of him were received and his father had to bring him home. In 1813 he was admitted to Gray's Inn, it being intended that he should take up the legal profession, but in the following year he abandoned this and became secretary to the Hon. William Noel Hill, envoy at the court of Turin. He held other appointments at Paris and London, and in 1816 became acquainted with Eliza Pattle, a wealthy ward in chancery only 16 years old. A few months later they ran away to Scotland and were married in July 1816. On their return Wakefield's charm not only brought about their forgiveness, but the Lord Chancellor agreed to a settlement on him of between £1500 and £2000 a year. The marriage proved to be very happy, but soon after the birth of her second child the young wife died on 5 July 1820. She had had a great influence for good on her husband, who was distracted at her loss. For several years he was connected with the English embassy at Paris and played his part there as a young man of fashion. In 1826 he made a second runaway marriage by decoying a schoolgirl, Ellen Turner, a young heiress, from her school, taking her to Gretna Green, where he married her, and then escaping to Calais. The marriage was purely nominal, and Wakefield no doubt hoped to win over the parents as he had done in the case of his first marriage. But the Turners were implacable, Wakefield and his brother, William, had to stand their trial for abduction, and both were sentenced in 1827 to three years imprisonment.

Wakefield's career was apparently over, yet it led to his greatest work, the encouragement of colonization in Australia and New Zealand. In Newgate he busied himself with educating his two children and thinking out social reforms. In 1829 a series of his letters appeared in the Morning Chronicle which were in the same year published anonymously, A Letter from Sydney . . . together with the Outline of a System of Colonization, edited by Robert Gouger (q.v.). The population of England was increasing and there appeared to be little hope of improving the miserable conditions of the poor. Wakefield's remedy in brief was to send workers to Australia and provide the cost from the sale of the land. An essential part of his scheme was the granting of self-government to the oversea possessions. When Wakefield left his prison in May 1830 he obtained the support of Charles Buller, Sir William Molesworth, R. S. Rentoul, George Grote and John Stuart Mill. A "National Colonization Society" was formed of which Robert Gouger became secretary. Various schemes were considered and were wrecked by the conservatism of the colonial office. In 1833 Wakefield again brought forward his theories in his England and America: a Comparison of the Social and Political States of both Nations, published anonymously in two volumes. Gradually opponents were won over, and on 10 August 1834 the bill for the foundation of South Australia was passed. It was not a satisfactory act for there had been too many compromises, but though at times it seems to be a failure, the fact remains that within 10 years 300,000 acres of South Australian land were sold for £300,000, and 12,000 emigrants were sent out. Less than 10 years after the founding of the colony it was paying its way. A new province had been added at a cost to England of considerably less than £250,000. However much credit may be given to George Fife Angas (q.v.) and Robert Gouger it was the guiding mind of Wakefield that was primarily responsible for this success. He worked unceasingly, and the evidence contained in the Wakefield papers at the colonial office shows that the foundation act was the result of this work. He had been helped by his daughter, Nina, who afterwards acted as his amanuensis. She was delighted when the South Australian act was passed but soon afterwards became ill. In a last hope to save her Wakefield took her to Lisbon where she died in February 1835. Wakefield was in great grief but soon took up his work again. He fought strongly the intention to sell Australian land at 12s. an acre, and succeeded in raising the price to 20s., an amendment most important in its effects.

Wakefield's next work was the founding of the New Zealand Association in 1837, which became the New Zealand Colonization Company in 1838. There was the usual opposition from the government and The Times wrote strongly against the proposals. About this time the question of finding a seat in the house of commons for Wakefield was considered, but he was to do more important work. When Lord Durham went to Canada as governor-general he took Charles Buller with him as chief secretary. He also asked Wakefield to go to Canada so that he might have his help in the difficult problems he had to deal with. He was unable to give him an official position as Wakefield was not forgiven for the Turner case. Durham did not stay long in Canada, but on his return made his famous "Report on the Affairs of British North America". Exactly what share Durham Buller and Wakefield had in the writing of the report cannot be ascertained. That Wakefield's share in it was a very important one may be accepted without question. Immediately it was disposed of he turned his energies again to the support of the New Zealand Colonization Company. It was discovered that the French were sending a colonizing expedition to New Zealand, and the energetic actions of Wakefield and Angas resulted in New Zealand being saved for the British by literally a few hours. In December 1841 he went to Canada, and in 1842 was elected a member of the assembly of lower Canada. He became the secret adviser of Sir Charles Metcalfe, the governor-general, and fought hard for him in pamphlets and articles in the reviews. In 1843 hearing of the death of his brother, Arthur, in New Zealand and that the New Zealand Company was in difficulties, he returned to London. In 1844 the company was fighting the colonial office for its life, and Wakefield worked unceasingly, preparing evidence for the select committee which had been appointed. As a result the report of the committee was mainly in favour of the company. In August 1846 Wakefield had an apoplectic stroke but slowly recovered. In December 1847 he was busy settling details of a proposed new settlement in New Zealand, which eventually resulted in the Canterbury church settlement. In February 1849 his A View of the Art of Colonization with present Reference to the British Empire was published, an able restatement of his ideas but the work of a tired man. He was still fighting for self-government in the colonies, and rejoiced when the New Zealand bill received the royal assent. He had been intending to go to New Zealand for some time and sailed at last in September 1852. He arrived at Lyttelton on 2 February 1853 and received an address of welcome. He had scarcely arrived when he found that Governor Grey (q.v.) had made new regulations concerning the sale of waste lands, which would have had disastrous results for the company. Wakefield threw himself into the fight and was elected to both the provincial council of Wellington and the general assembly. Grey left in January 1854 and Wakefield's influence on affairs was soon apparent. Responsible government, however, was not really brought in until 1856. Wakefield was blamed for the delay and vigorously defended his actions. The strain became too great and his health gave way again. He lived in seclusion for seven years and died at Wellington on 16 May 1862. In addition to the works mentioned above Wakefield wrote several other books and pamphlets. A bust of him by Joseph Durham, A.R.A., is at the colonial office, and his portrait by E. J. Collins is in the museum, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Wakefield was a tall, handsome man, with great charm of manner in his youth. Energetic and courageous he had much ability in managing men. He has been called unscrupulous, but probably that only means that he had often to deal with second-rate and unimaginative men, who had somehow to be made to realize the value of his proposals. He was not paid for his services, there is no evidence that he was working for himself, and he died a poor man. He was in reality an idealist whose ideals became a consuming passion. His land policy has been criticized, but it was impossible for any scheme to be formulated that would not have defects, and the claim is just that "he virtually originated a new era of colonization, and furnished the inspiration for a new colonial policy" (R. C. Mills, The Colonization of Australia).

His son, Edward Jerningham Wakefield (1820-1879), was the author of Adventures in New Zealand from 1839-44, published in 1845, and A Letter to Sir George Grey in Reply to his Attacks on the Canterbury Association and Settlement (1851). He was for some time a member of the house of representatives in New Zealand.

Irma O'Connor, Edward Gibbon Wakefield The Man Himself; A. J Harrop, The Amazing Career of Edward Gibbon Wakefield; R. Garnett, Edward Gibbon Wakefield; A. Grenfell Price, Founders and Pioneers of South Australia; R. C. Mills, The Colonization of Australia (1829-42); R. C. Mills, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XV, pp. 121-42; S. H. Roberts, History of Australian Land Settlement.

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was born in London on 19 March 1800, and was educated at a school at Barnard Castle. His parents were Unitarians, but he came in touch with the Society of Friends while working for a draper at Newcastle who belonged to that body. When 20 years of age he met James Backhouse (q.v.) and developed a close friendship with him. He shortly afterwards began business as a manufacturer of earthenware, but was not successful and removed to Hull where he obtained a situation in 1824. He was received into the Society of Friends in 1827 and did much work for temperance. In September 1831 he sailed on a missionary journey to Tasmania with James Backhouse and arrived at Hobart on 8 February 1832. For six years Walker laboured with Backhouse throughout the settled districts of Australia, including a visit to Norfolk Island, journeying much of his time on foot, and preaching whenever a congregation could be got together. Every opportunity was taken of speaking to the convicts, who realized the sincerity of the speakers and more than once sent them letters of thanks. In February 1838 ship was taken to Mauritius, and afterwards a missionary journey was made through South Africa. Accounts of these tours were published by Backhouse in 1843 and 1844. In September 1840 Walker parted from his companion, sailed for Tasmania, and set up in business as a draper at Hobart. About the end of 1844 he organized the establishment of a savings bank, which he managed in conjunction with his shop. The business of the bank grew steadily and he found it necessary to give more and more time to it. He also interested himself in the establishment of a high school at Hobart, and worked hard for total abstinence, and for the Society of Friends. In June 1858 he was hoping to give up the retail side of his business, but shortly afterwards his health, never robust, began to decline, and he died on 1 February 1859. He married on 15 December 1840 Sarah Benson Mather and there was a large family.

Walker's eldest son, James Backhouse Walker (1841-1899), was educated at the high school, Hobart, and the Friends' school, York, England. On returning to Hobart he at first worked in a merchant's office and then in the savings bank. He studied law, was admitted as a solicitor in 1876, and practised with success. Like his father he was a practical philanthropist, was much interested in higher education, and took an important part in the founding of the university of Tasmania. He became its vice-chancellor from July 1898 to November 1899. From 1888 he was a member of the council of the Royal Society of Tasmania, contributed many papers to its journal, and became the recognized authority on the early history of Tasmania. His papers on that subject were collected and published in 1902 under the title Early Tasmania, Papers Read Before the Royal Society of Tasmania. A second edition appeared in 1914. A prize in his memory at the university of Tasmania was founded by public subscription.

J. Backhouse and C. Tylor, The Life and Labours of George Washington Walker; The Mercury, Hobart, 6 November 1899; Rev. George Clarke, Memoir prefixed to Early Tasmania; J. Fenton, A History of Tasmania.

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WALKER, THOMAS (1804-1886),

public benefactor,

was born at Leith, Scotland, in 1804, and came to Sydney as a young man. About the year 1822 he joined the firm of W. Walker and Company, general merchants, the senior partner of which was his uncle. Some years later he acquired this business in partnership with a cousin, and carried it on successfully. He was made a magistrate in 1835, in 1837 visited Port Phillip, and in 1838 published anonymously an account of his experiences under the title, A Month in the Bush of Australia. In 1843 he was elected one of the representatives of Port Phillip in the first elected New South Wales legislative council, and in January 1845 he was one of the six members of the council who signed a petition praying that Port Phillip should be made into a separate colony. Walker, however, gave up taking an active part in politics, though he kept his interest in them and published some pamphlets on the land question. His financial affairs prospered, and he invested widely. His special interest was the Bank of New South Wales, of which he was president for many years before his death. The statement that he was one of the original founders of the bank is not correct, but his uncle was one of the early shareholders. He died on 2 September 1886 leaving a large fortune. He was survived by a daughter.

Walker was a conscientious, benevolent man who went about doing good. He took a personal interest in his benefactions, and at one period employed an agent, searching out and relieving cases of distress. In 1882, just before taking a trip to Europe, he distributed £10,000 among benevolent institutions, and under his will £100,000 was set aside to found the Thomas Walker convalescent hospital. In its first 20 years nearly 18,000 convalescent patients, all non-paying, received the benefit of this hospital, and the work still goes on. After the death of his daughter, Eadith Campbell Walker, 51 years later, two-thirds of the income from £300,000 of his estate was set aside for the upkeep of this hospital, £100,000 was used to found the Dame Eadith Walker convalescent home for men, and one-third of the income from another sum of £300,000 was set aside for its maintenance. The remaining two-thirds of the income was appropriated for the upkeep of the Thomas Walker convalescent hospital and the Yaralla cottages built by his daughter, Dame Eadith Campbell Walker (c. 1865-1937), who devoted her life to philanthropy, making the poor and distressed her special concern. She supplemented her father's endowment of his hospital, gave liberally to other hospitals, and worked on many committees. When the 1914-18 war came she took a special interest in returned soldiers suffering from tuberculosis, and had 32 of them at "The Camp" in her grounds at Yaralla from 1917 to 1920. From April 1917 to December 1922 she lent another home at Leura for the same purpose, and paid the entire cost of maintenance. It was afterwards made a children's home. She built cottages for elderly men at Yaralla, and provided an endowment fund for their upkeep. She died on 8 October 1937, leaving an estate of £265,000. After providing for many legacies to relations, friends and employees, one-third of the residue of the estate went to the Returned Soldiers' and Sailors' Imperial League of Australia, and the real estate to the Red Cross Society. Miss Walker was created C.B.E. in 1917 and D.B.E. in 1928.

The Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. XVII, XXIII, XXIV; The Sydney Morning Herald, 3 September 1886, 9, 15 and 20 October, 26 November 1937, 30 November 1938; G. Forbes, History of Sydney, p. 183; Australasian Insurance and Banking Record, September 1886.

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musical composer,

son of William Wallace, bandmaster in the army, was born at Waterford, Ireland, on 11 March 1812. Both parents were Irish. He showed talent as an organist at Waterford, and as a violinist at Dublin, where he played in a theatre orchestra. At 17 he appeared on the concert platform as a solo violinist. In 1831 he married Isabella Kelly, having previously become a Roman Catholic, and in 1834 he played a concerto of his own composition at a Dublin concert. He went to Australia in 1835 for the sake of his health, gave concerts at Hobart, and going on to Sydney arrived there on 12 January 1836. In February he gave two concerts and appeared as a soloist on the violin, also accompanying all the songs on the piano. He was the first important musician to appear in Australia. He was still in Sydney about the end of 1837, subsequently travelled in Australia and New Zealand and went to South America. He and his wife parted about the time of Wallace's coming to Australia and they did not live together again. Wallace had many adventures during his travels but in 1840-1 settled in North America. He was a member of the Philharmonic Society at New York about this time, and a little later was conductor at an Italian opera season in Mexico. In 1844 he toured Germany and Holland, found his way to London in March 1845, gave a concert in May, and in November his opera Maritana was produced at the Drury Lane Theatre with much success. Another opera, Matilda of Hungary, now forgotten, was brought out in 1847, and in 1849 he was with a concert party in South America. He was giving concerts in the United States in 1850 with success, but lost his savings by the failure of a pianoforte company in which he was interested at New York. During the eighteen-fifties his instrumental compositions were in much favour in London, and in 1860 his opera Lurline was very successful at Covent Garden. The Amber Witch and other operas followed, but his health was failing, and having been sent to the Pyrenees he died there on 12 October 1865. He was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery, London. His wife survived until 1900; his son, Vincent Wallace, died in 1909.

Wallace had a gift for melody and was a most prolific composer. It has sometimes been stated that he wrote the music for Maritana while he was in Sydney, but no evidence for this is available and it appears to have been unlikely.

W. H. G. Flood, The Musical Times, 1912, p. 448; Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. V; P. A. Scholes, The Oxford Companion to Music; Black's Dictionary of Music and Musicians; A Century of Journalism, pp. 576-7. For a discussion of Wallace's alleged second marriage and his religion see The Musical Times, 1912, pp. 595-6. See also A. Pougin's William Vincent Wallace and W. H. G. Flood's William Vincent Wallace A Memoir. J. F. Hogan's account of Wallace's experiences in Australia (The Irish in Australia, pp. 338-9) is inaccurate.

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WANT, JOHN HENRY (1846-1905),

advocate and politician,

son of Randolph John Want, a solicitor, was born at the Glebe, Sydney, on 4 May 1846. He was educated at Sydney Grammar School and Caen, Normandy, where he learned to speak French fluently. Entering his father's office he tired of the monotony of the law, went on the land in Queensland, and afterwards worked in a mine at Lithgow. He then returned to Sydney, studied in the chambers of (Sir) Frederick Darley (q.v.), was called to the bar in November 1869, and established a large practice as an advocate. He entered the legislative assembly as member for Gundagai in 1885 and afterwards represented Paddington. His parliamentary ability was at once recognized and he became attorney-general in the Dibbs (q.v.) ministry from October to December 1885 and in the Jennings (q.v.) ministry from February 1886 to January 1887. But he was not anxious for office and temporarily retired from politics in 1891. On one occasion he moved a motion for adjournment which the then premier, Parkes (q.v.), treated as a vote of no confidence and was defeated. Want was sent for by the governor but declined the task of forming a ministry. He was a staunch freetrader and could not continue to work with Dibbs and Jennings who were protectionists, but neither could he work under Parkes. For a time he formed a small corner party which he facetiously referred to as "the home for lost dogs". He had become a Q.C. in 1887 and now had an immense practice particularly in nisi prius and criminal law cases; no other barrister of his period in Australia earned more in fees or had a greater reputation as an advocate.

In 1894 Want was nominated to the legislative council and in December of that year became attorney-general in the Reid (q.v.) ministry. He returned to politics partly because he wanted to keep the freetrade party together and partly because he had always been opposed to federation, and could carry on the fight better in parliament. He believed in the pre-eminence of his own colony, New South Wales, and he feared that under any kind of union it would lose its position. How strongly he felt may be suggested by a quotation from one of his speeches:--"I would rather see almost anything than see this hydra-headed monster called federation basking in its constitutional beastliness--for that is what it is--in this bright and sunny land. . . . I was the first public man to assert my intention of opposing to the bitter end any system of federation, because there can be none which would not involve the surrender of our independence and liberty." Want was still a member of Reid's ministry when Reid made his famous Yes-No speech on 28 March 1898, and could not understand how his leader could conclude without asking his hearers to vote against a measure which this very speech had shown to be "rotten, weak, and unfair". He resigned from the ministry a few days later, but joined it again in June after the defeat of the first referendum. He left Australia on a visit to England in December 1898 and resigned from the ministry in the following April. At the second referendum held in June 1899 New South Wales voted in favour of federation. After its achievement Want continued to fight for the rights of his state, but was never in office again. He died of appendicitis on 22 November 1905. He was twice married and left a widow. There were no children.

Want was over six feet in height with a rugged jaw and flashing eyes. It was said of him that he was "as honest and honourable as he was bluff and unconventional, a generous foeman and a true friend". In politics he found it impossible to be a party man, and though he was capable as an administrator he had little ambition; he might have been premier on one occasion and chief justice on another, but desired neither position. He felt strongly only on the question of federation. He was, however, a great advocate unequalled in his presentation of his evidence to the jury, taking it into his confidence with an appealing frankness, emphasizing the strong points of his case, and gently sliding over its weaknesses. He used his wide knowledge of human nature with great effectiveness both in his addresses to the jury and in cross-examination, in which he was a master. In arguing before the full court he could adapt his methods to his audience, and though like so many great advocates not really a great lawyer his knowledge was sufficient for his purposes.

The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 May 1846, 23 November 1905; The Daily Telegraph, 23 November 1905; B. R. Wise, The Making of the Australian Commonwealth; A. B Piddington, Worshipful Masters.

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the fourth son of the Rev. Rowland Egerton Warburton, was born at Northwich, Cheshire, England, on 15 August 1813. Educated largely in France he joined the royal navy in 1826. In 1829 he entered the East India Company's military college at Addiscombe, and in 1834 went to India. He remained in the East India Company's service until 1853, when he retired with the rank of major and emigrated to Western Australia. After a short stay he went to Adelaide, and at the close of the year was appointed commissioner of police. About this time he did some exploring in the country west of Lake Torrens, and made an unfavourable report on it. In the following year he was able to determine the size and shape of Lake Torrens. Warburton carried out his duties as commissioner of police until 1867, and two years later became colonel commandant of the South Australian volunteer forces. In September 1872 he started on an exploring expedition and reached Alice Springs on 21 December. There he decided that it would be unwise to proceed farther until April, and sent his second in command back to Adelaide for further supplies. On 15 April 1873 the party of seven including two Afghans and one aborigine started with four riding, 12 baggage, and one spare camel. They followed the telegraph line to Bart's Creek before striking to the west. Passing through good country in May, they crossed the Western Australian border on 5 June, found themselves in barren country, and for several weeks spent their time in an unceasing search for native wells. Warburton did most of his travelling westward by night, and was unable to carefully observe the country. They were practically starving when a small waterhole was reached on 9 October. Their way was then directed to the source of the Oakover River and only the good bushmanship of one of the party, J. W. Lewis, and the aborigine, saved the whole party from perishing. On 5 December a tributary of the Oakover was found and, taking their camels for food, the expedition made its way slowly towards the coast. Lewis eventually went ahead and reached a cattle station, from which help was sent to the remainder of the party which was by now practically exhausted. The station was reached on it January 1874 and Roebourne on 26 January. Warburton received a grant of £1000 from the South Australian parliament with £500 for the party. An account of the expedition, Journey across the Western Interior of Australia, was published in 1875, and Warburton was created C.M.G. in the same year and awarded the Royal Geographical Society's medal. He remained in South Australia until his death on 5 November 1889. He married in 1838 Alicia Mant and a son, Richard Egerton Warburton, was with him on his journey across Australia.

Coming to Australia when past 40 years of age Warburton had not the outback experience that is necessary for exploration work. Though he succeeded in crossing Australia from Adelaide to the north-west coast it was fortunate that the whole party did not perish, and Warburton can scarcely be ranked among the greater Australian explorers.

J. H. Heaton. Australian Dictionary of Dates; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography; E. Favenc, The Explorers of Australia; P. E. Warburton, Journey Across the Western Interior of Australia; The South Australian Register, 6 November 1889.

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was born in New Zealand on 5 April 1847. He was the fourth son of the Rev. Robert Ward, a Primitive Methodist clergyman, and was educated for the same ministry. He came to Australia in his early twenties and was associated with the Rev. William Curnow in the pastorate of the most important Methodist church in Sydney. About the year 1876 he began contributing to The Sydney Morning Herald and resigned from the ministry. In 1879 he became editor of the Sydney Mail and in 1883 took charge of the Echo. He was appointed editor of the Daily Telegraph in 1884. He was then aged 37 and full of vigour, and the paper flourished under his editorship. He was a good judge of men, he got together an excellent staff, and his strong personality was imposed on the paper. In 1890, however, on account of a disagreement with the board of directors on a question of policy, he resigned. He went to London in 1894 to manage the cable service of the Melbourne Age and Sydney Daily Telegraph, but was away for only about a year before returning to Australia and becoming editor of the Brisbane Courier. Ward was appointed principal leader writer of the Melbourne Argus in 1898, but in 1903 he again became editor of the Sydney Daily Telegraph. He remained in control until his retirement in 1914, partly on account of his health. After spending two years in Europe he returned to Australia in 1916 and edited the Brisbane Telegraph for four years. He finally retired in 1920 and lived quietly in Sydney and in the Blue Mountains until his death on 1 July 1934. He married Amy Cooke who predeceased him, and was survived by two sons and two daughters. He was given the honorary degree of LL.D. by Glasgow university.

Ward was a great journalist, a man of strong character and high principles, kind and sagacious, who was dominated only by the idea of service to the community. In his later years, when editor of the Brisbane Telegraph, the Labour government of the day was remodelling legislation very strongly in the direction of state socialism. Many men of Ward's age were much alarmed, but he took the view that Queensland was then the political workshop of Australia where theories could be tested and tried. He did not refrain from criticism, but his broadmindedness enabled him to make his criticism constructive. Throughout his career he was enabled to do much in directing the moulding of public opinion in Australia.

Ward's elder son, Leonard Keith Ward, born in 1879, became government geologist and director of mines for South Australia. He was awarded the Clarke memorial medal of the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1930. The younger son, Hugh Kingsley Ward, born in 1887, was Rhodes scholar for New South Wales in 1911 and after holding the position of assistant professor of bacteriology at Harvard, was appointed Bosch (q.v.) professor of bacteriology at the university of Sydney in 1935.

The Sydney Morning Herald, 3 July 1934; The Telegraph, Brisbane, 3 July 1934; Who's Who in Australia, 1933, 1941.

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WARD, MARY AUGUSTA, (Mrs Humphrey Ward), (1851-1920),


was born at Hobart, on 11 June 1851. Her father, Thomas Arnold (1823-1900), the second son of Arnold of Rugby, came to Tasmania early in 1850 and organized its primary education. There he met and married in June 1850 Julia Sorell, daughter of William Sorell, registrar of deeds at Hobart, and grand-daughter of William Sorell (q.v.), the third governor of Tasmania. Thomas Arnold was received into the Roman Catholic Church on 12 January 1856 and feeling ran so high against him on this account that he resigned his appointment and returned to England with his family. Mary Arnold had her fifth birthday about a month before they left, and she had no further connexion with Tasmania. Thomas Arnold at first could earn but a precarious livelihood, and his eldest child spent much of her time with her grandmother. She was educated at various boarding schools, and at 16 returned to live with her parents at Oxford where her father had a history lectureship. He had returned to the Church of England about two years before, though he was to change his mind again some years later. His daughter continued to study, met many interesting men belonging to the university, and on 6 April 1872 was married to T. Humphrey Ward, a fellow and tutor of Brasenose College. For the next nine years she lived at Oxford. She had by now made herself familiar with French, German, Italian, Latin and Greek, and was also an excellent pianoforte player. She was developing an interest in social and educational service and making tentative efforts at literature. She added Spanish to her languages, and in 1877 undertook the writing of a large number of the lives of early Spanish ecclesiastics for the Dictionary of Christian Biography. It was a piece of hard conscientious work, and was admirably done. In 1881 her Milly and Olly, a children's story, was published, and three years later her first novel, Miss Bretherton, appeared. Her husband had joined the staff of The Times in 1881, and they removed to London in that year where Mrs Ward also contributed to the journals of the day. In 1888 she caused a sensation with the publication of Robert Elsmere, which turned much on questions of religious belief. It had an enormous circulation both in Great Britain and in the United States. In spite of this success it was four years before her next book, David Grieve, was published, which also had immense sales. For over 20 years after this Mrs Ward had a leading place among the English novelists of the day, and some 15 novels appeared at regular intervals during this period. During the 1914-18 war Mrs Ward wrote some volumes designed to help in the prosecution of the war, and England's Effort, which appeared in 1916, is considered to have had much effect on American feeling. Towards the Goal followed in June 1917. Her interesting book of reminiscences, A Writer's Recollections, appeared in October 1918, and her last novel, Harvest, in April 1920, a few days after her death on 24 March. Her husband survived her with a son and two daughters. Her son, Arnold Ward, after a brilliant career at Eton and Oxford, became Unionist M.P. for West Herts, 1910-18, her younger daughter, afterwards her biographer, married George Macaulay Trevelyan. A list of Mrs Ward's books will be found at the end of her biography.

Mrs Ward had a many-sided and charming personality. She was a fine scholar, a good novelist and a leading social worker. The great reputation of her novels has faded very much in the years since her death. Her characters do not always completely come alive, and she is lacking in humour, but possibly the fact that her books are based so often on the problems of her time, make them somewhat alien from the generations faced with the even more difficult problems that have arisen since.

Janet Penrose Trevelyan, The Life of Mrs Humphrey Ward; Mrs Humphrey Ward, A Writer's Recollections; The Times, 25 March, 1920; T. Arnold, Passages in a Wandering Life; Clifford Reeves, A History of Tasmanian Educacation, pp. 42-62.

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WARD, WILLIAM HUMBLE, Second Earl of Dudley (1867-1932),

fourth governor-general of Australia,

son of the 1st Earl of Dudley and Georgina, daughter of Sir Thomas Moncrieffe, bart., was born on 25 July 1867 and was educated at Eton. He subsequently spent about three years in a tour round the world, which included a visit to Australia in February 1887. He had succeeded his father as Earl of Dudley in 1885. He returned to England, and in 1891 married Rachel, daughter of Charles Henry Gurney. He took his seat in the house of lords and showed ability as a speaker, and he also became interested in movements aiming at the solving of social problems. In 1895 he became parliamentary secretary to the board of trade, and during the South African war was on Lord Roberts's staff. He was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland in 1902, and with his wife showed much sympathy with the people. He succeeded Lord Northcote (q.v.) as governor-general of Australia in 1908 and arrived in September of that year. He was fond of open air life, no difficult problems of government arose, and both he and his wife were popular and made many friends in Australia. His appointment terminated on 31 July 1911 and he returned to England. During the 1914-18 war he was at first in command of the Worcester yeomanry and in 1916 was in Egypt attached to the head-quarters staff. Lady Dudley died in 1920, and in 1924 he was married to Mrs Lionel Moncton, formerly Miss Gertie Millar, a well-known actress. He died in England on 29 June 1932 leaving four sons and three daughters of the first marriage. He was created G.C.V.O. in 1903, G.C.M.G. in 1908, and G.C.B. in 1911. He was a good horseman much interested in hunting, racing and yachting. Both in Ireland and Australia his ability, friendliness and tact, enabled him to do excellent work as an administrator.

The Times, 30 June 1932; The Argus, Melbourne, 1 July 1932; Burke's Peerage, etc., 1931.

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WARDELL, ROBERT (1794-1834),

journalist and advocate,

was born in England in 1794 or possibly towards the end of the previous year. He matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1810 and graduated LL.B. in 1817 and LL.D. in 1823 (Admissions to Trinity College, Cambridge, vol. IV, p. 68). He was editor and proprietor of the Statesman, a London evening paper, when in about the year 1820 he met Wentworth (q.v.). In 1824 he sold his paper and forming an alliance with Wentworth, printing materials were purchased with the intention of founding an Australian newspaper, and the partners sailed for Australia. They arrived about September and soon afterwards started the Australian, the first number appearing on 14 October. It was the first independent paper to be published in Australia, and Governor Brisbane (q.v.) who was approaching the end of his term was disposed to welcome it. After the arrival of Governor Darling (q.v.) in December 1825 friction with the paper developed, and early in 1827 the governor was devising means to control its criticism of his actions. He brought in a newspaper tax of fourpence a copy, but Forbes (q.v.) the chief justice, refused to sanction the act. In September 1827 Wardell who had referred to the governor in the Australian as "an ignorant and obstinate man" was charged with libel. He conducted his own defence with much ability and the jury failed to agree. In December Wardell was again on trial for libel, and Wentworth who was defending him asserted that the jurors, who were members of the military, might lose their commissions if they did not return a verdict for Darling. The jury again disagreed. Wardell was now editor and sole proprietor of his paper and his practice as an advocate was increasing; early in 1831 the government was glad to brief him in an action for damages against it. Towards the end of the year Darling was recalled, and after the arrival of Governor Bourke (q.v.) Wardell's writing became much more temperate in tone. In 1834, having made a moderate fortune, he was intending to go to England, but on 7 September when riding around his land at Petersham, he came across three runaway convicts and tried to persuade them to give themselves up. One of them, however, picked up a gun and fatally shot Wardell. The men were arrested a few days later and two of them were subsequently hanged.

Wardell's early death was much deplored. He was an able journalist and an excellent advocate. He fought a great fight for liberty at an important period of development in Australia.

Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. XI to XVII, ser. III, vol. VI; Aubrey Halloran, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. X, pp. 337-47; The Sydney Herald, 11 and 15 September 1834; G. B. Barton, Literature in New South Wales, pp. 20-4; R. Therry, Reminiscences of Thirty Years' Residence in New South Wales and Victoria, 2nd ed. pp. 349-52.

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was born in 1824. He was a pupil of A. W. Pugin and was establishing a reputation in England as a designer of churches, when in 1857 the state of his health compelled him to go to a warmer climate. He came to Melbourne early in 1858, and in September of that year was commissioned to prepare a design for St Patrick's cathedral. He was also in the same year appointed inspector-general of public works for Victoria. In the preparation of his plans for the cathedral Wardell was to some extent hampered by two conditions, one that the materials of a church already being built on the site should be used, and the other that part of this building should be incorporated in the new design. As a result the building on the north side and at the east end is below the level of the street. In spite of this Wardell produced a remarkably fine design, one of the best gothic buildings in Australia. He also designed several other churches at Melbourne, and among other buildings, the English, Scottish and Australian Bank at the corner of Collins- and Queen-streets. Wardell lost his government position in January 1878, when he was one of the victims of "Black Wednesday". Going to Sydney he practised there as an architect for the remainder of his life. He had already designed the new Roman Catholic cathedral of St Mary's, which was begun in 1866, and was responsible for St John's College in the university of Sydney, a fine example of fourteenth century gothic, and many other buildings in New South Wales.

He lived to see St Patrick's completed in 1897 except for the spires, but St Mary's was much less advanced when he died at Sydney on 19 November 1899. He married and was survived by at least two sons.

Wardell was a distinguished architect, and his two cathedrals rank among the finest modern examples of gothic. The three spires of St Patrick's cathedral, added long after Wardell's death, were re-designed, and though beautiful it is doubtful whether their increased height has kept the proportions so well as in the original design, an illustration of which will be found in Moran's History of the Catholic Church in Australasia, opposite p. 760. The west front of the building is perhaps a little narrow, but the interior is well proportioned, and the apsidal chapels are particularly well managed. The dark basalt used for this building is somewhat unsympathetic, but the sandstone of St Mary's at Sydney is a beautiful yellow-brown. The interior of this building is very impressive in spite of the fact that the roof is high when compared with the width of the main aisle, and the general effect does much to justify the claim that St Mary's is the "best specimen of decorated gothic to be found in Australia".

The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 November 1899; The Advocate, Melbourne, 2 October 1897; St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne; Journal of the Institute of Architects, New South Wales, October 1904, and January-February 1905, p. 7.

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was born at Bristol, England in 1852, and was trained at the Royal College of Science, Dublin, and Queen's College, Manchester. He had a brilliant scholastic career winning the Whitworth scholarship and the Society of Arts technological scholarship. Entering the service of the London and North-Western Railway Company in 1872, he spent five years at its workshops at Wolverton. He came to Australia in 1881 and entered the public works department at Sydney, where he was in charge of the supervision of roads, bridges and sewerage. In 1883 he was appointed lecturer in engineering at the university of Sydney, and a year later was made professor of the new department. He held this position for 42 years and built up a great engineering school. He was not, however, content merely to look after his own department. He published in 1892, Australian Timbers, a comparatively short treatise, but illustrated with many maps and diagrams, and in 1894 he brought out his most important work, Engineering Construction in Iron, Steel and Timber, of which the third edition in two volumes was published in 1921, vol. I, Engineering Construction in Steel and Timber, vol. II, Engineering Construction in Masonry and Concrete. Warren was also doing much work for the government, in 1885 he sat on the royal commission on railway bridges, and in 1892 was a member of the committee of inquiry on Baldwin locomotives. Later he was chairman of the electric tramways board and was on the automatic brakes board. For many years he was consulting engineer to the government of New South Wales. He was for some years a member of the council of the Royal Society of New South Wales, was president in 1892 and 1902, was first president of the Institute of Engineers of Australia, Australian representative of the Institute of Engineering in Great Britain, and a member of the council of the International Society for the Testing of Materials. During the 1914-18 war he conducted more than 10,000 tests of munition steel. He resigned his professorship at the end of 1925 and was made emeritus professor. Little more than a week later he died suddenly at Sydney on 9 January 1926. He married in early life and was survived by a son.

In private life Warren was much interested in music, golf, and bull-dogs. His kindly personality endeared him to his students and colleagues, and his reputation as an expert in his own subject spread far beyond Australia. He took his full share in the administrative work of the university, was dean of the faculty of science for some years from 1908, and later was dean of the faculty of engineering and chairman of the professorial board. In addition to the books mentioned Warren wrote more than 50 papers of which 17 were read before the Royal Society of New South Wales. He was a member of the Society of American Engineers, and was given the honorary degree of LL.D. by the university of Glasgow.

The Sydney Morning Herald, and The Daily Telegraph, Sydney, 11 January 1926; Journal and Proceedings, Royal Society of N.S.W., 1926, p. 9; Calendar of the University of Sydney, 1926.

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premier of South Australia,

was born in 1824. His father, the Rev. John Waterhouse, general superintendent of the Wesleyan missions in Australia and Polynesia, resided for some time in South Australia. In August 1851 Waterhouse was elected a member of the legislative council for East Torrens, and in 1857 became a member for the same constituency in the first house of assembly, but sat for only one session. He was elected to the legislative council in 1860, and was chief secretary in the first Reynolds (q.v.) ministry from May 1860 to February 1861. He was premier and chief secretary from October 1861 to July 1863. In 1864 he retired from South Australian politics and subsequently spent some time in England. He settled in New Zealand in 1869 and in 1870 became a member of the legislative council. He was in the Fox ministry from 30 October to 20 November 1871, and in October 1872 became premier without portfolio. He resigned in March 1873 finding that as a member of the upper house it was impossible to keep control of his ministry. He remained a private member for many years but falling into ill-health retired to England in 1889, and died at Torquay on 6 August 1906. Waterhouse was a man of much ability and character but his career both in Australia and New Zealand was much hampered by the poor state of his health. He has the unusual distinction of having been the premier of two colonies.

The Advertiser, Adelaide, 8 August 1906; The Times, 8 August 1906; G. W. Rusden, History of New Zealand.

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WATSON, ARCHIBALD (1849-1940),


born at Tarcutta, New South Wales, on 27 July 1849, was the son of Sydney Grandison Watson, a retired naval officer who became a squatter on the upper Murray. He was educated at Scotch College, Melbourne, which he entered in 1861, and when he left some six years later went to the Pacific Islands and successfully engaged in trading. Meeting Baron von Mueller (q.v.) he was advised to take up a scientific career and went to Europe to study medicine. He obtained the degrees of M.D., Gottingen, M.D., Paris, and F.R.C.S., England. After doing post-graduate work at Paris he was for some time demonstrator of anatomy to Professor J. Cantlie at the Charing Cross hospital medical school. In 1883 he went to Egypt as surgeon with Hicks Pasha's Soudan force, and in 1885 became first Elder professor of anatomy at the newly-founded medical school at Adelaide. He taught also pathology, surgical anatomy, and operative surgery. He held this position for 34 years and proved to be a teacher of remarkable personality. During the Boer war he was consulting-surgeon for the Natal field force. When war broke out again in 1914, though 65 years of age, Watson left Australia with the first expeditionary force as a major in the A.A.M.C. and became consulting-surgeon and pathologist to No. 1 A.G.H. at Heliopolis in Egypt. He returned to Australia in 1916. He resigned his university chair at the end of 1919 and for many years spent his time in travelling, visiting places as far apart as Iceland and the Falkland Islands. He journeyed round Australia gathering marine specimens and fishing, and for the last two years of his life lived at Thursday Island. He died on 30 July 1940 having completed his ninety-first year three days before. He was unmarried. A prize in his memory at the university of Adelaide was founded by public subscription in 1935.

Watson was a good linguist with a passion for travelling and a constant thirst for exact knowledge. As a teacher he would clear up the most abstruse problems in language that was vivid and picturesque, illustrating what he was saying with excellent rapid sketches on the blackboard. He did some good early work on hydatid disease, and in surgery "had an unusual appreciation of the anatomical planes of the body and the possibilities they gave of a bloodless approach". Generally he had much influence on surgery in Australia and elsewhere.

The Advertiser, Adelaide, 31 July 1940; The Medical Journal of Australia, 12 October 1940; History of Scotch College.

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first Labour prime minister of Australia,

son of George Thomas Watson, was born at Valparaiso, Chile, on 9 April 1867. Brought to New Zealand as a child he was educated at Oamaru state school and was then apprenticed as a printer to the North Otago Times. He arrived in Australia in 1886, worked as a compositor, and first came into prominence in the Labour movement in 1893, when at the age of 26 he was elected president of the Sydney trades and labour council. He was also elected president of the Australian labour federation, and in July 1894 entered the New South Wales legislative assembly as member for Young. He held the seat until he resigned in 1901 to enter federal politics. He was then elected to the house of representatives for Bland. Labour returned 16 members to that house and eight to the senate, and few realized at the time how important the party was to become. The appointment of Watson as its leader was a very wise move. He held moderate views, and his courtesy and tact were strong assets. Though small in numbers his party was united and able from the first to exercise considerable influence on governments which did not command a majority in either house. At the Commonwealth election held in December 1903 Labour gained several seats in the house of representatives and Deakin (q.v.) was defeated soon after the house met in March 1904. Watson was sent for and formed the first Commonwealth Labour ministry, becoming himself prime minister and treasurer. He now had 25 supporters and faced the almost impossible task of controlling a house with nearly twice that number in opposition. Deakin as leader of the opposition, however, had promised him every consideration and the attempt was made. Watson did all that could be done, but he was committed to an arbitration bill which adopted the principle of preference to unionists, and in August the carrying of an amendment against the government led to his resignation. He was succeeded by Reid (q.v.) whose ministry lasted only 10 months. Reid had been conducting a strong campaign against socialism and Watson showed ability in defending the attitude of his party on this question. Though always a fair antagonist he could be very incisive, as in his summing up of the Reid government. "I think we shall all welcome the disappearance of a ministry that has neither achievement in the past, policy in the present, nor prospects in the future."

Deakin formed his second ministry in July 1905 which held office for three and a half years, a much longer term than that of any of its predecessors. He was dependent on the Labour party and was accused of saying "Yes, Mr Watson" to every demand of the Labour leader. That was not true, for Deakin did preserve some measure of independence: but Watson's only choice lay between Deakin and Reid of whom he much preferred the former, and Deakin himself was not unsympathetic to many of the ideals of the Labour party. A means of living together was found and important legislation was passed. There was, however, much party feeling, and no little bitterness was at times brought into the debates. Watson's health had been deteriorating, and in 1907 he resigned the leadership of the party. He was succeeded by Andrew Fisher (q.v.) who became prime minister in November 1908. Watson was not a candidate for office in this ministry, and on the expiration of the third parliament in 1910 he finally retired from politics. He was prominent in the attempt to found a daily Labour newspaper in Sydney, and was appointed managing director. In 1916, however, his advocacy of conscription resulted in his expulsion from the Political Labour League. He took no further part in politics but acquired interests in and became a director of several companies. He was also president for many years of the National Roads and Motorists' Association of New South Wales. Watson was married twice, (1) in 1889 to Ada Jane Low, (2) in 1925 to Antonia Lane. He died at Sydney on 18 November 1941 leaving a widow and a daughter.

Watson was only 43 years old when he left politics. But the early days of federation were very trying for the party leaders, and he was possibly lacking in some toughness of fibre. He was in office for only four months but left a much greater impression on his time than this would suggest. He came at the right moment for his party, and nothing could have done it more good than the sincerity, courtesy and moderation which he always showed as a leader.

The Sydney Morning Herald, 19 November 1941; The Age, Melbourne, 19 November 1941; H. G. Turner, The First Decade of the Australian Commonwealth; G. H. Reid, My Reminiscences; W. Murdoch, Alfred Deakin: A Sketch; Commonwealth Parliamentary Handbook, 1915.

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WATT, WALTER OSWALD (1878-1921),

university benefactor and airman,

always known as Oswald Watt, was the son of John Brown Watt, M.L.C., a prosperous and well-known Sydney merchant. He was born at Bournemouth, England, on 11 February 1878, and soon afterwards was taken to Australia. From his eleventh year he was educated in England, entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1896, and took a third class in the natural science tripos in 1899. He returned to Australia at the end of the same year, was one of the earliest men in Australia to take up flying, and in July 1911 obtained the Royal Aero Club's certificate in England. He did some flying in Egypt in 1913-14 and then in France. When the war broke out he immediately enlisted in the French flying force, was continuously on service with it for 18 months, and was awarded three French decorations, the military medal, the croix de guerre, and the legion of honour. He was then transferred to the Australian flying corps, and in February 1918 became lieutenant-colonel and was placed in charge of a training wing at Tetbury, England. He returned to Australia in June 1919, and was a good friend to many returned men. In 1920 he was offered the position of controller of civil aviation, but refused it on account of other business engagements. He was accidentally drowned while bathing off the New South Wales coast on 21 May 1921. He married Muriel, daughter of Mr Justice Williams of Victoria, and was survived by a son.

Though a rich man Watt was a man of simple tastes who gave away a large proportion of his income. He was a distinguished airman and a remarkably brave and efficient officer. He had given some consideration to schemes for providing university education to young men, but eventually decided to leave the residue of his estate to the university of Sydney for such uses for the benefit of the institution as the senate should determine. In 1941 the amount of the capital of the Oswald Watt fund was over £108,000.

Oswald Watt, A Tribute to his Memory; The Sydney Morning Herald, 23 May 1921; The Bulletin, 26 May 1921; The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, vol. VIII.

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WAY, ARTHUR SANDERS (1847-1930),

classical scholar and headmaster of Wesley College, Melbourne,

son of the Rev. William Way, was born at Dorking, England, on 13 February 1847. He was educated at Kingswood School, Bath, and graduated M.A. at London university. From 1870 to 1876 he was classical lecturer at Queen's College, Taunton, vice-master of Kingswood School, 1876 to 1881, and in 1882 became headmaster of Wesley College, Melbourne. He had already published his translation of the Odyssey of Homer, and while at Wesley brought out his translation of the Iliad. At Wesley he fostered the teaching of natural science, and also brought in the teaching of commercial principles for boys likely to pursue a business career, but the number of students went down during his period, largely because of the financial depression which began in 1889. He resigned in 1892 and spent most of the rest of his life in translating from the classics. Probably no other translator could compare with Way in fertility and versatility. His versions give accurate renderings of the meaning of the originals expressed in vigorous verse. The list of his translations in Miller's Australian Literature includes Homer, Euripides, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Aristophanes, Hesiod, Virgil, Lucretius, Lay of Nibelung Men, Song of Roland and others. He was also the author of Homer (1913), Greek through English (1926), and Sons of the Violet-Crowned, a Tale of Ancient Athens (1929). He died at Ventnor, Isle of Wight, on 25 September 1930.

The Times, 26 September 1930; The History of Wesley College, 1865-1919; E. Morris Miller, Australian Literature.

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WAY, SIR SAMUEL JAMES (1836-1916),

chief justice of South Australia,

was born at Portsmouth, England, on 11 April 1836. His father, the Rev. James Way, was a clergyman in the Bible Christian Church, and in 1847 was president of the English Bible Christian conference. In 1850 he went to South Australia to open a mission in connexion with his church. His son who was educated at the Bible Christian Grammar School, Shebbear, North Devon, and at the Maidstone-road school at Chatham, remained in England until towards the end of 1852. He arrived in South Australia in March 1853 and rejoined his father at Adelaide where he obtained employment in the office of J. T. Bagot. In 1856 he was articled to A. Atkinson, an Adelaide solicitor, and five years later was called to the bar. Atkinson died not long afterwards and Way succeeded to his practice. In 1868 he went into partnership with a Mr Brook, and on his death J. H. (afterwards Sir Josiah) Symon[s] (q.v.) was made a partner. In South Australia the professions of solicitor and barrister were not separated, and the firm conducted an all-round legal business which became very successful. Way, however, was specializing as an advocate and was soon a leading counsel. In September 1871 Way, after having been only 10 years at the bar, became a Q.C. He enlarged his experience by going to London and arguing before the judicial committee of the privy council in two well-known cases, Randell versus the South Australian Insurance Company, and Mullens versus the National Bank. In 1874 he was appointed a member of the board of education and also a member of the council of the university of Adelaide, and in the following year was elected a member of the legislative assembly for Sturt. In June he joined the Boucaut (q.v.) ministry as attorney-general and at once established a reputation as an indefatigable and diplomatic parliamentarian. Had he remained in politics no position would have been beyond him, but in March 1876 following the death of Sir Richard Hanson (q.v.) he was offered and accepted the position of chief justice of the supreme court of South Australia. He was only in his fortieth year.

It has been said of Way that as a young man he never lost an opportunity of advancing himself, but, however trite this may have been he certainly made a monetary sacrifice when he accepted the position of chief justice. He had an enormous practice and estimated in later years that his acceptance of the position made a difference of £5000 a year in his income. His method as a barrister of so identifying himself with his client's position that he became almost a passionate advocate for him, might possibly have raised a doubt as to whether he would be an equally good judge. Any doubt there may have been was soon dispelled. He showed himself to be a sound lawyer, rapidly discerning the really important points in an argument, and equally quick in deciding what was material and what was not. He was more interested in principles than in technicalities, anxious to get cases settled with as little delay as possible, and not infrequently suggested that the wisest course might be that counsel from both sides should meet in his chambers and try to reach a settlement. His judgments, often delivered from brief notes, were models of clearness, and, what was more important, they were correct. It has been stated that no appeal from him to a higher court ever succeeded. In 1877 he became for the first time acting governor of South Australia. He was formally appointed lieutenant-governor of South Australia in January 1891, and administered the government on many occasions. At the time of his death it was calculated that he had acted as governor of South Australia for a total period of six years and nine months. He had also many other interests. He became vice-chancellor of the university in 1876 and from 1883 until his death was its chancellor; he was a member of the public library board and from 1893 to 1908 was its president; and he was also president of the Adelaide children's hospital, the Blind, Deaf and Dumb Institution, the South Australian Society of Artists, the Empire League, the Royal Society of St George, and the Zoological Society. He was a leading mason and never lost his interest in the Methodist church in which his father's sect had been merged. Another interest was his Kadlunga station where there was a model stud farm, and he was the first to introduce Shropshire sheep into South Australia. All these things ran parallel with his regular work as chief justice. He was the first Australian to be nominated to the judicial committee of the privy council. This occurred in January 1897 and Way then proceeded to England, was sworn in as a member of the privy council, and remained for some time to assist the judicial committee to dispose of a number of colonial appeal cases. On his return to Australia he took up his many duties again and continued to work with his usual vigour until attacked by illness in 1914. He was found to be suffering from cancer and in the hope of prolonging his life he went to Sydney and had an arm amputated by Sir A. McCormick. He continued to sit on the bench until December 1915, but he was obviously growing weaker though his mind remained unclouded. He died at North Adelaide on 8 January 1916. He married in 1898 the widow of Dr Blue, originally Katherine Gollan, who died in 1914. There were no children. He was an honorary D.C.L. of Oxford, and honorary LL.D. of Queen's university Canada, Cambridge, and Melbourne. He was created a baronet in 1899. His library of 15,000 volumes was left to the university of Adelaide

Way was a many-sided man, kind, charitable, able, a tremendous worker, successful in everything he touched. He was a lover of birds and flowers, and he spent much on the scientific development of his estate in the country. He helped many religious and charitable institutions by giving them both time and money. He had great gifts as a speaker and frequently lectured on a variety of themes. He published practically nothing though he had had some thought of writing his reminiscences. The problem was to find the time, though he was known on occasions to have worked until three in the morning. Writing a quarter of a century after his death it is difficult to suggest how much Way meant to the Adelaide of his day. Though a valued president of many organizations, an excellent chancellor of the university, an eminent judge, a distinguished lieutenan t-governor, he yet represented something more. When he died it was everywhere agreed that the state had lost its first citizen.

The Register, Adelaide, and The Advertiser, Adelaide, 10 January 1916.

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