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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALIAN BIOGRAPHY
Angus and Robertson--1949
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GARDINER, FRANK (1830-c.1890),bushranger,
was born near Goulburn, New South Wales, in 1830. There appears to be some doubt about his real name. At his trial he was arraigned as Francis Gardiner, alias Clarke, alias Christie, but he signed a statement addressed to the judge "Francis Christie". His biographer states definitely that "Frank Christie" was his real name. In 1850 he began his criminal career by stealing horses, and in October was apprehended and sentenced to five years imprisonment at Pentridge, Melbourne. He, however, escaped about five weeks afterwards, and was not recaptured until 1854 when he was again arrested for horse-stealing and given seven years hard labour. He was released on ticket-of-leave after serving about four years and joined a band of bushrangers. In 1861 he was captured by the police after wounding two and being wounded himself. Handcuffed and left in charge of a policeman, he was rescued by other bushrangers. On 15 June 1862 the gold escort from Forbes was stopped, some members of the escort were wounded, and the boxes of gold were stolen. £1000 reward was offered for the apprehension and conviction of the bushrangers. The police succeeded in recovering much of the gold and Sir F. W. Pottinger, who was in charge of the police, on one occasion fired at Gardiner at close range, but his carbine missed fire. For a time Gardiner disappeared, but about the end of February 1864 he was arrested at Appis Creek, Queensland, where in partnership with another man he was conducting a public house and store. He was taken to Sydney, tried and found guilty on three charges, and given sentences amounting together to 32 years.
In gaol Gardiner was a model prisoner, and, when he had served eight years of his sentences, efforts were made by his friends and relations to secure his release. The fact that for about two years before his trial he had led an honest life was much in his favour, and in spite of some protests from members of the public he was released in July 1874 when he had served 10 years, on the understanding that he would leave Australia. He went to San Francisco, lived an honest life for many years, and died probably about 1890. He differed from many notorious bushrangers in that he came of respectable people, and was not actually guilty of murder; but he was fortunate in escaping the fate of some of his associates who were executed.
Charles White, Australian Bushranging, Gardiner "King of the Road"; G. E. Boxall, The Story of the Australian Bushrangers; Sir Henry Parkes, Fifty Years of Australian History, pp. 277-82.
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GARRAN, ANDREW (1825-1901),journalist and politician,
son of an English merchant, was born in London on 19 November 1825. Educated at Hackney grammar school and Spring Hill college, Birmingham, Garran went on to London university and graduated M.A. in 1848. Having developed a chest weakness he spent 18 months at Madeira as a private tutor, and about the end of 1850 left England for Australia. At Adelaide he became a contributor to the Austral Examiner, which, however, came to an end when the great exodus to the Victorian diggings took place in 1852. Garran also went to Victoria and for about a year was a private tutor near Ballan. In 1854 he became editor of the South Australian Register, but two years later John Fairfax (q.v.) invited him to come to Sydney as assistant-editor of the Sydney Morning Herald. He showed great ability in this position, and his leading articles were particularly notable contributions to the paper. He also found time to attend law lectures at the university of Sydney and took his LL.B. degree in 1870. On the death of the editor, John West (q.v.), in December 1873, Garran was immediately appointed to the position. He carried out the duties with great ability until 1885. His health had always been frail and having then reached his sixtieth year he resigned.
Garran, however, could not be idle. He had undertaken the editing of the Picturesque Atlas of Australasia which appeared in 1886 in three large volumes, a work of much greater value than has generally been understood. What was practically a second edition appeared in London in 1892 under the title Australasia Illustrated. He was nominated to the legislative council of New South Wales in February 1887, and, after the great strike of 1890, was appointed president of the royal commission on strikes. Parkes (q.v.) in his Fifty Years of Australian History speaks of Garran's "care, patient labour and ability in conducting this enquiry". In 1892 Garran was appointed president of the newly-formed council of arbitration and on accepting the position resigned from the legislative council so that no question of political influence could arise, but two years later he resigned from the council of arbitration and again entered the legislative council. He was vice-president of the executive council and representative of the Reid (q.v.) government in the council from March 1895 to November 1898, and showed remarkable energy in carrying out his duties in spite of the frailty of his constitution. He had been correspondent of the London Times at Sydney for many years and retained this position until his death on 6 June 1901. He married in 1854, Mary Isham, daughter of John Sabine, who survived him with one son and five daughters. His son, Sir Robert Randolph Garran, G.C.M.G., born in 1867, became a distinguished constitutional lawyer and public servant. He was the author of The Coming Commonwealth (1897), Heine's Book of Songs (a translation) (1924), and with Sir John Quick (q.v.) The Annotated Constitution of the Australian Commonwealth (1901).
Andrew Garran was an excellent journalist and exercised considerable influence on Australian history. About 1890, when the federal movement was in much danger in New South Wales, though a convinced freetrader Garran held that federation was of more importance than any fiscal system. He realized too that if each colony insisted upon its own terms, federation would be quite impracticable, and that with federation there would at least be free-trade between the states. He continued to work vigorously for federation and lived just long enough to see its fruition.
The Sydney Morning Herald, 7 June 1901; The Times, 7 June 1901; A Century of Journalism; B. R. Wise, The Making of the Australian Commonwealth.
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GAUNT, MARY ELIZA BAKEWELL (c.1862-1942), always known as Mary Gaunt,novelist,
eldest daughter of William Henry Gaunt, a Victorian county court judge, was born at Chiltern, Victoria, about 1862. She was educated at Grenville College, Ballarat and the university of Melbourne, where she was one of the first two women students to enroll. She began writing for the press and in 1894 published her first novel Dave's Sweetheart. In the same year she married Dr H. L. Miller of Warrnambool Victoria. He died in 1900, and, finding herself not very well off, Mrs Miller went to London intending to live by her pen. She had difficulties at first but eventually established herself, and was able to travel in the West Indies, in West Africa, and in China and other parts of the East. Her experiences were recorded in five pleasantly written travel books: Alone in West Africa (1912), A Woman in China (1914), A Broken Journey (1919), Where the Twain Meet (1922), Reflecctions in Jamaica (1932). In 1929 she also published George Washington and the Men Who Made the American Revolution. Between 1895 and 1934, 16 novels or collections of short stories were published, mostly with love and adventure interests, not of outstanding merit, though readable and capably written. Some of the short stories are very good. Three other novels were written in collaboration with J. R. Essex. A list of her books will be found in Miller's Australian Literature (vol. II, p.659). In her later years she lived mostly at Bordighera, Italy. She died at Cannes about the beginning of 1942. She had no children.
Her brother, Sir Ernest Frederick Augustus Gaunt (1865-1940), entered the royal navy in 1878, was rear-admiral 1st battle squadron, battle of Jutland, became admiral in 1924, and died in April 1940 after a distinguished career. Another brother, Admiral Sir Guy Reginald Arthur Gaunt (1870-19--), also had a distinguished career before his retiremerit in 1924. He was promoted admiral in 1928 and was alive in 1943. A third brother, Lieut.-Colonel Cecil Robert Gaunt, D.S.O., (1863-1938), had much distinguished service in the British army.
The Times, 5 February 1942; E. Morris Miller, Australian Literature; Who Was Who, 1929-1940; Who's Who, 1941; information from registrar, the university of Melbourne.
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GAWLER, GEORGE (1795-1869),second governor of South Australia,
was born on 21 July 1795, the son of Captain Samuel Gawler who was killed in battle in India in 1804. George Gawler was educated at the military college, Great Marlow, and proved to be a diligent and clever student. In October 1810 he obtained a commission as an ensign in the 52nd regiment and in January 1812 went with his regiment to the Peninsular war. He was a member of a storming party at Badajoz, and was wounded and saved from death by a private soldier who lost his own life. He was in Spain until 1814. The regiment returned to England and Gawler, now a lieutenant, fought at Waterloo. He remained in France with the army of occupation until 1818, and in 1820 married Maria Cox. Both were sincerely religious and when the 52nd was sent to New Brunswick in 1823 they did much social and religious work. Gawler returned to England in 1826 and from 1830 to 1832 was engaged in recruiting. He reached the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1834 and in 1837 received the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order, third class. In 1838 he was appointed governor of South Australia in succession to Captain Hindmarsh (q.v.).
Gawler arrived in South Australia on 12 October 1838 with his wife and five children and found a colony of 5000 people at Adelaide, many of whom were anxious to go on the land, but could not do so until it was surveyed. It was fortunate that the governor had been given wide powers for he found that, though little or no money was available, emigrants were still pouring in. He appointed Captain Sturt (q.v.) surveyor-general and encouraged in every way the completion of the necessary surveys. Before he left Adelaide in May 1841, 6000 colonists had settled on the land. He also built government offices, police barracks, a gaol, and a government house, thus providing much needed work for stranded emigrants. He organized a police force, as he had no military to enforce his authority, and he encouraged and helped the development of the religious and educational life of the colony. All this had involved much expense and Gawler under his emergency powers drew drafts £270,000 in excess of the revenue. In February 1841 Gawler heard that two of his bills had been dishonoured, but it was not until 25 April that he became aware that all his bills since 1 September 1840 had been rejected. On 12 May 1841 Captain (afterwards Sir) George Grey (q.v.) arrived to take his place. Gawler's recall was sent in the same vessel. He left the colony a few weeks later and attempted to justify his conduct by writing to the colonial office. This was useless as it had been determined that he should be made the scapegoat for the apparent failure of the colony. He spent the remainder of his life in England, practically in retirement, taking a special interest in philanthropic and religions questions. He left the army in 1850 and his last years were spent at Southsea where he died on 7 May 1869. A son, Henry Gawler, returned to Adelaide and for some time was attorney-general without a seat in parliament.
Gawler's work was long misjudged, largely because his successor Grey, in his dispatches, made the worst of his predecessor's acts, without suggesting the difficulties under which he had worked. Gawler was a gallant and energetic officer who, when he found the settlers faced with disaster, saw at once what it was necessary to do, and saved the colony. Though Mills in his Colonization on of Australia accepts the view that Gawler had been guilty of carelessness and extravagance and cannot be wholly acquitted of blame, the extraordinary difficulties with which he was faced are acknowledged. Sturt and other men on the spot generally agreed that his administration had greatly benefited the settlement, and the select committee on South Australia reported that the critics of his expenditure were "unable to point out any specific item by which it could have been considerably reduced without great public inconvenience". Gawler in being recalled suffered the common fate of early governors, and, however much he may have been blamed in his lifetime, later investigations have given him an honoured place among the founders of South Australia.
A. Grenfell Price, Founders and Pioneers of South Australia; R. C. Mills, The Colonization of Australia (1829-1842); Mrs N. G. Sturt, Life of Charles Start; Rev J. Blacket, History of South Australia; The Centenary History of South Australia.
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GAY, WILLIAM (1865-1897),poet,
was born on 2 May 1865 at Bridge of Weir, in Renfrewshire, Scotland. His father, an upright religious man, was an engraver of patterns for wallpaper and calico, his mother came from people of education. The family moved not long afterwards to the town of Alexandria, where Gay was educated at a board school. At 14 he became a monitor at the school and winning a bursary went to Glasgow university. His father wished him to be a minister, but the boy felt he could not conscientiously follow that profession and went to London hoping to make a living there. Destitution and illness followed and he had to go back to his people. Again he went to London but his strength was not sufficient and he had to go into hospital in Glasgow. As his lungs were threatened a sea voyage was tried and he arrived at Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1885. He obtained work as a purser's clerk on vessels of the Union Line for nearly two years, when illness again led to his living with some relatives at Hawke's Bay who nursed him back to comparative health. In 1888 he went to Melbourne and obtained a mastership at Scotch College, but teaching was beyond his strength. In 1891 he was in the Austin hospital, and in 1893 went to live at Bendigo where he died on 22 December 1897. His first volume Sonnets and Other Verses, published in 1894, was followed by two other volumes Sonnets and Christ on Olympus and Other Poems in 1896. A small selection appeared in 1910 and The Complete Poetical Works of William Gay in 1911. A prose essay Walt Whitman: His Relation to Science and Philosophy was issued in 1895.
Gay was a slight man of medium height and is said to have had some resemblance to Tennyson. There was something in his personality which attracted friends to him wherever he went. When an invalid at Bendigo one of his little volumes yielded him a Profit of £40 and another was even more successful. This could only have happened with the help of friends as the volumes are without popular appeal. It was fortunate that so many discerning and kindly people were able to help him and take care of him until his death, because Gay was worthy of care. His sonnets rank with the best that have been done in Australia, and in a few poems such as "The Crazy World" he has written poetry expressing simple, forceful and unstrained emotion. His life was short and marred by ill-health borne with courage. The amount of his work was small but it holds an honoured place in the history of Australian poetry.
J. Glen Oliphant, Memoir in Poetical Works of William Gay; The Bendigo Advertiser, 23 and 24 December 1897; H. M. Green, An Outline of Australian Literature; Turner and Sutherland, The Development of Australian Literature; E. Morris Miller, Australian Literature.
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GELLIBRAND, JOSEPH TICE (1786-1837),first attorney-general of Tasmania,
son of William Gellibrand, was born in London in 1786. He studied law, was called to the bar, and in August 1823 was appointed attorney-general of Tasmania at a salary of £700 a year, with the right "to practise as a barrister under the same restrictions as are observed in this country". He arrived at Hobart accompanied by his father on 15 March 1824, and at the opening of the supreme court gave an address as leader of the bar, in which he spoke of trial by jury "as one of the greatest boons conferred by the legislature upon this colony". The full benefit of trial by jury had, however, been withheld from the colony, and Gellibrand's speech is held by some to have been the opening of a campaign for an unconditional system. Gellibrand was a believer in the liberty of the subject, and he was consequently bound to fall foul with a man with the autocratic tendencies of Governor Arthur (q.v.). At the beginning of 1825 R. L. Murray began criticizing the government in the local paper the Hobart Town Gazette, and Arthur believed that Gellibrand was in "close union" with Murray. Eventually Gellibrand was charged with unprofessional conduct in having as a barrister drawn the pleas for the plaintiff in a case, and afterwards as attorney-general, acted against him. As a consequence of the charge Alfred Stephen (q.v.) the solicitor-general applied to have Gellibrand struck off the rolls. The many complications of this case are fully discussed in chapter XVIII, vol. II of R. W. Giblin's Early History of Tasmania. As a result Gellibrand lost his position and began practising as a barrister. He established a high reputation in Hobart. In January 1827, with J. Batman (q.v.), application was made for a grant of land at Port Phillip, the petitioners stating that they were prepared to bring with them sheep and cattle to the value of £4000 to £5000. This application was refused and in 1828 Gellibrand made some efforts to obtain a government appointment at Sydney without success. In 1835 Gellibrand made an attempt to obtain a revision of his case, and counsel's opinion on it was obtained from Sergeant (afterwards Mr justice) Talfourd. His opinion was "that the charges have been grounded in mistake or malice, pursued with entire inattention to the rights of the accused, and decided in prejudice and anger. The charges respecting professional practice are too absurd to stand for a moment". In the same year Gellibrand became one of the leaders of the Port Phillip Association and in January 1836 he crossed the strait and landing at Western Port walked with companions to Melbourne. From there he went to Geelong and then proceeded north in the direction of Gisborne. After returning to Melbourne a journey to the north-east brought him to the Plenty River. He returned to Tasmania and in company with a Mr Hesse crossed to Port Phillip again and landed near Geelong on 21 February 1837. They decided to follow the Barwon until its junction with the Leigh, and afterwards make their way to Melbourne across country. The two men did not arrive at their destination and though search parties were organized no trace of them was ever found. Gellibrand died probably about the end of February 1837. He married and was survived by at least three sons, one of whom, W. A. Gellibrand, was a member of the Tasmanian legislative council from 1871 to 1893, and was its president from 1884 to 1889. Another son, Thomas Lloyd Gellibrand, became the father of Major General Sir John Gellibrand, K.C.B., D.S.O., who was born in 1872.
Gellibrand was a man of fine character; Bonwick, in his Port Phillip Settlement (p. 429), pays a great tribute to his honesty, ability and powers as a leader. It was unfortunate that he should have been the victim of the autocratic system of the time.
Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vol. XIV, ser. III, vols. IV and V; R. W. Giblin, The Early History of Tasmania, vol, II, chapter XVIII; C. R. Long, Journal and Proccedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XXI, p. 306; C. H. Bertie, The Home, May 1931; Letters from Victorian Pioneers, p. 279.
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GERRALD, JOSEPH (1763-1796),political reformer, one of the "Scottish Martyrs",
was born in the West Indies on 9 February 1763. (Dict.Nat.Biog.) He was educated in England at Stanmore school, under Dr Parr, where he showed much promise. He inherited a somewhat involved estate from his father, married young, and was left a widower with two young children. He was in America for some years and practised as an advocate at Philadelphia. Returning to England, Gerrald was fired by the hopes raised by the French Revolution and joined the movement for political reform. In 1793 he published a pamphlet A Convention the Only Means of Saving Us from Ruin. In this he stated that the influence of 162 men returned 306 of the 573 members of the house of commons. He advocated that a convention should be elected that would really represent the people of Great Britain, and that there should be universal suffrage in the election of delegates. There was no machinery for carrying out his plans even if they met with general approval, but in November 1793 the "British Convention of the Delegates of the People associated to obtain Universal Suffrage and Annual Parliaments" met at Edinburgh. The delegates represented various political societies of the day in Scotland and England. The aims of the convention were most moderate, but Gerrald and others were arrested, and in March 1794 he was tried for sedition. It was felt that the case was prejudiced, and while out on bail Gerrald had been urged to escape, but he considered that his honour was pledged. At his trial at Edinburgh he made an admirable speech in defence of his actions, but was condemned to 14 years transportation. The apparent courtesy and consideration with which the trial was conducted could not conceal the real prejudice which ruled the proceedings. Gerrald was imprisoned in London until May 1795, when he was hurried on board the storeship Sovereign about to sail for Sydney. He arrived there on 5 November 1795. He was then in a poor state of health and was allowed to buy a small house and garden in which he lived. He died of a rapid consumption on 16 March 1796.
Gerrald was a man of great ability and eloquence who, sustained by his belief in the rights of mankind, willingly gave up his life to his cause. In the account of his death David Collins (q.v.) speaks of his "strong enlightened mind" and that he went to his death "glorying in being a martyr to the cause which he termed that of Freedom and considering as an honour that exile which brought him to an untimely grave". (An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales, 1798, p. 469). He was buried in the plot of land he had bought at Farm Cove and his name appears on the monument on Carlton Hill at Edinburgh. His son Joseph was provided for by Dr. Parr. Of Gerrald's associates, Muir and Palmer are noticed separately. William Skirving who was secretary to the convention was a Scotchman, a man of good character, educated originally for the church. He was sent to Sydney with Muir and Palmer leaving behind a wife and several children. He also was not treated as a convict and was allowed to take up land at Sydney which he tried to farm with little success. He died three days after Gerrald. Collins says of him "A dysentery was the apparent cause of his death, but his heart was broken". Maurice Margarot the least worthy of these men was the only one to return to Great Britain where he died in 1815.
Gerrald a Fragment; W. Field, Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Opinions of the Rev. Samuel Parr, vol. I; Lord Cockburn, An Examination of the Trials for Sedition Which Have Hitherto Occurred in Scotland; Historical Records of New South Wales, vol. II, pp. 821-86; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vol. I, pp. 568 and 771; J. A. Ferguson, Bibliography of Australia, vol. I, especially pp. 75-7; Edward Smith, The Story of the English Jacobins.
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GIBLIN, WILLIAM ROBERT (1840-1887),premier of Tasmania,
son of William Giblin, registrar of deeds, was born at Hobart on 4 November 1840. He was educated first at a school kept by his uncle Robert Giblin and afterwards at the high school, Hobart. Leaving school at 13 he was articled to John Roberts, solicitor. He was a great reader with a retentive memory, in 1862 won a prize for the best poem on the conversion of St Paul, and about this time delivered some lectures on literary subjects. In 1864 he was admitted as a barrister and solicitor, entered into partnership with John Dobson and subsequently with one of his sons Henry Dobson (q.v.). In the same year he was one of the founders of the Hobart Working Men's Club, was elected its president, and was re-elected on several occasions subsequently. He began to interest himself in public life and especially in the proposed railway from Hobart to Launceston. In 1869 he was elected without opposition as member for Hobart in the house of assembly, and in February 1870 became attorney-general in the J. M. Wilson (q.v.) ministry. Wilson resigned in November 1872 and was succeeded by F. M. Innes (q.v.). In August 1873 Giblin carried a motion of want of confidence but did not desire the premiership, and A. Kennerley (q.v.) formed a cabinet with Giblin as his attorney-general. This ministry lasted nearly three years and Giblin was able to bring in some useful legal legislation. In June 1877 Giblin lost his seat at the general election, but he was soon afterwards elected for Wellington and joined the cabinet of (Sir) P. O. Fysh (q.v.) as attorney-general, exchanging that position for the treasurership a few days later. When Fysh left for London in March 1878 Giblin succeeded him as premier and held office until 20 December. The W. L. Crowther (q.v.) government which followed could do little in the conditions of the period, and when it resigned in October 1879 Giblin realized that the only way to get useful work done would be to form a coalition ministry. This he succeeded in doing and he became premier and colonial treasurer on 30 October 1879. His government lasted nearly five years and during that period the finances of the colony were put in order and railways and roads were built. Much important work was done although the conservative elements in the legislative council succeeded in hampering the government to some extent. In December 1881 Giblin exchanged the position of treasurer for that of attorney-general with J. S. Dodds. He represented Tasmania at the intercolonial tariff conference at Sydney in 1881 and at the Sydney federal conference in 1883, and took an important part in the debates. In August 1884, Giblin resigned from the cabinet on account of failing health. He shortly afterwards accepted the position of puisne judge of the supreme court of Tasmania, and during the absence of the chief justice administered the government for a short period. He died at Hobart on 17 January 1887 in his 47th year. He married in 1865 Emily Jean Perkins who survived him with four sons and three daughters.
Giblin was a man of great sincerity and ability. In private life religious and philanthropic, in politics he was an excellent debater with statesmanlike ideals. The failure of his health and too early death closed a career of great promise. His son, Lyndhurst Falkiner Giblin, D.S.O., M.C., M.A., born in 1872, educated at the Hutchins school, Hobart and Cambridge university, fought with distinction in the 1914-18 war, was government statistician, Tasmania, 1920-8 and in 1929 became professor of economics in the university of Melbourne. On several occasions he undertook important work at the special request of the Commonwealth government, being acting Commonwealth statistician in 1931-2, member of the Commonwealth grants commission 1933-6 and director of the Commonwealth bank from 1935.
The Mercury, Hobart, 18 January 1887; J. Fenton, A History of Tasmania; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography; Who's Who in Australia, 1941.
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GIBSON, GEORGE HERBERT (1846-1921),writer of humorous verse,
was born at Plymouth, England, on 28 August 1846. His father was a solicitor and Gibson, after serving articles with him, qualified for the same profession in 1868. In the following year he went to New Zealand and then came to New South Wales, where he had experience on the land for some years. He joined the department of lands, Sydney, as a temporary clerk in June 1876 and was appointed to the permanent staff on 1 January 1877. He early began writing light verse for Sydney newspapers and in 1878 published Southerly Busters by Ironbark. He left the department of lands for a time, but joined it again in January 1882, and on 1 May 1883 was appointed a relieving crown land agent. He became inspector of crown land agents' offices on 20 August 1896, and in his official capacity travelled widely throughout New South Wales. He retired from the department on 30 June 1915 and lived at Lindfield until his death on 18 June 1921. He married late in life and left a widow and family. His second book Ironbark Chips and Stockwhip Cracks published in 1893 with excellent illustrations by Percy F. S. Spence (q.v.) and Alf Vincent, included a selection from Southerly Busters. His last volume Ironbark Splinters from the Australian Bush published in 1912 contained a collection of his verses contributed to the Bulletin with a few others from his previous book. A second edition with three additional poems was also published. A small volume of prose Old Friends under New Aspects was published in 1883.
Gibson was an amiable man full of quiet humour. His last book was his best, it "does not profess to be anything but the lightest of light reading" but his bush ballads were often excellent and were very popular.
J. H. Heaton, Australian Dictionary of Dates; Information from Department of Lands, Sydney; The Bulletin, 15 February 1906; E. Morris Miller, Australian Literature.
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GIBSON, SIR ROBERT (1864-1934),man of business,
son of John Edward Gibson, was born at Falkirk, Scotland, on 4 November 1864. He was educated at the Falkirk public school and joined the Camelon Iron Company, of which his father was managing director, at the age of 15. He was later apprenticed to R. Gardner and Company, Glasgow, and studied art and design at the Haldane academy. In 1887 he rejoined the Camelon Iron Company, and was appointed manager of its London office. He married in 1891 Winifred Moore of Glasgow and sailed to Australia. He was a designer and draughtsman for about six years at Melbourne, and in 1897 established the Australian Manufacturing Company Pty Ltd. Some 10 years later he founded the Lux Foundry Pty Ltd, and held a controlling interest in these companies for the rest of his life. He became very well known in the industrial and commercial life of Melbourne, and during the 1914-18 war did valuable work as a member of the coal board in connexion with the rationing of coal, gas and electric power. He was also appointed one of the seven honorary commissioners to administer the repatriation act, and was deputy chairman until the appointment of the permanent commission in 1920. He was chairman of the royal commission on federal economics, and was a member of the Victorian State electricity commission from its inception. He had great confidence in the future value of the works at Yallourn. In 1924 he was appointed a member of the Commonwealth bank board, was elected chairman in 1926, and was re-elected to that position each year. He was also a director of the Union Trustee Company Ltd., the National Mutual Life Association, the Chamber of Manufactures Insurance Company Ltd., and Robert Harper and Company Ltd. and was a representative or the Commonwealth government in connexion with the Commonwealth Oil Refineries Ltd. From 1922 to 1925 he was president of the Victorian Chamber of Manufactures, and also for a time president of the Associated Chambers of Manufactures of Australia. These many interests gave him a remarkable grasp of the financial position of Australia, and before the depression arrived in 1930 he had warned the federal government that difficult times were coming. When the Scullin government was endeavouring to grapple with the position, which was aggravated in Australia by the low prices being paid for wool and wheat, various currency devices were brought forward, and Gibson's firm attitude towards E. G. Theodore, the treasurer of the day, eventually made possible the adoption of the premiers' plan. There was some intriguing to displace Gibson from the Commonwealth bank board but these efforts were defeated. On 6 May 1931 he was called before the bar of the senate to give his views on the Commonwealth bank bill. He replied to the many questions asked fully and patiently and with such effect that it was said that the bill was dead before he left the chamber. An experienced reporter described it as the finest performance he had ever seen in parliament. Gibson, while disclaiming any intention that the Commonwealth bank should dictate to the government, was determined that no efforts should be spared to prevent inflation. In this he was successful but he felt the strain and responsibility of these years very much. He had a serious illness in 1933 and died on 1 January 1934. Lady Gibson survived him with two sons and five daughters. He was created C.B.E. in 1918, K.B.E. in 1920 and G.B.E. in 1932.
Gibson was quite unassuming and kindly, with a love for literature and art; he painted in water-colours as a hobby and was a good photographer. Though tactful his sincerity and candour were apparent to all, and his absolute sense of justice led to his being much employed as an arbitrator in industrial disputes. The secretary of one union described him as the whitest man he had met in or out of the Labour movement.
The Age and The Argus, Melbourne, 2 January 1934; The Herald, Melbourne, 1 January, 1934; The Bulletin, 10 January 1934, p. 8; Debrett's Peerage, etc, 1933.
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GIFFEN, GEORGE (1859-1927),cricketer,
was born at Adelaide on 27 March 1859. He played cricket with enthusiasm as a boy and attracted the notice of two brothers, Charles and James Gooden, who coached him. Early in 1877 he played for South Australia against a visiting East Melbourne team making 16 and 14, the highest score in each innings, but South Australian cricket was then much below the standard of the two eastern colonies. It was not until November 1880 that the first regular match between South Australia and Victoria took place at Melbourne. Giffen made 3 and 63 and took two wickets for 47 in the first innings. He became a regular member of the South Australian team and although he took a few seasons to develop his full powers, if he failed as a bat he usually made up for it with a good bowling performance. He was chosen for the 1882 Australian eleven but was not very successful, scoring 873 runs for an average of 18.18 and obtaining 32 wickets for an average of 22.75. He was also a member of the 1884, 1886, 1893 and 1896 teams, his best season being 1886 when he had a batting average of just under 27 and took 159 wickets for just over 17 runs each. But he was never quite so good a cricketer in England as he was in Australia, largely on account of the differences in the light and in the pace of the wickets. In Australia he had some remarkable performances, scoring 237 out of 472 in January 1891 against Victoria, and taking five wickets for 89 in the first innings and seven for 107 in the second. In the following November against Victoria he scored 271, his highest score, out of 562, and took nine for 96 in the first innings and seven for 70 in the second. As the years went on he became less consistent though still retaining his place in the South Australian team. He made a remarkable return to his best form in his last match against Victoria in 1903 within a month of his forty-fourth birthday, scoring 81 and 97 not out, and obtaining seven wickets for 75 and eight for 110. He retired from first-class cricket at the end of that year, but for many years continued to bowl at the nets and enthusiastically coach boy cricketers playing in the Adelaide parks. He was an official in the postal department at Adelaide from which he retired in March 1925. He died at Adelaide on 29 November 1927. He was unmarried. His portrait in oils is in the pavilion at the Adelaide cricket ground. A brother, Walter F. Giffen, was also a capable cricketer.
Giffen was the backbone of the South Australian team for many years, and may be said to have made South Australian cricket. As a batsman he had excellent defence and drove with power, making most of his runs in front of the wicket. He bowled slow medium pace with a good off break, and caught and bowled many batsmen with a deceptive slower dropping ball. He was the finest all-round Australian cricketer of his day and of the men since his time only Armstrong and Noble (q.v.) could dispute his pre-eminence.
The Advertiser, Adelaide, 30 November 1927; The Argus, Melbourne, 30 November 1927; G. Giffen, With Bat and Ball; C. B. O'Reilly, South Australian Cricket, 1880-1930.
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GILBERT, CHARLES WEB (1867-1925),sculptor,
was born near Maryborough, Victoria, on 18 March 1867. His father died when he was two months old and his mother was left with three young children. Gilbert received a state school education but began to earn his living before he was 10 years old. Coming to Melbourne he obtained a position at Parer's hotel where he eventually became a chef. It has been stated that the modelling of ornaments for weddingcakes first turned his thoughts in the direction of sculpture. He entered the national gallery drawing school in 1888 and attended for two and a half years, but never went on to the painting school. In the late eighteen-nineties he began to exhibit at the Yarra Sculptors' Society and the Victorian Artists' Society. Until 1905 his work was all in marble and when he began experimenting in casting in bronze he met with many difficulties and could find no one in Melbourne to help him. He persevered, became an excellent caster, and among others did portrait heads in bronze of J. Mather (q.v.), A. McClintock, John Shirlow (q.v.), Hugh McCrae and Bernard O'Dowd. The last was acquired for the national gallery of Victoria in 1913 under the Felton bequest.
In May 1914, encouraged and helped by an American resident of Melbourne, Hugo Meyer, Gilbert went to London and in spite of the war persevered with his work as he was well over military age . He exhibited at the Royal Academy where the sincerity of his work met with early appreciation, and in 1917 his marble head "The Critic" was purchased for the Tate gallery through the Chantrey bequest. He was nominated also for an associateship of the Royal Academy. He was then employed as a war artist by the Commonwealth government and made many models for the war museum of country over which the Australians fought. He returned to Australia in 1920 and completed the 2nd Division monument which was afterwards unveiled at Mont St Quentin in the presence of Marshal Foch. His other war memorials include those for the Melbourne university medical school and the Victorian Chamber of Manufactures. Another important work was the group of three figures for the Flinder's memorial which stands outside St Paul's cathedral, Melbourne. His next important piece of work was the Australian memorial for Port Said. Gilbert had always been accustomed to doing everything for himself, and wore himself out carrying clay for the huge full size model and died suddenly on 3 October 1925. His first marriage was unfortunate and was dissolved. He married again while in London and left a widow with two sons and a daughter.
Gilbert was a man of simple, kindly nature beloved by his fellow artists and friends. He could do generous even quixotic things, but never anything unworthy. He carved and cast most of his work himself and in his modelling had a remarkable feeling for both the planes and the lines of his compositions. His work resolved itself into beautiful profiles from every angle. He was practically self-taught, for there was no instruction in modelling at the national gallery schools, and his work, in no way derivative, was always sensitive to beauty. He is well represented in the national gallery at Melbourne and also in the Sydney gallery.
The Herald, Melbourne, 3 and 6 January, 1920, 5 October 1925; The Argus, Melbourne, 5 October 1925; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; personal knowledge.
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GILBERT, JOHN (c.1815?-1845),naturalist.
Nothing is known of the early days of Gilbert. From his Australian diary we learn that his birthday was on 14 March but the year is not given. We know that his father, William Gilbert, was alive and still working in 1846; there is every probability that the son was aged 21 or more when he came from New Zealand to Australia in 1838. Putting one thing and another together we may fairly safely assume that he was born within a few years of 1815. He was engaged by John Gould (q.v.) as an assistant in connexion with his work, the Birds of Australia, and he arrived with Gould at Hobart on the Parsee on 19 September 1838. Both worked in Tasmania for a few months, but on 4 February 1839 Gilbert went to the Swan River settlement. He worked there, mostly in the vicinity of Perth, gathering specimens for Gould for 11 months. He then sailed for Sydney, in the middle of June 1840 took ship to Port Essington in the north of Australia, and in March 1841 sailed to Singapore calling at Timor on the way. From there he sailed for London and arrived about the end of September. He had collected a very large number of birds for Gould, and made many notes on their habits.
In February 1842 Gilbert again left for Australia to obtain further specimens. As on the previous occasion it was agreed he was to be paid £100 a year and expenses. He reached Perth in July and remained 17 months in Western Australia. He travelled considerable distances from Perth, making some of his most interesting discoveries among the Wongan Hills, about 100 miles north-east of Perth. He was a fine naturalist and his notes on birds, their habits, diet, song and the names given them by the aborigines were all of great interest and value. He collected specimens of 432 birds, including 36 species new to Western Australia, and 318 mammals, including 22 species not previously known in the west. By the end of January 1844 he was back in Sydney and during the next six months worked his way to the Darling Downs in Queensland. While he was considering which part of the continent should next be investigated Leichhardt (q.v.) arrived with the other members of his expedition to Port Essington, and Gilbert was allowed to join the party in September 1844. In November it was decided that the party was too large for the amount of provisions they had with them, and Leichhardt ruled that the two who had joined last should return. Eventually, however, it was decided that Hodgson and Caleb, a negro, should return, and Gilbert remained to become later on practically the second in command of the expedition. One member of the party, a boy of 16, was too young to be of much use and the leader's treatment of the two aboriginal members of the party was lacking in tact and consideration. A good deal of responsibility therefore fell upon Gilbert, who was the best bushman of a very mixed company. The progress made for several months was much less than was anticipated and by May 1845 supplies of food were running very short. On 28 June, when approaching the Gulf of Carpentaria, the party was attacked by aborigines at night and Gilbert was speared in the throat, dying almost immediately. Other members of the expedition received several spear thrusts but recovered. Leichhardt then turned south-westerly, skirting the gulf for a while, and reached Port Essington almost exhausted in December 1845. Leichhardt preserved Gilbert's papers and his diary, which, however, was lost for nearly 100 years before its discovery by A. H. Chisholm. Almost everything that is known about Gilbert we owe to Chisholm's researches, which show Gilbert as a man of much ability and fine character. There is a memorial to him in St James church, Sydney.
A. H. Chisholm, Strange New World; A. H. Chisholm, "The Story of John Gilbert", The Emu, January 1940; Mrs C. D. Cotton, Ludwig Leichhardt.
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GILES, ERNEST (1835?-1897),explorer,
[ also refer to Ernest GILES page at Project Gutenberg Australia]
son of William and Jane Elizabeth Giles, was born at Bristol, England. John's Australian Biographical Dictionary states that he was born on 20 July 1835, the Australian Encyclopaedia says 1836, the obituary notice in the Geographical Journal, "about the year 1847", and the Coolgardie Miner, at the time of his death, implied that the date was about 1820. Neither of the last two dates can be correct; The Geographical Journal's is obviously too late. Taking other things into consideration the most probable date appears to be about 1835. He was educated at Christ's Hospital school, London, and in 1850 joined his parents who had preceded him to South Australia. In 1852 he went to the Victorian goldfields, then obtained a position in the G.P.O. Melbourne, and afterwards one in the county court. Tiring of town life he went to the back country and obtained valuable experience as a bushman; he was exploring on the Darling in 1861, looking for pastoral country. He did not, however, attempt a regular exploring expedition until 1872, when with two other men he left Chambers' Pillar in South Australia about the middle of August and traversed much previously untrodden country to the north-west and west. Finding their way barred by Lake Amadeus and that their horses were getting very weak, a return was made to the Finke River and thence to Charlotte Waters and Adelaide, where Giles arrived in January 1873. He looked upon his expedition as a failure, but he had done well considering the size and equipment of his party. His friend Baron von Mueller (q.v.) raised a subscription so that a fresh start could be made. The services of W. H. Tietkins as first assistant was obtained, and with two other men a start was made on 4 August 1873. The journey began considerably south from the previous expedition and from the Alberga River a generally western course was steered. A month later in the Musgrave Ranges a fine running river was found and named the Ferdinand and by 3 October the party was approaching longitude 128. The country was extremely dry and though tested in various directions it was a constant struggle to get enough water to keep the horses going. Early in November, having passed longitude 126, a partial return was made and on 20 December the neighbourhood of Mount Scott was reached. A turn to the north and then west was made and the farthest westerly point was reached on 23 April 1874. Giles and one of the men, Gibson, had been scouting ahead when the latter's horse died. Giles gave him his own horse with instructions to follow their tracks back and obtain assistance. Giles made his way back to their depot on foot in eight days, almost completely exhausted, to find that Gibson had not reached the camp. A search was made for him for several days without success. The stores were almost finished, nothing further could be done, and on 21 May the return journey began. On 24 June they were on a good track to the Finke River and on 13 July 1874 Charlotte Waters was reached. Giles had again failed to cross the continent, but in the circumstances all had been done that was possible.
Early in 1875 Giles prepared his diaries for publication under the title Geographic Travels in Central Australia, and on 13 March, with the generous help of Sir Thomas Elder (q.v.), he began his third expedition. Proceeding considerably to the north from Fowler's Bay the country was found to be very dry. Retracing his steps Giles turned east, and eventually going round the north side of Lake Torrens reached Elder's station at Beltana. There the preparations for his fourth journey were made, and with Tietkins again his lieutenant, and with what Giles had always wanted, a caravan of camels, a start was made on 6 May. Port Augusta was reached on 23 May and, after taking a northerly course to clear the lakes, a generally westerly course was followed. Some water was carried, and the party was saved the continual excursions in search of water for horses that had caused so much difficulty to the previous expeditions. Towards the end of September over 320 miles had been covered without finding a drop of water, when almost by accident a fine supply was found in a small hollow and the whole party was saved. After a rest of nine days the journey was resumed on 6 October the course being still west. Ten days later the expedition was attacked by a large body of aborigines and Giles was compelled to fire on them. On 4 November they met a white stockman belonging to an outlying station. Their course was now south-west and on 13 November 1875 at Culham station they were met by John Forrest (q.v.), who escorted them to Perth where they had an enthusiastic reception a few days later.
Giles stayed for two months at Perth. Tietkins and Young, another member of the expedition, went back to Adelaide by sea, and on 13 January 1876 Giles began the return journey taking a course generally about 400 miles north of the last journey. He arrived at Adelaide in September 1876 after a good journey during which the camels were found to be invaluable. In 1880 Giles published The Journal of a Forgotten Expedition, being an account of his third expedition, and in 1889 appeared Australia Twice Traversed: The Romance of Exploration in two substantial volumes. This gives an account of his five expeditions. His last years were spent as a clerk in the warden's office at Coolgardie, where his great knowledge of the interior was always available for prospectors. He died unmarried at Coolgardie on 13 November 1897. He was given the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1880.
Giles was a first-rate bushman and a great explorer. Unlike some of the earlier explorers he received little reward for his work, and he was allowed to drop into obscurity. It would have pleased him could he have known that the finest appreciation of his work was to be written by a competent observer nearly 40 years after his death, "All who have worked in that country since Giles's time have felt both admiration and astonishment at the splendid horsecraft, the endurance, and the unwavering determination with which these explorations were carried through. . . . To read Giles's simple account of those terrible rides into the unknown on dying horses with an unrelieved diet of dried horse for weeks at a time, with the waters behind dried out and those ahead still to find, is to marvel at the character and strength of the motive which could hold a man constant in such a course". (H. H. Finlayson, The Red Centre).
Giles's own publications; The South Australian Register, 15 November 1897; E. Favenc, The Explorers of Australia; The Geographical Journal, January 1898.
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GILL, HARRY PELLING (1855-1916),artist,
was born at Brighton, England, in 1855. He studied at the Brighton School of Art and at South Kensington where he won a scholarship. In 1882 he was appointed master of the school of design at Adelaide and held this position for 27 years. He was appointed honorary curator of the art gallery of South Australia, and in 1899 visited Europe where, with the assistance of a committee, he spent £10,000 on works of art. It was generally agreed that very good judgment had been shown in making these purchases. Gill was for some time president of the South Australian Society of Arts, and in 1909 was appointed principal and examiner of the Adelaide School of Art. He resigned this position on 1 July 1915 on account of ill health, and died on 25 May 1916 while on a voyage to England. Gill had a good reputation as a teacher and lecturer. An oil and three of his water-colours are in the art gallery at Adelaide. He married and was survived by his wife and two sons.
The Advertiser and The Register, Adelaide 31 May 1916; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; private information.
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GILL, SAMUEL THOMAS (1818-1880),artist,
was born at Perrington, Somerset, England, on 21 May 1818. His father, the Reverend Samuel Gill, became headmaster of a school at Plymouth, and the son was educated first at this school, and then at Dr Seabrook's academy in the same city. He arrived in Adelaide with his parents in December 1839, and in the following year opened a studio and advertised that he was prepared to execute portraits. In 1846 he was a member of the J. A. Horrocks exploring expedition which came to an end by the accidental death of Horrocks. In January 1847 Gill raffled some sketches made by him on the journey, and in February an exhibition of pictures was held in Adelaide of which he appears to have been the organizer. In 1849 he published Heads of the People, 12 lithographic sketches of South Australian colonists. He went to Victoria in 1851 and made many sketches illustrating life on the goldfields, which were lithographed and published at Melbourne in two parts under the title A Series of Sketches of the Victoria Gold Diggings and Diggers as they are (not dated but probably issued about the end of 1852). Seven excellent coloured lithographs of Melbourne scenes were executed in 1854, and in 1855 appeared another series of lithographs, The Diggers, Diggings of Victoria as they are in 1855. In 1856 he visited Sydney where he published some views of Sydney in booklet form. It is not clear when he returned to Melbourne, but in 1857 a large collection of his drawings engraved on steel by J. Tingle was published there under the title of Victoria Illustrated. A second series was published in 1862. Gill also provided the illustrations for Edward Wilson's Rambles in the Antipodes published in 1859. In 1860 a series of 25 Sketches in Victoria appeared, and in 1865 a set of coloured lithographs of scenes from bush life, The Australian Sketchbook, was published at Melbourne. Several of his water-colours were shown at the Melbourne exhibition of 1866-7, and in 1869 he was commissioned by the trustees of the Melbourne public library to do 40 water-colour drawings illustrating the diggings in the fifties. He appears to have done comparatively little work after this date and was drinking heavily for some years. On 27 October 1880 he fell in the street and died, and was buried in a public grave. In October 1913, at the suggestion of Mr Arthur Peck, the Historical Society of Victoria organized a subscription, had the artist's remains removed to a private grave, and erected a tombstone. The inscription understates Gill's age by two years, but little was then known of his early life.
Gill's landscapes show him to have been a competent craftsman in water-colour, sometimes working with a flowing brush and at other times using gum or body-colour. His diggings scenes reveal a talent for caricature and form an interesting commentary on the period. A large collection of his drawings is at the Melbourne public library, several are at the national gallery at Adelaide, and he is also well represented at the Mitchell library and the Commonwealth national library at Canberra.
A. W. Greig, The Victorian Historical Magazine, March 1914; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; Basil Burdett, Art in Australia, April 1933; The Herald, Melbourne, 31 August 1940; W. H. Langham, Bulletin of the National Gallery of South Australia, March 1940.
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GILLEN, FRANCIS JAMES (1855-1912),anthropologist,
eldest son of Thomas Gillen, was born at Clare near Adelaide on 28 October 1855. The year of his birth is sometimes given as 1856, but the earlier date appears to be more likely. He entered the post and telegraph service on 15 January 1867 and, after occupying various junior positions, became an operator on the trans-continental line on 1 April 1875. On 1 December 1892 he was promoted to the position of post and telegraph master at Alice Springs and there, when the Horn expedition came to Central Australia about 18 months later, he met Professor, afterwards Sir, W. Baldwin Spencer (q.v.), the zoologist to the expedition. Gillen had been studying the aborigines for some time and the result of his work was incorporated in Part IV of the Report on the Work of the Horn Scientific Expedition to Central Australia. Spencer was able to suggest to Gillen various lines of inquiry, and two years later came back to Alice Springs to take up with him the study of the Arunta tribe. Writing to the Rev. Lorimer Fison (q.v.) Spencer mentions that Gillen is called "the Oknirrabata", which means "great teacher". He goes on to say that Gillen knew the language deeply enough to understand most of what was said. Gillen in fact knew more than the language of the simple folk around him; he understood their feelings and was an example to everyone in his treatment of the aborigines. The result of their studies was The Native Tribes of Central Australia, which was published by Macmillan in 1899 with both names on the titlepage. In 1900 Gillen was elected president of the anthropological section at the meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science held at Melbourne and enjoyed the experience very much. To Spencer's regret he had been transferred from Alice Springs to Moonta in 1899, but in 1901 he was given leave by the South Australian government to join Spencer in an expedition which took them up to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Both men were full of energy, and they did an enormous amount of work endeavouring to obtain information from the natives. The climate was very trying, but they escaped serious illness and three years later The Northern Tribes of Central Australia appeared. Gillen remained at Moonta until July 1908 when he became postmaster at Port Pirie. In that year Spencer was hoping to arrange to go with him to Western Australia, but Gillen's health began to fall and it was found to be impossible. In 1911, although his mind was quite clear, he was weakening physically, and he died on 5 June 1912. His wife, formerly Miss Besley of Mount Gambier, three daughters and two sons survived him. A brother, Peter Paul Gillen, who was for many years a member of the South Australian legislative assembly, predeceased him.
Gillen was a first-rate departmental officer and while living in Central Australia was appointed a special magistrate and sub-protector of aborigines. His special distinction came from his great knowledge of native manners and customs. Spencer valued this so much that not only was Gillen's name placed on the title-pages of the books written before the year of his death, it appeared also as joint author of The Arunta which was published in 1927, 15 years after. Writing to his widow Spencer said: "I look back on his friendship as one of the greatest privileges and blessings of my life."
Gillen was "impetuous, generous, witty, and bubbling over with energy", but always extremely modest about his own achievements. The negatives of his remarkable collection of photographs of aboriginal life are now the property of the South Australian government.
Marett and Penniman, Spencer's Last Journey; Spencer's Scientific Correspondence; The Advertiser, Adelaide, 6 June 1912; The Register, Adelaide, 6 June 1912.
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GILLIES, DUNCAN (1834-1903),premier of Victoria,
was born at Overnewton near Glasgow, where his father had a market garden, in January 1834. His mother was a woman of great shrewdness and strength of character, much interested in the education of her children. Gillies was sent to the high school until he was about 14, when he entered an office in Glasgow. He emigrated to Australia and arrived in Port Phillip in December 1852. He went to the diggings at Ballarat, and it has been stated that he was one of the leaders of the diggers during the troubles which culminated at the Eureka Stockade in December 1854. This appears to be unlikely as he was little more than 20 at the time, and his name is not included among those of the prominent men by the historians of the period. However, in February 1858 he was elected a member of the first Ballarat mining board. In 1859 he was selected to represent Ballarat West in the legislative assembly of Victoria, and he was re-elected for the same constituency four times during the next 10 years. During this period he established a reputation in the house as a capable debater. In May 1868 he became president of the board of land and works in the Sladen (q.v.) ministry, but on going before the electors lost his seat. At the next election he came in for Maryborough and in June 1872 he was commissioner of railways and roads in the Francis (q.v.) and Kerford (q.v.) ministries from June 1872 to June 1875. He was again in office in October 1875 in the McCulloch (q.v.) ministry as president of the board of land and works and minister of agriculture. At the next election, held in 1877, he was returned for Rodney, but was unseated on the ground that undue influence had been used by the lands department by the issue of leases to electors during the contest. The committee found, however, that this influence had been used without the knowledge of the candidate. A new election was held in November, when Gillies was again returned, and he retained his seat in 1880. He was minister of railways in the shortlived Service (q.v.) ministry, and when Service returned to power in March 1883 had the same office, and in addition was minister of public instruction. When Service retired in February 1886 Gillies became premier and was also treasurer and minister of railways. This government lasted nearly five years, during a period of great confidence, and there was no doubt much extravagance. Gillies had the reputation of being shrewd and hardheaded, but he does not appear to have tried to check the extravagance of the time, and must take his share of the blame for the long period of depression that began in the early eighteen-nineties. He was for a time lukewarm on the question of federation, and in 1889, when Parkes (q.v.) raised the question again, was doubtful whether it was immediately practicable. However, during the Melbourne conference of 1890, over which he presided, he became more hopeful and agreed that the difficulties were not insuperable. Towards the end of the year Gillies brought before the Victorian parliament a huge railway bill involving an expenditure of about £8,000,000. Unemployment was increasing, partly on account of a great maritime strike, but principally because of the beginning of one of those reactions that always follow a boom period. On 5 November 1890 the Gillies ministry resigned and its leader never again held office. He was appointed agent-general in London in 1894 and held the position for about three years. On his return in 1897 he was elected to the assembly for Toorak, and in 1902 was unanimously elected speaker. But he showed failing health and powers, and a severe illness kept him away front the house for some months. He died on 12 September 1903. He had always been considered to be a bachelor, but after his death it was disclosed that in 1897 he had married in London Mrs Turquand Fillan who survived him without issue. He declined the honour of K.C.M.G. in 1887.
Gillies for most of his lifetime was not personally popular. He was considered reserved and somewhat unsympathetic, but towards the end of his life, when father of the house, he mellowed and was generally liked. As a freetrader and a one-time working man generally voting on the conservative side, he was much criticized by the protectionist and radical press. He originated little legislation of importance, but was a good administrator and a man of force of character, shrewd and honest of purpose.
The Argus, Melbourne, 14 September 1903; The Age, Melbourne, 15 September 1903. H . G. Turner, A History of the Colony of Victoria; Quick and Garran, The Annotated Constitution of the Australian Commonwealth; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.
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GILLIES, WILLIAM NEAL (1868-1928),premier of Queensland,
was born in the Allen River district of New South Wales, on 28 October 1868. His father, Dugald Gillies, was a farmer, and both parents came from Scotland. Gillies was educated at local schools and in 1882 went with his parents to the Richmond River country. There he took up farming including sugar-cane growing, and began to be interested in public affairs. He was an active member of the anti-alien league, and afterwards became president of the New South Wales sugar growers defence league. At the federal election of 1910 he unsuccessfully stood as a Labour candidate for the Richmond seat, and was again defeated when he stood for the New South Wales legislative assembly in the same district. In 1911 he took up land in Queensland and in 1912 won the Eacham seat for Labour in the Queensland parliament. He held this seat until his retirement from politics. He was assistant-minister for justice in the Ryan (q.v.) ministry from April 1918 to September 1919 and for a few weeks until 22 October, was secretary for agriculture and stock. He held the last position in the Theodore ministry from October 1919, and his practical experience as a farmer was found to be of great use. Many amendments were made in existing legislation relating to agriculture and no fewer than 14 new measures were passed. This period was marked by the establishment of the cotton industry and the stabilization of the sugar and farming industries. On the resignation of Theodore, Gillies became premier on 26 February 1925, taking the positions of chief secretary and treasurer, and vice-president of the executive council. He was premier during a period of great labour unrest with constantly occurring strikes. Himself a man of moderate views he found the more extreme section of the party very active, and he was beset with anxieties. He compromised as much as possible, but on 27 October 1925 was glad to resign and become a member of the newly-established board of trade and arbitration. He gave much study to the problems to be dealt with and carried out his work with conspicuous fairness. He, however, felt the strain very much and died suddenly on 9 February 1928. He married in 1900 Margaret Smith who survived him with a son and a daughter.
Gillies was a good type of politician, honest and hardworking, who did sound work for his party and his country. He did not, however, have sufficient personality to be a good leader when he found himself in difficult circumstances.
The Brisbane Courier, 10 February 1928; The Labour Daily, Sydney, 10 February 1928; C. A. Bernays, Queensland--Our Seventh Political Decade; The Bulletin, 15 February 1928.
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GIPPS, SIR GEORGE (1790-1847),governor of New South Wales,
was the eldest son of the Rev. George Gipps and was born at Ringwold, Kent, in 1790, or possibly early in 1791. He was educated at the King's School, Canterbury, and the military academy, Woolwich. He entered the army as a second lieutenant of the royal engineers in January 1809, and in March 1812 was wounded at the siege of Badajoz. He continued to see service in the Peninsular campaigns, and in September 1814 became a captain. From November 1814 until July 1817 he was with the Duke of Wellington's army in Flanders and France, but missed Waterloo because he was engaged in preparing fortifications at Ostend. On his return to England he was for some years at Chatham, and from 1824 to 1829 in the West Indies, where he showed good administrative qualities A report he made on the question of the emancipation of the slaves in these colonies impressed the ministry of the period, which appointed him to two government commissions dealing with the boundaries of constituencies in England and Ireland. He became private secretary to Lord Auckland, who was then first lord of the admiralty, in 1834, and in the following year was appointed a commissioner with the Earl of Gosford and Sir Charles E. Grey to inquire into grievances in Canada. Their report was drawn up by Gipps and was adopted by the house of commons. He was knighted, was promoted to the rank of major, and returned to England in April 1837. He was appointed governor of New South Wales on 5 October 1837, and arrived at Sydney on 23 February 1838.
Gipps's term as governor was a stormy one. The transition towards responsible government that was taking place gave many opportunities for differences of opinion, and the fight was often waged with a bitterness difficult to conceive. It was still proceeding when the governor left the colony. Another contentious matter was the education question. The practice brought in by Sir Richard Bourke (q.v.) of granting a pound for pound subsidy on all private subscriptions had resulted in the formation of several small sectarian schools in the same district. The effect was that these schools were neither efficient nor economical and they led to sectarian strife. Various schemes were brought forward, but one could not be found which received general approval. The chief opposition came from the Church of England, the largest religious body in the colony, and Gipps was not to blame because no solution was found during his period of office. Another problem was the government of the settlers in the Port Phillip district, which was partially solved by the appointment in 1839 of Charles J. La Trobe (q.v.) as superintendent under Gipps's direction. Provision was also made that in the new council there should be six representatives of the Port Phillip district. But Melbourne in the then state of communications was very far away from Sydney, and it was impossible to find local representatives able and willing to live part of the year at Sydney. A still more pressing question was the problem of the land held by the squatters who as their flocks increased had gone farther and farther afield seeking grazing land. They naturally desired some security of tenure, but the system of occupation grew more and more confused, and in 1844 Gipps endeavoured to put some order into it. His regulations issued in April 1844 required a licence fee of £10 a year, in most cases the area of each station was limited to 20 square miles, and no one licence covered a station capable of depasturing more than 500 head of cattle and 7000 sheep. This brought a storm of protests from the squatters and led to the foundation of the Pastoral Association of New South Wales, and the struggle continued until the departure of the governor. His term of office expired in February 1844, but the colonial office valued his work and extended his appointment. In August 1845 he received a dispatch from Lord Stanley intimating that his successor might be expected to arrive towards the end of the year. Sir Charles Fitzroy (q.v.), however, did not actually reach Australia until 2 August 1846. Gipps had departed on the previous 11 July. He had felt the strain very much, and shortly before his departure mentioned in public that he had stayed too long for the good of his health. He arrived in England on 20 November 1846 and died suddenly from heart failure on 28 February 1847. He married in 1830 Elizabeth, daughter of Major-General George Ramsay, who survived him with one son, afterwards Sir Reginald Ramsay Gipps, a general in the British army. A monument to Sir George Gipps is in Canterbury cathedral.
Gipps was a man of great ability and wisdom, conscientious, self-reliant, hard-working, and determined. Unfortunately for his own peace of mind he had to deal with difficult problems arising out of the movement towards responsible government. He also came in conflict with the vested interests of the squatters and incurred much abuse. (Sir) James Martin (q.v.) when a young man wrote an article for the Atlas in which he said of Gipps: "He showed himself to be possessed of every quality necessary for a bad governor, with scarcely any one of the requisites of a good one, and his eight years' administration will be a sort of plague spot in our history" (quoted in G. B. Barton's Poets and Prose Writers of New South Wales, p. 67). When he left, both the Sydney newspapers, the Sydney Morning Herald and the Empire, called Gipps "the worst governor the colony had ever had". That has not been the verdict of history. Gipps may possibly have had rather too exalted an idea of the powers of the governor, and he could on occasions be arrogant and tactless, but he was none the less a great man and a great governor in a difficult time. Jose, in his History of Australia, speaks of "his clear judgment . . . his great qualities. . . . No governor has been more unpopular, none less deserved unpopularity". Sir Ernest Scott, in A Short History of Australia, referring to his unpopularity says "he was, in truth, a singularly able and most conscientious and high-minded governor". Frederick Watson, editor of The Historical Records of Australia, takes a similar view (see p. VIII, vol. XIX and p. XVII, vol. XXIV), as does also S. H. Roberts, in his The Squatting Age in Australia. During his term as governor Gipps did much to encourage exploration, the amount of land under cultivation was very largely increased, and the population was more than doubled.
The Gentleman's Magazine, April 1847; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. XIX to XXV; S. K. Barker, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XVI, pp. 169-260, a careful and balanced study of the period; S. H. Roberts, The Squatting Age in Australia; Official History of New South Wales; Men and Women of the Time, 1899.
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GLEDDEN, ROBERT (1855-1927),public benefactor,
was born at Bishopwearmouth, Durham, England, on 26 December 1855. In his youth he spent many years in Germany, Finland and other continental countries, and became a good linguist. He came to Australia about the year 1890 and was licensed as a surveyor in Queensland. He went to Perth about the beginning of 1892, and after practising for a few months as a surveyor was asked by W. Marmion, then the minister of lands, to take charge of mining surveys at Coolgardie. He made a preliminary survey there and about a year later laid out the site of Kalgoorlie. He at times acted as mining registrar and warden, and was well acquainted with all the early pioneers at the goldfields. Having a good memory and a keen sense of humour his reminiscences of life during the early days of the goldfields were found very interesting in later years. He retired in 1900 and spent much time travelling with his wife before settling at Caulfield near Melbourne. After his wife died about 1921, Gleddon continued to travel, but kept his interest in Western Australia and spent a good deal of his time there. He died at Perth on 5 November 1927. He had no children. He was a good business man and made money largely out of investing in land in Western Australia. His will provided that the whole of his estate, subject to three annuities, should go to the university of Western Australia to provide scholarships in applied science, beginning 10 years after his death. The amount made available to the university was about £55,000, and the income is used mainly to provide the Robert Gledden and Maud Gledden travelling fellowships of £750 a year. In addition there are Gledden studentships to enable engineers or surveyors to travel to other parts of Australia, and Gledden scholarships to assist students in engineering, surveying or the applied sciences generally.
The West Australian, 7 November 1927; information from the Registrar, University of Western Australia.
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GLOVER, JOHN (1767-1849),artist,
was born in Leicestershire, England, on 18 February 1767, the son of William Glover, a small farmer. He showed a talent for drawing at an early age, and in 1794 was practising as an artist and drawing-master at Lichfield. He removed to London in 1805, became a member of the Old Water Colour Society, and was elected its president in 1807. In the ensuing years he exhibited a large number of pictures at the exhibitions of this society, and also at the Royal Academy and the Society of British Artists. He had one-man shows in London in 1823 and 1824. He was a very successful artist and, although never elected a member of the Academy, his reputation stood very high with the public. In 1830 he left for Tasmania taking his family with him, and arrived in February 1831. He bought an estate called Patterdale, on the northern slopes of Ben Lomond, continued to paint until near the end of his life, and occasionally sent his works to London. During his last few years he spent most of his time reading, and died at Launceston on 9 December 1849. He was survived by his wife, sons and daughters.
Glover was a very capable artist who painted mostly in water-colours. His Australian paintings rather lack colour. His pictures have possibly faded, like much of the work of his period. Many examples of his art are in English galleries, and he is also represented at Melbourne, Hobart, Launceston and in private collections especially in Tasmania.
Basil S. Long, John Glover; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art.
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GLYNN, PATRICK McMAHON (1855-1931),politician,
was born at Gort, County Galway, Ireland, on 25 August 1855. Educated at the French College, Blackrock, he was articled to a solicitor at Dublin, graduated B.A. at Dublin in 1878, and subsequently took the LL.B. degree. He was called to the Irish bar in 1879 and emigrated to Victoria in the following year. In 1882 he went to South Australia and practised his profession at Adelaide and Kapunda, where he also edited for some time the Kapunda Herald. In 1887 he was elected to the South Australian assembly for Light, and in 1895 he became the representative of North Adelaide. He was prominent in the federal movement, was elected one of the representatives of South Australia at the 1897 convention, sat on the judiciary committee, and did useful work. In 1899 he became attorney-general in the Solomon ministry which, however, lasted only a week.
At the first federal election Glynn was returned to the house of representatives as member for Angas and was subsequently more than once elected unopposed for this electorate. He showed ability and knowledge as a constitutional lawyer. He was active in the negotiations on the Murray waters question, and was chairman of the inter-state commission which drafted the Murray waters bill of 1907. He became attorney-general in the Deakin (q.v.) ministry in June 1909 and minister for external affairs in the Cook ministry from June 1913 to September 1914. He visited England at the invitation of the Imperial parliamentary association in 1916, and on his return was minister for home and territories in the Hughes ministries from February 1917 until February 1920. Defeated at the general election at the end of 1919 he retired from politics, and died on 28 October 1931. He married Abigail Dynon, who predeceased him, and was survived by two sons and four daughters. He was a fine Shakespearian scholar; several of his literary papers were published, as were also various legal and political pamphlets.
Glynn was a highly cultivated, eloquent Irishman who became a good Australian. He exercised much influence in South Australia in the later stages of the federation campaign, and proved himself an excellent fighter in the federal arena especially in connexion with legal matters and the constitution.
The Advertiser, Adelaide, 29 October 1931; H. G. Turner, The First Decade of the Australian Commonwealth.
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GOE, FIELD FLOWERS (1832-1910),anglican bishop of Melbourne,
son of Field Flowers Goe, solicitor, was born in 1832 at Louth, Lincolnshire, England. He was educated at the grammar school at Louth and Hertford College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 1857 and M.A. in 1860. He was ordained deacon and priest in 1858, and in the same year was appointed curate at Kingston-on-Hull. He was rector of Sunderland from 1873 to 1877 and St George's, Bloomsbury, London, from 1877 to 1887. He had shown ability as a parish worker, preacher, and organizer, and in 1886 was appointed bishop of Melbourne in succession to Moorhouse (q.v.). Though strongly evangelical he was not bigoted, and had signed the memorial protesting against the persecution of the ritualists. He was installed at the cathedral church of St James, Melbourne, on 14 April 1887. Goe was aware of many problems in his church which needed attention, but resolved that until the cathedral could be finished and paid for, these must stand aside. St Paul's cathedral, Melbourne, was completed, except for its spires, and consecrated on 22 January 1891. By that time the land boom had burst and for the next 10 years Melbourne suffered from a severe depression. The financial question in fact caused so many difficulties that it was almost impossible to do more than mark time. The forming of new dioceses had several times been discussed and on 3 October 1901 an act was passed in the church assembly which gave to the state of Victoria three additional bishoprics, Bendigo, Wangaratta, and Gippsland. Goe resigned on 1 November but acted as administrator until his departure for England on 7 April 1902. He lived in retirement at Wimbledon, near London. until his death on 25 June 1910. He married in 1861 Emma, daughter of William Hurst, who died in 1901. They had no children.
Goe was a big man, full of kindliness. He was neither a great scholar nor a great thinker, but he was a man of shrewd sense who preached peace on earth and goodwill to all men, and kept his diocese going through a difficult period.
The Times, 29 June 1910; The Argus, 30 June 1910; Crockfords Clerical Directory, 1910; Year Books of the Diocese of Melbourne, 1899-1902.
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GOLDSBROUGH, RICHARD (1821-1886),business man,
son of Joshua Goldsbrough, was born at Shipley, Yorkshire, in October 1821. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a Bradford firm and became a wool stapler. He began working for himself in a small way in 1842, purchasing clips and sorting them for the manufacturers. His business was prospering, but feeling that Australia offered him a wider field, he sailed from Liverpool in 1847 and after a short stay at Adelaide went on to Melbourne. He began business there in 1848, and in 1853 went into partnership with E. Row and George Kirk under the name of E. Row and Company. In 1857 he took Hugh Parker into partnership and the business of R. Goldsbrough and Company was established. The building at the corner of Bourke- and William-streets was begun in 1862, other partners were admitted in later years, and in 1881 the business was amalgamated with the Australasian Agency and Banking Corporation and formed into a public company, of which Goldsbrough was chairman of directors. He died at Melbourne on 8 April 1886. His wife had died some years before and there were no surviving children.
Goldsbrough took no part in public life. He was essentially a business man, always abreast of the times. He had much influence in the development of the wool trade of Australia.
The Argus and The Age, Melbourne, 9 April 1886.
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GOOLD, JAMES ALIPIUS (1812-1886),first Roman Catholic archbishop of Melbourne,
was born at Cork, Ireland, on 4 November 1812. On leaving school he entered the order of St Augustine to study for the priesthood, and spent his college life largely in Italy. He was ordained priest at Perugia in 1835 and was stationed for a time at an Augustinian convent in Rome. There he met Dr Ullathorne (q.v.) in 1837, who suggested that he should go to Australia. He arrived in Sydney in February 1838. He was given charge of the district of Campbelltown, where he spent much of his time travelling through the country on horseback. In July 1847 he was appointed bishop of Melbourne and was consecrated at St Mary's cathedral, Sydney, on 6 August 1848. He travelled overland, the journey taking 19 days, and arrived in Melbourne on 4 October. The new diocese stretched from the Murray to the sea and the bishop took the opportunity of meeting many of his priests and people on the way, and was able to form some idea of the state of the country. Melbourne itself was then only a small town, and priests, schools and churches were few. Goold began his work with great zeal and arranged with the heads of well-known religious orders such as the Jesuits, the Christian Brothers the Sisters of Mercy, and the Presentation Nuns to establish branch institutions in the new colony. Five acres of land on Eastern Hill, after negotiations begun in 1848, were finally granted by the crown on 1 April 1851 and shortly afterwards became the site of St Patrick's cathedral and the bishop's palace. The discovery of gold in this year enormously increased the population of Melbourne, and it was realized that the church of St Patrick that had been begun would not be worthy of the growing city. It was decided to build a great cathedral. In 1858 W. W. Wardell (q.v.), then government architect, was asked to draw up the plans, and the first stone of the new building was laid in December 1858. For the remainder of Goold's life he was much occupied with the raising of funds for the cathedral.
There was, however, another problem constantly before him, the question of primary and secondary education for Catholic children. In 1872 the Victorian government under Francis (q.v.) had announced the preparation of a bill to bring in free, secular and compulsory education. Goold believed that education without religion was worthless, that the bill was the beginning of an attack on his Church, and he issued a strongly-worded pastoral which in effect urged all Roman Catholics to vote against the supporters of Francis at the coming election. The Protestants, however, allied themselves on the side of Francis and much sectarian feeling followed which did not die down for many years. It is now clear that Goold's action was a tactical blunder. He, however, never relaxed his opposition to the new act after it had been passed, but though subsequent campaigns were conducted ability he had little success. In his younger days Goold had kept much in touch with his large diocese, but when fresh sees had been created his work was more confined to Melbourne and much of it was administrative. He made occasional visits to Rome, became archbishop of Melbourne in 1874 and continued his work with energy. Towards the end of his life his health began to suffer but it was difficult to persuade him to relax from his duties. He died at Melbourne on 11 June 1886.
Though really an amiable man, kindly and charitable in an unobstrusive way, Goold had a somewhat distant manner with the laity, and was a strict disciplinarian to his clergy. He was not a brilliant preacher, and wrote little or nothing, but he was an untiring worker with much administrative ability, thoroughly fitted for the work he was destined to do. He began with almost nothing and left a large and flourishing diocese with numerous clergy, churches and schools, and a noble cathedral well on the way to completion.
Cardinal Moran, History of the Catholic Church in Australasia; J. F. Hogan, A Biographical Sketch (Reprint of articles in the Argus, Melbourne, 12, 14 and 16 June 1886); The Australasian, Melbourne, 19 June 1886; The Advocate, 19 June 1886; St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne, 1839-1939.
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GORDON, ADAM LINDSAY (1833-1870),poet,
[ also refer to Adam Lindsay GORDON page at Project Gutenberg Australia]
was born at Fayal in the Azores on 19 October 1833. His father, Captain Adam Durnford Gordon, had married his first cousin, Harriet Gordon, and both were descended from Adam of Gordon of the ballad, and were connected with other distinguished men of the intervening 500 years. Captain Gordon was then staying at the Azores for the sake of his wife's health. They were back in England living at Cheltenham in 1840, and in 1841 Gordon went to Cheltenham College. He was there for only about a year. Subsequently he was sent to a school kept by the Rev. Samuel Ollis Garrard in Gloucestershire. In 1848 he went to the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. There he appears to have been good at sports, but not studious and certainly undisciplined. In June 1851 his father was requested to withdraw him and the young man, he was nearly 18, was again admitted a pupil at Cheltenham College. He was not there for long, he appears to have left in the middle of 1852, but the story that he was expelled from Cheltenham is without foundation. He lived for some time with an uncle at Worcester, and was a private pupil of the headmaster of the Worcester Royal Grammar School. He began to lead a wild and aimless life, contracted debts, and was a great anxiety to his father, who at last decided that his son should go to Australia and make a fresh start. Gordon had fallen in love with a girl of 17, Jane Bridges, who was able to tell the story 60 years afterwards to his biographers. He did not declare his love until he came to say good-bye to her before leaving for Australia on 7 August 1853. "With characteristic recklessness he offered to sacrifice the passage he had taken to Australia, and all his father's plans for giving him a fresh start in life, if she would tell him not to go, or promise to be his wife, or even give him some hope." This Miss Bridges could not do, though she liked the shy handsome boy and remembered him with affection to the end of a long life. It was the one romance of Gordon's life.
That Gordon realized his conduct had fallen much below what it might have been can be seen in his poems ... "To my Sister", written three days before he left England, and "Early Adieux", evidently written about the same time. He was just over 20 when he arrived at Adelaide on 14 November 1853. He immediately obtained a position in the South Australian mounted police and was stationed at Mount Gambier and Penola. On 4 November 1855 he resigned from the force and took up horse-breaking in the south-eastern district of South Australia. The interest in horse-racing which he had shown as a youth in England was continued in Australia, and in a letter written in November 1854 he mentioned that he had a horse for the steeplechase at the next meeting. In 1857 he met the Rev. Julian Tenison Woods (q.v.) who lent him books and talked poetry with him. He then had the reputation of being "a good steady lad and a splendid horseman". In this year his father died and he also lost his mother about two years later. From her estate he received about £7000 towards the end of 1861. He was making a reputation as a rider over hurdles, and several times either won or was placed in local hurdle races and steeplechases. On 20 October 1862 he married Margaret Park, then a girl of 17. In March 1864 he bought a cottage, Dingley Dell, near Port MacDonnell, and, in this same year, inspired by six engravings after Noel Paton illustrating "The Dowie Dens 0' Yarrow", Gordon wrote a poem The Feud, of which 30 copies were printed at Mount Gambier. On 11 January 1865 he received a deputation asking him to stand for parliament and was eventually elected by three votes to the house of assembly. He spoke several times but had no talent for speaking in public, and he resigned his seat on 20 November 1866. He was contributing verse to the Australasian and Bell's Life in Victoria and doing a fair amount of riding. He bought some land in Western Australia, but returned from a visit to it early in 1867 and went to live at Mount Gambier. On 10 June 1867 he published Ashtaroth, a Dramatic Lyric, and on the nineteenth of the same month Sea Spray and Smoke Drift. In November he rented Craig's livery stables at Ballarat, but he had no head for business and the venture was a failure. In March 1868 he had a serious accident, a horse smashing his head against a gatepost of his own yard. His daughter, born on 3 May 1867, died at the age of 11 months, his financial difficulties were increasing, and he fell into very low spirits. In spite of short sight he was becoming very well known as a gentleman rider, and on 10 October 1868 actually won three races in one day at the Melbourne Hunt Club steeplechase meeting. He rode with great patience and judgment, but his want of good sight was always a handicap. He began riding for money but was not fortunate and had more than one serious fall. He sold his business and left Ballarat in October 1868 and came to Melbourne. He had succeeded in straightening his financial affairs and was more cheerful. He made a little money out of his racing and became a member of the Yorick Club, where he was friendly with Marcus Clarke (q.v.), George Gordon McCrae (q.v.), and a little later Henry Kendall (q.v.). On 12 March 1870 Gordon had a bad fall while riding in a steeplechase at Flemington. His head was injured and he never completely recovered. He had for some time been endeavouring to show that he was heir to the estate of Esslemont in Scotland, but there was a flaw in the entail, and in June he learnt that his claim must be abandoned. He had seen his last book, Bush Ballads and Galloping Rhymes, through the press, and it was published on 23 June 1870. Gordon on that day met Kendall who showed him the proof of the favourable review he had written for the Australasian. But Gordon had just asked his publishers what he owed them for printing the book, and realized that he had no money to pay them and no prospects. He went home to his cottage at Brighton carrying a package of cartridges for his rifle. Next morning he rose early, walked into the tea-tree scrub and shot himself. His wife went back to South Australia, married again, and lived until November 1919. In October 1870 a stone was placed over his grave at Brighton by his friends, and in 1932 a statue to his memory by Paul Montfort was unveiled near parliament house, Melbourne. In May 1934 his bust was placed in Westminster Abbey.
Gordon was tall and handsome (see portrait prefixed to The Laureate of the Centaurs). But he stooped and held himself badly, partly on account of his short sight. He was shy, sensitive and, even before he was overwhelmed with troubles, inclined to be moody. After his head was injured at Ballarat he was never the same man again, and subsequent accidents aggravated his condition. Any suggestion that drink was a contributing cause may be disregarded. (Sir) Frank Madden who was with him the day before his death said that he was then absolutely sober, "he never cared for it (drink) and so far as I know seldom took it at all". The Rev. Tenison Woods in his "Personal Reminiscences" said "Those who did not know Gordon attributed his suicide to drink, but I repeat he was most temperate and disliked the company of drinking men". His tragic death drew much attention to his work and especially in Melbourne the appreciation of it became overdone. This led to a revulsion of feeling among better judges and for a time it was underrated in some quarters. Much of his verse is careless and banal, there are passages in Ashtaroth for instance that are almost unbelievably bad, but at his best he is a poet of importance, who on occasions wrote some magnificent lines. Douglas Sladen, a life-long admirer, in his Adam Lindsay Gordon, The Westminster Abbey Memorial Volume has made a selection of 27 poems which occupy about 90 pages. Without subscribing to every poem selected it may be said that Gordon is most adequately represented in a sheaf of this kind. His most sustained effort, the "Rhyme of Joyous Garde", has some glorious stanzas, and on it and some 20 other poems Gordon's fame may be allowed to rest.
Edith Humphris and Douglas Sladen, Adam Lindsay Gordon and His Friends in England and Australia; J. Howlett-Ross, The Laureate of the Centaurs; Julian E. Tenison Woods, "Personal Reminiscences of Adam Lindsay Gordon", Melbourne Review, 1884; Edith Humphris, The Life of Adam Lindsay Gordon; J. K. Moir, A Chronology of the Life of Adam Lindsay Gordon (at Public Library, Melbourne); Turner and Sutherland, The Development of Australian Literature; P, Serle, A Bibliography of Australasian Poetry and Verse; Douglas Sladen, Adam Lindsay Gordon, The Westminster Abbey Memorial Volume; E. Morris Miller, Australian Literature; F. M. Robb, Introduction to Poems of Adam Lindsay Gordon, Oxford Ed.
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GORDON, SIR JOHN HANNAH (1850-1923),politician and judge,
was born at Kilmalcolm, Scotland, on 26 July 1850, the son of the Rev. James Gordon. His father went to South Australia in 1859 to take charge of the Presbyterian church at Mount Barker, and was afterwards stationed at Gawler. Gordon was educated at Mount Barker under James Clezy, M.A., and at Gawler under the Rev. J. Leonard and W. L. S. Burton. On leaving school he studied theology and classics for two years, and was then for some years in the offices of W. Duffield and Company of Gawler, and Dunn and Company, Port Adelaide. He took up the study of law and was admitted to the South Australian bar in 1876, but practised for 11 years at Strathalbyn as a successful solicitor. He did not become a Q.C. until 1900. In 1888 he was elected to the legislative council for the Southern District and held the seat for 15 years. He was minister of education in the Cockburn (q.v.) ministry from June 1889 to August 1890, and held the same position in the first Holder (q.v.) ministry from June to October 1892. He became chief secretary in the Kingston (q.v.) ministry in June 1893 but resigned on 15 February 1896. He was attorney-general in Holder's second ministry from December 1899 to May 1901 and from May 1901 to December 1903 in the Jenkins (q.v.) ministry. He was then raised to the supreme court bench. He had shown himself to be a great leader of the legislative council and a good administrator. Always a strong federalist he was a representative of South Australia at the 1891 convention, was elected fifth out of 33 candidates in 1897, and sat on the constitutional committee. He would probably have had no difficulty in winning a seat had he elected to enter federal politics, but decided to stay in South Australia.
As a judge Gordon was industrious and conscientious, quick in understanding, rapid and logical in his conclusions. He was helpful to timid witnesses and a friend to young barristers. It was generally believed that he could have become a high court judge had he desired it, but his health was imperfect, and the same reason probably prevented consideration of his claims to be chief justice of South Australia when Way (q.v.) died. He was an excellent lecturer on literary subjects, with a fine knowledge of the Elizabethan period, and his occasional articles in the Adelaide press showed great journalistic ability. He died at Adelaide on 23 December 1923. He married in 1876 Ann Rogers who survived him with a daughter. He was knighted in 1908.
Gordon was of athletic build, a charming companion with a brilliant mind. He was excellent both as an after-dinner speaker and in parliament, and always had a complete grip of the details of the bills he was bringing before parliament. No South Australian ever excelled his management of the upper house.
The Register and The Advertiser, Adelaide, 24 December 1923; J. Quick and R. R. Garran, The Annotated Constitution of the Australian Commonwealth.
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GOUGER, ROBERT (1802-1846),one of the founders of South Australia,
was born on 26 June 1802 and educated at a school in Nottingham. His father, Robert Gouger, was a prosperous city merchant and on leaving school the boy entered his office. He became friendly with Robert Owen and, influenced by him, began taking an interest in social questions. In 1829 he became associated with Edward Gibbon Wakefield (q.v.) and assisted him in advocating his colonization schemes. In this year Wakefield published A Letter from Sydney which appeared as edited by Robert Gouger. In the same year Gouger forwarded Wakefield's pamphlet, a Sketch of a Proposal for Colonizing Australia, to the colonial office, but received no encouragement. Later on he was associated with another book published in 1831, The State of New South Wales in December 1830; in a Letter (addressed to R . Gouger; with remarks by him). In 1830 Gouger went to Spain to fight for the constitutional cause and saw active service. In the years between 1830 and 1834 various colonization schemes were brought forward and Gouger was active in their promulgation. Some of these schemes were intended to be money-making, but the South Australian Association, founded in December 1833 with Gouger as honorary secretary, was principally philanthropic in its objects. Gouger worked untiringly with Wakefield, many obstacles had to be surmounted and many compromises made, but in August 1834 the act for the establishment of South Australia became law. In May 1835 Gouger applied for the position of colonial secretary for South Australia. He disagreed strongly with Wakefield about the price to be asked for land in the new colony and they became estranged in June 1835. Gouger was given the appointment of colonial secretary at a salary of £400 a year and sailed in the Africaine on 30 June 1836. He bad been married to Harriet Jackson on the previous 22 OCtober. They landed in South Australia on 10 November. On 28 December, as senior member of the council, Gouger administered the oaths of office to the newly arrived governor Sir John Hindmarsh (q.v.).
Gouger had a troubled time in South Australia, and to the many discomforts of a new settlement was added anxiety for his wife's health. She died on 14 March 1837 and his infant son died two days later. The quarrels between the governor and Colonel William Light (q.v.) caused much dissension and created many difficulties for Gouger, who was eventually suspended on a charge of having struck Gilles the colonial treasurer. He felt this very deeply and the sympathy of his many friends could not atone for what he considered to be a great injustice. On 8 November 1837 he left for England to lay his case before the government. On his arrival in July 1838 he found that he had been re-instated and Governor Hindmarsh recalled. He had busied himself on the voyage in preparing South Australia in 1837 in a Series of Letters. This was published soon after his arrival, and a second edition was called for in the same year. At the end of the year he was gratified to receive a present of a piece of plate from the leading colonists of South Australia as a tribute to his exertions in founding the colony. In February 1839 he started on his return journey and reached Adelaide in June. He found that the new governor, Colonel Gawler (q.v.), was beset with difficulties in which Gouger shared. He eventually felt that the strain was too great and asked that he might resign his position and take up the less exacting one of colonial treasurer. He continued in this position until 1844 when he resigned on account of his health and returned to England. He died there in August 1846. About the end of 1838 he had married Sarah Whitten. Their daughter, Adelaide Gouger, preserved his journals and papers, which formed the basis of Hodder's The Founding of South Australia.
Gouger has an honoured place among the founders of South Australia. Wakefield was the controlling mind, but Gouger was his able and hard-working representative at a time when it was impossible for Wakefield to take any prominent part in affairs. When they finally disagreed Gouger held firmly to his own views, and later on showed himself to be an efficient public servant during the difficult times attending the birth of the colony.
Ed. E. Hodder, The Founding of South Australia, based on Gouger's papers and journals; R. C. Mills, The Colonization of Australia (1829-1842); A. Grenfell Price, The Foundation and Settlement of South Australia.
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GOULD, JOHN (1804-1881),ornithologist,
was born at Lyme, Dorset, England, on 14 September 1804. Little is known of his childhood; his father was a gardener, and the boy probably had a scanty education. He was employed as a gardener under his father in the royal gardens at Windsor from 1818 to 1824, and he was subsequently a gardener at Ripley Castle in Yorkshire. He left this position in 1827 to become taxidermist to the recently formed Zoological Society. In 1832 he published his first book, A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains, and in the same year began the publication of his Birds of Europe in five volumes, completed in 1837. These and subsequent books were published in a very large size, imperial folio, with magnificent coloured plates. Eventually 41 of these volumes were published with about 3000 plates. They appeared in parts at £3 3s. a number, subscribed for in advance, and in spite of the heavy expense of preparing the plates, Gould succeeded in making his ventures pay and in realizing a fortune. He made the sketches of the birds himself, and his wife, formerly Elizabeth Coxon, painted pictures from the sketches and drew them on the stone. She died in 1841 and in later years various artists were employed by Gould to do this part of the work. Immediately Gould had completed his Birds of Europe he began preliminary work on his Birds of Australia, began publishing A Synopsis of the Birds of Australia, and in 1838 went to Australia to investigate what was then a little-known subject. Accompanied by his wife and his able assistant, John Gilbert (q.v.), he arrived in Tasmania in September, spent several months there, and also visited adjacent islands and New South Wales. He sent Gilbert to Western Australia, went himself to Adelaide, and spent about three months on the banks of the Murray, and some time on the south coast and on Kangaroo Island. In August 1839 he again went to New South Wales, explored country near the mouth of the Hunter River, and then followed the river to its source in the Liverpool Ranges. From there he penetrated a considerable distance into the interior, returned to Sydney early in 1840, and sailing for England on 9 April arrived in August 1840. The publication of The Birds of Australia began soon afterwards, and the thirty-sixth and final part appeared in 1848. The parts were bound in seven volumes and the cost to subscribers was £115. A supplementary volume was brought out in 1869. Other works by Gould were A Monograph of the Trochilidae or Humming Birds with 360 plates (1849-61), The Mammals of Australia (1845-63), Handbook to the Birds of Australia (1865), The Birds of Asia (1850-83), The Birds of Great Britain (1862-73), The Birds of New Guinea and the adjacent Papuan Islands (1875-88). Others will be found listed in the British Museum catalogue, and in addition considerably over 200 papers were contributed to scientific journals. For the last five years of his life Gould was in bad health and he died at London on 3 February 1881. He was survived by a son and three daughters. The son, Charles Gould, emigrated to Australia and became geological surveyor of Tasmania. He wrote Mythical Monsters, published in 1886. Final and supplementary volumes of some of Gould's works were completed and published by R. Bowdler Sharp. Gould was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1843. In 1909 the Gould League of Bird Lovers was founded in Australia. Thirty years later it had a membership of 250,000, largely school children.
Gould was a combination of born naturalist and shrewd business man. He had great industry and though he had the assistance of able helpers such as his wife, John Gilbert, and his faithful secretary E. C. Prince, he did an immense amount of work himself. Somewhat brusque in manner he had a kindly disposition, much courage and great organizing powers. Sixty years after his death his works were as much sought after as when they were published.
The Zoologist, Third Series, vol. V, p. 109; Nature, vol. XXIII, p. 361; Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. XXXIII, p. XVII; A. H. Chisholm, Strange New World; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography; C. Barrett, The Bird Man. For an account of Mrs Gould and her relations, see article by A. H. Chisholm in The Emu, April 1941, and for a remarkable and interesting collection of papers on Gould and his associates the "Gould Commemorative Issue" of The Emu for October 1938. Reference should also be made to Chisholm's paper on "Gould's Australian Prospectus" in The Emu, vol. XLII, p. 74, which has a Bibliography of papers in The Emu and Victorian Naturalist between 1938 and 1942.
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GOULD, NATHANIEL (1857-1919), always known as Nat Gould,novelist,
was born at Manchester on 21 December 1857. His father was a merchant in the tea trade, and the boy, the only remaining child, was indulgently brought up and well-educated. His father died just before he was to have left school, and Gould tried first his father's business and then farming at Bradbourne. He became a good horseman but a poor farmer. In 1877, in reply to an advertisement, he was given a position on the Newark Advertiser and obtained on it a good all-round knowledge of press work. After a few years he became restless, and in 1884 sailed for Australia, where he became a reporter on the Brisbane Telegraph. In 1886 he went to Sydney and worked on the Referee, Sunday Times, and Evening News. Then followed 18 months at Bathurst as editor of the Bathurst Times during which he wrote his first novel, With the Tide, which appeared as a serial in the Referee. This was followed by six other novels in the same paper. In 1891 his first novel, With the Tide, was published in book-form in England under the title of The Double Event and was an immediate success. It was dramatized in Australia and had a long run in 1893. In 1895 Gould returned to England. He had been 11 years in Australia and he felt that his experiences had made a man of him.
Back in England Gould began steadily writing fiction and for many years wrote an average of over four novels a year; about 130 are listed in Miller's Australian Literature. He also published in 1895 On and Off the Turf in Australia, in 1896 Town and Bush, Stray Notes on Australia; in 1900 Sporting Sketches; and in 1909 The Magic of Sport, mainly autobiographical. His novels attracted an enormous public and his sales ran into many millions of copies. He travelled, retained his interest in racing to the end, and died on 25 July 1919. He married in Brisbane, Miss E. M. Ruska, and there were five children of the marriage.
Nat Gould was a modest man who did not take himself or his work too seriously. But within its limits his work was very good. He told a simple story exceedingly well in an unaffected way. Nearly all the books were concerned with racing, and no great originality of plot was to be expected, but they, were written with such verve and genuine interest, that their countless readers took up each book as it was published, confident in their belief that here was another rattling good story.
The Times, 26 July 1919; Nat Gould, The Magic of Sport; E. Morris Miller, Australian Literature.
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GRAHAM, SIR JAMES (1856-1913),physician and public man,
son of Thomas Graham of Edinburgh, was born on 29 July 1856. He graduated M.A. at Edinburgh university in 1879 and M.B. and C.M. in 1882. He went to Sydney in 1884 but returned to Europe and studied at Berlin, Vienna and Paris. He obtained the M.D. degree of Edinburgh University and a gold medal for his thesis on "Hydatid Disease in its Clinical Aspects". Returning to Sydney he was appointed superintendent of the Royal Prince Alfred hospital which, largely by his influence, became an excellent training-ground for the medical profession. From 1897 he was lecturer in midwifery at the university of Sydney and held this position until 1912. He was founder of the Surgical Appliances Aid Society, the Women's Hospital, the Trained Nurses' Association, and was the first president of the New South Wales Dental Board.
In spite of these activities Graham found time to do much public work. He was elected a member of the legislative assembly for Belmore in 1894 and held the seat until 1901. In 1898 he became a member of the Sydney city council and took a prominent part in a successful reform movement. His professional knowledge was also of great use during the plague scare in 1900. He was mayor of Sydney in 1901 during the visit of the Duke of York and was knighted. He was again elected to the legislative assembly in 1907 but lost his seat at the 1910 election. He was for several years vice-president of the Liberal Association. He died at Sydney on 8 March 1913. He married in 1890 Fanny, daughter of the Rev. G. W. Millard, who survived him with a son.
Graham was an able man of broad sympathies and high ideals. His death at a comparatively early age was a loss to the public life of his state.
The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 March 1913; The Daily Telegraph, Sydney, 10 March 1913; The British Medical Journal, 15 March 1913; The Lancet, 17 May 1913; Who's Who, 1913; Burke's Peerage, etc., 1913.
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GRANT, JAMES (1772-1833),navigator,
[ also refer to James GRANT page at Project Gutenberg Australia]
was born in 1772. At the end of 1799 he was given command of the Lady Nelson, a new vessel of 60 tons fitted with a centre-board keel. His instructions were to proceed to Australia to prosecute "the discovery and survey of the unknown parts of the coast of New Holland". He left England on 18 March 1800 and at the Cape of Good Hope received a letter from the Duke of Portland instructing him to sail through the newly-discovered Bass Strait. Grant came in sight of Australia near the present boundary of South Australia and Victoria on 3 December 1800, and the Lady Nelson successfully passed through the strait, the first ship sailing from England to Australia to do so. Grant arrived at Sydney on 16 December. He had been instructed to join H.M.S. Supply at Sydney, but she was laid up as a hulk, and Governor King (q.v.) reappointed him to the Lady Nelson. He was ordered to return and survey the deep bay which he had sailed across in Bass Strait, and in fact to make a general survey of the south coast. He left on 6 March 1801, got as far as Western Port of which a survey was made, and was back at Sydney on 14 May. On 10 June Grant sailed to the Hunter River conveying Lieut.-colonel Paterson (q.v.), to consider the question of a settlement there and the probable extent of the coal deposits. On 31 August Grant asked permission to return to Europe which was granted. It is evident that King was not satisfied with Grant's work on his voyage to Bass Strait, and Grant, though an excellent seaman, was himself conscious of his want of knowledge of nautical surveying. After his return Grant published in 1803 his Narrative of a Voyage of Discovery which was shortly afterwards translated into Dutch and German. He reached the rank of commander in 1805, was given a pension in 1806 for wounds received in action, and afterwards was in command of the Raven and Thracian sloops. He died at St Servan, France, on 11 November 1833.
Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. II to IV; Grant's Voyage of Discovery; The Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 104, p. 343; Ida Lee, The Logbooks of the "Lady Nelson".
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GRANT, JAMES MACPHERSON (1822-1885),politician,
was born at Alvie, Invernesshire, Scotland, in 1822. He emigrated to Sydney with his parents in 1836 and was articled to Chambers and Thurlow, solicitors. In 1844 he paid a visit to New Zealand and served as a volunteer against the Maoris. Returning to Australia he was admitted to practise as an attorney and solicitor in 1847, and was taken into partnership by Mr Thurlow. In 1850, with a partner, he chartered a vessel and took supplies to California, and in June 1851 was still at San Francisco. He returned to Australia and in 1853 was a successful digger at Bendigo. He was practising as a solicitor at Melbourne in 1854, and showed much sympathy for the diggers at the time of the Eureka rebellion in December 1854. The mayor of Melbourne, J. T. Smith (q.v.), had called a meeting at the town hall to concert measures for keeping law and order. Grant and Dr J. H. Owens issued a placard asking the public not to go to the town hall, but to attend an open air meeting on the present site of St Paul's cathedral. About 5000 people attended. Grant was one of the speakers and a committee was appointed to interview the governor. At the trial of the Ballarat miners Grant acted as their attorney without fee. In 1855 he was elected a member of the legislative council, and when responsible government was established a year later, was elected a member of the legislative assembly for Sandhurst. He did not stand at the 1859 election, but shortly afterwards was elected for Avoca and held this seat until his death. He joined the Heales (q.v.) ministry in February 1861 as vice-president of the board of land and works and commissioner of public works, and resigned with Heales in November. He was commissioner for railways in the McCulloch (q.v.) ministry from June 1863 to September 1864 and then became president of the board of lands and works and commissioner of crown lands and survey from September 1864 to May 1868. In 1865 Grant succeeded in passing a land act which promised to be little more successful than previous acts, the conditions being too exacting for poor men. One clause, however, which had been meant to apply to goldfield areas, allowed selectors to take up 20 acres at a rental of two shillings an acre. Grant interpreted this very liberally and many applicants were allowed to hold four licences and thus farms of 80 acres were established. However, in May 1869, Grant brought in a new land bill which allowed the selection of up to 320 acres with conditions of residence, cultivation and improvement at a yearly payment of two shillings an acre, with liberal terms to convert into freehold. Grant was then holding the same position in the second McCulloch ministry as in the previous one, and went out of office in September 1869. The act, however, came into force on 1 February 1870 and, though amended in detail by later governments, was the basis of all subsequent land settlement in Victoria. Grant earned great popularity from it, and was afterwards presented with a testimonial of £3000 raised by public subscription. He again held the lands portfolio in the Duffy (q.v.) ministry from June 1871 to June 1872, was minister of justice in the first Berry (q.v.) ministry for a few weeks in 1875, held the same position in the second Berry ministry from May 1877 to March 1880, and was chief secretary and minister of public instruction in the O'Loghlen (q.v.) ministry from July 1881 to March 1883. He was able to do valuable work at the education department by insisting on the importance of merit in considering promotions. He had a stroke of paralysis in November 1884 and died on 1 April 1885, leaving a widow, a son and three daughters. A grant of £4000 was subsequently voted by parliament to his family.
Grant was of a genial nature and was personally liked. He was not a great orator, but at his best had a clear grasp of questions which commanded attention. He was also a thorough and hard-working administrator. His land act cleared up what seemed to be an almost hopeless position, and had great influence in the development of Victoria.
The Argus and The Age, Melbourne, 2 April 1885; The Leader, 4 April 1885; H. G. Turner, A History of the Colony of Victoria; Victoria: the First Century.
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GRAVES, JOHN WOODCOCK (1795-1886),author of "D'ye ken John Peel",
son of Joseph Graves, a plumber, glazier and ironmonger of Wigton, England, was born on 9 February 1795. His father died when he was nine years old and he had comparatively little education. At 14 he began to work for an uncle who was a house, sign, and coach painter, but he learnt little from him. He owed more to an old bachelor, Joseph Falder, a friend of John Dalton the scientist. Graves afterwards said of Falder "he fixed in me a love of truth, and bent my purpose to pursue it". Graves did some drawing, and at one time wished to study art, but his circumstances did not allow of this, and he became a woollen miller at Caldbeck. There he was friendly with John Peel (1776-1854), with whom he hunted. He was sitting in his parlour one evening with Peel when Graves's little daughter came in and said, "Father what do they say to what granny sings?" "Granny was singing to sleep my eldest son with a very old rant called 'Bonnie (or Cannie) Annie'. The pen and ink being on the table, the idea of writing a song to this old air forced itself upon me, and thus was produced, impromptu, 'D'ye ken John Peel with his coat so grey'. . . . I well remember saying in a joking style, 'By jove, Peel you'll be sung when we're both run to earth'."
Graves was unfortunate with his woollen mills, left for Tasmania, and arrived at Hobart in 1833 with his wife and four children, and about £10 in his pocket. Except for a short period at Sydney he remained in Tasmania for the rest of his life. He was of an inventive turn of mind and "brought to considerable perfection several machines--especially one for preparing the New Zealand flax". His fortunes varied but he was able to give his children a good education. His eldest son, his namesake, became a well-known Hobart barrister but died before his father, and another son in business in Hobart looked after him in his last days. Graves died at Hobart on 17 August 1886. He was twice married (1) to Jane Atkinson and (2) to Miss Porthouse. There were eight children of the second marriage, of whom at least one son and a daughter survived him. His death notice stated that he was in his 100th year, but in his autobiographical sketch, written when he was about 70, he stated that he was born in 1795, to which he put a note, "I think I am correct about the year". Even if he were not correct, he would not be likely to have been more than one year out, and he was therefore about 92 when he died. Sidney Gilpin's The Songs and Ballads of Cumberland includes six poems by Graves.
The Mercury, Hobart, 18 and 20 August 1886; autobiographical note in Gilpin's Songs and Ballads of Cumberland, 1866; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.
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GRAYSON, HENRY JOSEPH (1856-1918), designer of machine for ruling diffraction gratings,scientist,
was born in Yorkshire, England, in 1856 or early in 1857. He came of a family of market-gardeners, arrived in Victoria when about 30 years of age, and for some time worked as a nursery gardener. Becoming interested in science he joined the Field Naturalists' Club, made some study of botany, and did some work on the Diatoniaceae, a group of minute plants. This led to an interest in microscopy and before 1894 he had constructed a machine for making micrometer rulings on glass, the results being very good for that time. In 1897 some very beautiful work Grayson had done in cutting sections of plants led to his being given a position in the physiology department of the university of Melbourne under Professor Martin. He was afterwards transferred to the geology department, and in December 1901 accompanied Professor Gregory (q.v.) on his expedition to Central Australia. In the preface to The Dead Heart of Australia Gregory paid a special tribute "To my assistant Mr Grayson on whom much of the hard work of the expedition fell". In 1910 Grayson was associated with D. J. Mahony in the preparation of a paper on "The Geology of the Camperdown and Mount Elephant Districts" (No. 9 in the Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Victoria), and in the same year, while working at the university under professor Skeats, who succeeded Gregory, Grayson made a highly efficient apparatus for preparing rock sections, a description of which will be found in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria for the year 1911.
In the meanwhile Grayson had been perfecting his fine ruling work. References to it will be found in the Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society for 1899, p. 355; 1902, p. 385; 1904, p. 393; 1910, pp. 5, 144, 701 and 801; 1911, pp. 160, 421 and 449. In the 1910 volume, on pages 239 and 243, there is an interesting note by Grayson himself "On the Production of Micrometric and Diffraction Rulings". He had then succeeded in ruling 120,000 lines to the inch. From this time onwards much of his time was given to the preparation of a dividing engine for ruling diffraction gratings. In 1913 he was transferred to the national philosophy department of the university under Professor T. R. Lyle and was allowed to give his full time to the machine. In July 1917 he read a paper before the Royal Society of Victoria giving a full description of the machine, which was published with several plates in the society's Proceedings for that year. In the same year he was awarded the David Syme Research Prize of £100 by the university of Melbourne. He died on 21 March 1918 leaving a widow but no children.
Grayson was a modest, quiet man absorbed in his work and daunted by no difficulty. He was never content with anything less than the best, and would spend endless pains in the endeavour to get complete efficiency from his mechanism. Much work of the same kind was being done in America and other parts of the world, but no one in his time had equal success with Grayson.
W. M. Bale, Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 1919, p. 20, 1938, p. 239 and as cited above; Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, vol. XXXI, Annual Report, 1918; The Argus and The Age, Melbourne, 23 March 1918; private information and personal knowledge.
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GREENWAY, FRANCIS HOWARD (c. 1777-1837),architect,
was born about 1777. Little is known of his education or early life. He was practising as an architect "of some eminence" at the beginning of the nineteenth century in Bristol and Bath, but in 1811 was made insolvent. In 1812 he was in desperate straits as he was charged with forging part of a building contract and, pleading guilty "under the advice of his friends", was sentenced to death. The sentence was afterwards commuted to transportation for 14 years. Why he pleaded guilty is not now ascertainable; he may have been told it was the only way to save his life. He had been friendly with Admiral Phillip (q.v.) who was living in retirement at Bath, and Phillip wrote to Macquarie (q.v.) recommending Greenway to him. He arrived in Sydney in February 1814, was soon afterwards granted a ticket of leave, and immediately began designing for Macquarie.
In January 1816 Greenway, as acting civil architect, was a member of a committee appointed to report on the recently completed secretary's house and offices in Macquarie Place. Greenway was of opinion that it could have been built for one third of the amount spent. This was the beginning of his struggle against the corruption commonly practised by the contractors of the period. In April of the same year, in a memorandum full of wisdom, he urged on Macquarie the necessity of a proper plan of Sydney being made, with provision for fresh water and drainage. In April 1817 his name appears in the "List of Names of Persons holding Civil and Military Appointments" as acting civil architect at a salary of £54 13s. a year. In addition "himself and family" were victualled. In the same month Macquarie writing to Lord Bathurst, mentions that Greenway "is extremely useful and has already rendered very essential service to government in his capacity of civil architect". Again, in a similar dispatch written in March 1819, Macquarie takes occasion to speak in the highest terms of his ability as an architect, and made an unsuccessful appeal for an increase in his salary. In September 1820 Mr Commissioner Bigge (q.v.) sent a long list of public buildings required in the colony to Greenway who must at this period have been a very busy officer. He had been emancipated in December 1817 . His name appeared in the "List of Persons holding Civil and Military Employment" dated 30 November 1821. He unfortunately now became engaged in controversy with Macquarie, who had promised that he would make up for the smallness of his salary by giving him a grant of 800 acres of land and some cattle. Greenway held that he had been promised more than that and his pertinacity turned Macquarie against him. Macquarie's final report probably led to Greenway's dismissal by the new governor, Brisbane (q.v.), on 15 November 1822. He continued to follow his profession with little success, but he got his grant of land, though he does not appear to have received the promised cattle. In 1835 he advertised that "Francis Howard Greenway, arising from circumstances of a singular nature is induced again to solicit the patronage of his friends and the public". The exact date of his death is not known, but he was buried at Maitland on 25 September 1837. He married and had a numerous family of which at least two survived him. A son was afterwards well known as a clergyman in New South Wales. A self portrait is at the Mitchell library, Sydney.
The mystery of how Greenway became a convict has not been cleared up. He was essentially honest, and at the time of his conviction the Bristol Journal pointed out "the singularity of the forgery is that it is impossible to trace the motive which could have actuated the prisoner to commit it; for had any fraud been effected the amount would have gone to his creditors and not to himself, and these creditors had already given him his certificate". Possibly there was a miscarriage of justice. As government civil architect Greenway saved the colony thousands of pounds for which he was miserably rewarded. His plans were stolen, his designs were mutilated, his far-seeing views of what Sydney might become were not appreciated. But he had far too independent a spirit to be entirely subdued, and, in spite of all obstacles, he succeeded in doing much beautiful work which gives him a distinguished and honoured place on the roll of Australian architects. Among his buildings may be mentioned St Matthew's church, Windsor (1817-22), The Barracks, Queens Square, Sydney (1817), and St James church, Sydney (1819-22).
George Mackaness, Admiral Arthur Phillip, p. 452; Historical Records of Australia, vols. IX, XX; W. L. Havard, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XXII, pp. 138-89; A. W. Jose, Builders and Pioneers of Australia; W. Hardy Wilson, The Macquarie Book; W, Moore, The Story of Australian Art.
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GREGORY, SIR AUGUSTUS CHARLES (1819-1905),explorer,
[ also refer to Augustus GREGORY page at Project Gutenberg Australia]
was born at Farnsfield, Nottingham, England, on 1 August 1819. He was the son of Joshua Gregory and his wife, Frances Churchman. Gregory was educated privately and was taken by his parents to Western Australia in 1829. In 1841 he entered the government survey office, and in 1846, with his two brothers, F. T. Gregory (q.v.) and H. C. Gregory, made his first exploration. With four horses and seven weeks' provisions they left T. N. Yule's station 60 miles north-east of Perth on 7 August 1846 and explored a considerable amount of the country to the north of Perth. A coal-seam was discovered on the Irwin River and the party returned after an absence of 47 days during which they had covered 953 miles. Two years later Gregory took command of another expedition with instructions to proceed north to the Gascoyne River, to examine its course, and especially to look for new pasture land. It left on 2 September 1848 and the Murchison River was crossed on 25 September, but the country everywhere was very dry and great difficulty was found in getting sufficient water for the horses. Gregory decided to turn south again in the beginning of October, and on 6 October it was found necessary to rest the horses for five days by the Murchison River. The river was then followed for some distance and various tributaries were explored. The party then returned to Perth, which was reached on 12 November. Good pastoral country had been found, but Gregory came to the conclusion that expeditions to that district should start in July rather than September. In spite of water difficulties about 1500 miles were covered in a period of 10 weeks.
In 1854 Gregory was asked to lead an expedition to the interior starting from the north. Gregory had his brother, H. C. Gregory, as second in command and Baron von Mueller (q.v.) as botanist. There were 18 men altogether, with 50 horses and 200 sheep. Moreton Bay was left by sea on 12 August 1855, and Port Essington was sighted on l September. On the next day their vessel grounded on a reef and it was found impossible to float her off until 10 September. At the end of the month the party was split in two, one going up the river in a schooner, while Gregory led the other over the range, and it was not until 20 October that they were reunited. It was found necessary to repair the schooner, which caused a delay of some weeks. It was not until 3 January 1856 that Gregory and eight others started on the inland journey, the others being in charge of the camp. The course steered was generally south-west, on 29 January a depot camp was made, and Gregory and three others pushed on towards the head-waters of the Victoria. On 8 February, finding nothing in sight but barren country, a turn north was made, but 10 days later the south-west course was again being followed. On 21 February it was necessary to turn north again, and a return was made to the depot, which was reached on 28 March. The country to the east of the Victoria was then explored by a party of four, starting on 2 April and finishing on 17 April. A return was then made to the principal camp which was reached on 9 May. Careful preparations were made for a journey to the Gulf of Carpentaria and on 21 June a party of seven under Gregory started. On 13 July the party came upon the remains of a camp where trees had been cut down with iron axes, but Gregory came to the conclusion that it could not have been one of Leichhardt's camps in 1845 as it was 100 miles south-west of his route, though it might have been one of a later date. No identifying marks of any kind could be found. Two days later the Roper River was crossed, a south-east course was followed, and the McArthur River was reached on 4 August. On 31 August the Albert River was found and four and nine days later respectively the Leichhardt and Flinders rivers. Keeping generally a south-east or east course the Burdekin River was reached on 16 October, the Mackenzie on 15 November, the Dawson on 21 November and next day the explorers found themselves in occupied country. They reached Brisbane on 16 December 1856.
In September 1857 Gregory was asked by the government of New South Wales, to make an estimate of the cost of an expedition to search for traces of Lelchhardt. His estimate was that it could be done for less than £4500. A party of nine was formed with A. C. Gregory in command and his brother, C. F. Gregory, as second in command. On 24 March 1858 the expedition left Juandah, the range was crossed and the Maranoa River reached by 5 April. On 21 April a tree marked with an L was found in latitude 24 degrees 35 min. and longitude 146 degrees 6 min. The Barcoo River was then followed to its junction with the Thompson River. On 15 May the country was so dry the expedition was obliged to turn south to save the horses. As Leichhardt might have found himself similarly placed Cooper's Creek was followed until it was close to the South Australian border. Gregory came to Strzelecki Creek on 14 June. Continuing his course mostly to the south, on 26 June he decided to proceed to Adelaide, which was reached at the end of July 1858.
Gregory did no further exploring but was appointed surveyor-general of Queensland in 1859 and held the position until 1879 when he retired. In 1882 he was made a member of the legislative council and continued to be a member until his death. He had a wide knowledge of the colony and was always listened to with attention. He was never a member of a cabinet, preferring to be an independent member free to vote for measures of which he approved. He was interested in scientific research and was a trustee of the Queensland museum. He died unmarried on 25 June 1905. He was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1858 and was created a K.C.M.G. in 1903. With his brother, F. T. Gregory, he published In 1884 their Journals of Australian Exploration.
Gregory was of an unassuming and cheerful disposition. He ranks among the most competent, prudent and successful of Australian explorers. Everything was carefully worked out before each stage of the journey, nothing was left to chance, conflicts with aborigines were avoided, and though less spectacular than some of the other explorers he was an admirable leader who usually succeeded in carrying out what he set out to do, and brought his men back without loss of life.
Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891; A. C. Gregory, and F. T. Gregory, Journals of Australian Exploration; The Brisbane Courier, 26 June 1905; The West Australian, 27 June 1905; R. L. Jack, Northmost Australia, pp. 266-73.
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GREGORY, FRANCIS THOMAS (1821-1888),explorer,
younger brother of Sir A. C. Gregory (q.v.), was born at Farnsfield, Nottingham, England, on 19 October 1821. He was brought to Western Australia in 1829, entered the public service in 1841, and became a staff-surveyor in 1847. With his two brothers he explored the country north of Perth in 1846. In 1857 he explored the Upper Murchison River, and in the following year examined the country still farther to the east and north. In 1860 he visited London and was put in charge of an expedition to explore the north-west coast, the British government making a grant of £2000 towards the expenses. Gregory left Fremantle on 23 April 1861 and four days later, at Champion Bay, he was joined by three volunteers, bringing his party to a total of nine. They completed the landing of the horses near the site of Roebourne on 24 May, and started for the interior on the following day. The Fortescue River was followed for several days and a turn to the south-west was then made and the Hardey River was followed. On 25 June, having reached latitude 23 degrees 56 min., they began to retrace their steps and reached their landing place on the coast on 19 July. On 29 July another journey to the east was begun but to the north of the previous track. Gregory returned with his party on 17 October having discovered some excellent country. A return was made by sea to Perth which was reached on 9 November 1861. Gregory estimated that there were two or three million acres of land in the district examined suitable for grazing, and he also drew attention to the possibilities of the pearl-oyster industry.
In 1862 Gregory went to Queensland and was for some years commissioner of crown lands. He became a member of the legislative council in 1874, and for a short period in 1883 was postmaster-general in the McIlwraith (q.v.) ministry. He died at Toowoomba on 24 October 1888. He married in 1865 Marion Scott Hume and was survived by three sons. He was given the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1863.
Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891; A. C. and F. T. Gregory, Journals of Australian Exploration; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.
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GREGORY, JOHN WALTER (1864-1932),geologist and traveller,
was born at Bermondsey, England, on 27 January 1864, the son of a wool merchant. He was educated at Stepney grammar school and at 15 years of age entered a business house. He studied for a London university degree in his evenings, and in 1887 was appointed an assistant in the geological department of the natural history museum, London. He remained in this position until 1900 and was responsible for a Catalogue of the Fossil Bryozoa in three volumes (1896, 1899 and 1909), and a monograph on the Jurassic Corals of Cutch (1900). He obtained leave at various times to travel in Europe, the West Indies, North America, and East Africa. The Great Rift Valley (1896), is an interesting account of a journey to Mount Kenya and Lake Baringo made in 1892-3. In 1896 he did excellent work as naturalist to Sir Marten Conway's expedition across Spitsbergen. His well-known memoir on glacial geology written in collaboration with E. J. Garwood belongs to this period. On 11 December 1899 he was appointed professor of geology at the university of Melbourne, and began his duties in the following February.
Gregory was less than five years in Australia but his influence lasted for many years after he left. He succeeded in doing an amazing amount of work, his teaching was most successful, and he was personally popular. But he came to the university when it was in great financial trouble, there was no laboratory worthy of the name, and the council could not promise any immediate improvement. In 1904 he accepted the chair of geology at Glasgow, and he was back in Great Britain in October of that year. Besides carrying out his professional work he had many other activities during his stay in Australia. In 1900-1 he was director of the civilian scientific staff of an Antarctic expedition, and during the summer of 1901-2 he spent his vacation in Central Australia and made a journey around Lake Eyre. An account of this, The Dead Heart of Australia, was published in 1906, dedicated to the geologists of Australia. He also published a popular book on The Foundation of British East Africa (1901), The Austral Geography (1902 and 1903), for school use, and The Geography of Victoria (1903). Another volume, The Climate of Australasia (1904), was expanded from his presidential address to the geographical section of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science which met at Dunedin in January 1904. The Mount Lyell Mining Field, Tasmania, was published in 1905. This does not give a complete impression of Gregory's activities in Australia, for he was director of the geological survey of Victoria from 1901, in which year he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, London, and he was able also to find time for university extension lecturing.
Gregory occupied his chair at Glasgow for 25 years and obtained a great reputation both as a teacher and as an administrator. He made several expeditions including one to Cyrenaica in North Africa in 1908, where he showed the same interest in archaeology as in his own subjects; another was to southern Angola in 1912. His journey to Tibet with his son is recorded in To the Alps of Chinese Tibet by J. W. and C. J. Gregory (1923). Other books published during this period include Geography: Structural Physical and Compartitive (1908), Geology (Scientific Primers Series) (1910), The Making of the Earth (1912), The Nature and Origin of Fiords (1913), Geology of To-Day (1915), Australia (1916), in the Cambridge manuals of science and literature, and the Rift Valleys and Geology of East Africa (1921), a continuation of the studies contained in his volume published in 1896. Two other volumes which followed, largely sociological in character, were The Menace of Colour (1925), and Human Migration and the Future (1928). Another interesting volume was The Story of the Road (1931). Books on geology included The Elements of Economic Geology (1928), General Stratigraphy (in collaboration with B. H. Barrett) (1931), and Dalradian Geology (1931). In January 1932 Gregory went on an expedition to South America to explore and study the volcanic and earthquake centres of the Andes. His boat upset and he was drowned in the Urubamba River in northern Peru on 2 June 1932. He married Audrey, daughter of the Rev. Ayrton Chaplin, and had a son and a daughter. He was president of the Geological Society from 1928 to 1930, and was awarded many scientific honours including the Bigsby medal in 1905. Most of his books have been mentioned, and in addition he wrote about 300 papers on geological geographical, and sociological subjects.
Gregory was one of the most modest of men, simple and sincere, charming of manner, interested in every subject, and bringing to every subject an original point of view. A rapid thinker who did an extraordinary amount of work, it is possible that as a geologist he sometimes generalized from insufficient data; his last work Dalradian Geology was adversely reviewed in the Geological Magazine. Nevertheless he was one of the most prominent geologists of his period, widely recognized outside his own country. Most of his books could be read with interest by both men of science and the general public, and as scientist, teacher, traveller, and man of letters, he had much influence on the knowledge of his time.
G. W. Tyrrell, The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, vol. 89, p. XCI; The Times, 14 and 18 June 1932; Sir Ernest Scott, A History of the University of Melbourne.
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GREGSON, THOMAS GEORGE (1798-1874),premier of Tasmania,
was born in Durham, England, in 1798 and went to Tasmania in 1821. He brought over £3000 with him and was given a grant of 2500 acres. Subsequently he received an additional 1000 acres. He was made a magistrate and in 1825 was assisting Andrew Bent in his conflict with Governor Arthur (q.v.) for the liberty of the press. In July 1842 he became a member of the legislative council, and three years later led the opposition to the governor, Sir Eardley-Wilmot, in his attempt to raise the import duties. Shortly afterwards he resigned with five other members as a protest against the voting of expenditure the colony could not bear, and, among other things, the statement by the governor that he would carry the estimates by his casting vote. The six members became known as "the patriotic six" and Gregson was presented by the colonists with two thousand guineas and a piece of plate. At the end of 1850 he was elected to the new legislative council, and, when responsible government was granted, was elected a member of the house of assembly for Richmond in September 1856 and held the seat for many years. On 14 February 1857 Gregson moved and carried a motion in favour of reductions in the salaries of the governor, colonial secretary, colonial treasurer and attorney-general. The Champ (q.v.) ministry resigned and Gregson became premier and colonial secretary. But he was found to be unsuitable for his office; he lacked moderation, self-control and tact, and his government was defeated about eight weeks later. He was never in office again, though often a turbulent critic of other administrations. In January 1862 he was more than once committed to the custody of the sergeant-at-arms and was once expelled from the house. He retired from parliament not long before his death at Risdon on 4 January 1874. He was survived by his wife, a son and two daughters.
Gregson was an amateur artist and exhibited at the first art exhibitions held in Hobart in 1845 and 1846. He is represented in the Beattie collection at Launceston by a sketch of the Rev. Robert Knopwood (q.v.) on his white horse. He worked hard for the good of the colony to the neglect of his own interests for he died comparatively poor. He was particularly important as a reformer in his early days, fighting for the liberty of the press, for trial by jury, and the abolishment of transportation. His son, John Compton Gregson, was elected a member of the house of assembly for Norfolk Plains in 1856 and was attorney-general in his father's ministry. He died on 16 December 1867.
The Mercury, Hobart, 6 January 1874; J. Fenton, A History of Tasmania; R. W. Giblin, The Early History of Tasmania, vol. II; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.
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GREY, SIR GEORGE (1812-1898),governor and statesman,
[ also refer to George GREY page at Project Gutenberg Australia]
was born at Lisbon on 14 April 1812. His father, Lieut.colonel Grey, who was killed during an assault on Badajoz about a week before his birth, belonged to an aristocratic English family, his mother was the daughter of an Irish clergyman, the Rev. John Vignoles. Grey was sent to a school at Guildford in Surrey, and was admitted to the royal military college in 1826. Early in 1830 he was gazetted ensign in the 83rd regiment. In 1830, his regiment having been sent to Ireland, he developed much sympathy with the Irish peasantry whose misery made a great impression on him. He was promoted lieutenant in 1833 and obtained a first-class certificate at the examinations of the royal military college at Sandhurst in 1836. It was at that time believed that a great river entered the Indian ocean on the north-west of Australia, and that the country it drained might be suitable for colonization. Grey, in conjunction with Lieutenant Lushington, offered to explore this country and on 5 July 1837 Grey sailed from Plymouth in command of a party of five, the others being Lieutenant Lushington, Mr Walker, a surgeon and naturalist, and two corporals of the royal sappers and miners. Others were added to the party at Cape Town and early in December they landed at Hanover Bay. Explorations were made into the interior where the river Glenelg was discovered. At one point they were attacked by aborigines and Grey was severely wounded in the leg by a spear. He went to Mauritius to recuperate, and there decided not to return to the north-west coast but to sail to Perth and consult the governor, Sir James Stirling (q.v.). He arrived there on 18 September. He made some short expeditions from Perth and on 17 February 1839 set sail again and arrived at Shark's Bay eight days later. Here Grey made the mistake of burying his stores too close to the sea and found them destroyed when he returned. The party had to make its way back and endeavoured to row down the coast. A heavy gale beached them 300 miles from Perth, which was reached by land after undergoing the greatest privations. One member of the expedition died on the journey and others arrived almost completely exhausted. Grey discovered several rivers and reported favourably on parts of the country. His reports were afterwards discredited but later explorations showed that he had been substantially correct. In June 1839 he was raised to the rank of captain and in August was appointed resident magistrate at King George's Sound. Here he began to show the interest in native races which later on formed an important element of his life. and prepared his Vocabulary of the Aboriginal Language of Western Australia, published at Perth in 1839. He returned to England in September and prepared for the press his Journals of Two Expeditions of Discovery which was published in two volumes in 1841. He was, however, unable to personally see this through the press as within a few weeks he was appointed governor of South Australia. He arrived at Adelaide in May 1841, with instructions to reverse the financial policy of his predecessor Gawler (q.v.), and immediately brought about great reductions in expenditure. There had been difficulties with the aborigines and Grey, fortified by his experience in Western Australia, inaugurated a policy of firmness, justice and kindness which had complete success. His financial policy though ultimately successful brought Grey much unpopularity. He was determined that no encouragement should be given to the settlers to stay in Adelaide, and he was equally determined to discourage speculation in land. His efforts were successful. When he arrived only some 6000 acres of land were in cultivation, but when he left four years later the area had increased five-fold and production was increasing by leaps and bounds. Grey seldom appeared in public, and he refused to read newspaper criticisms of his policy. But gradually the silent self-contained young man (he was only 29 when he arrived in the colony) won his way, and before he left Australia it was recognized that he had done an excellent piece of work. He had not entirely escaped criticism from the colonial office, but Lord John Russell was able to say of him in the house of commons: "In giving him the government of South Australia I gave him as difficult a problem in colonial government as could be committed to any man, and I must say . . . that he has solved the problem with a degree of energy and success which I could hardly have expected from any man." Towards the end of 1845 Grey received orders to go at once to New Zealand and take over the government of the colony. He sailed for Auckland and became lieutenant-governor of New Zealand on 18 November 1845.
War with the Maoris had broken out before Grey arrived. One of its causes was the alienation of the land, a problem full of difficulties. Grey was given sufficient troops and soon brought the Maoris to subjection and, once beaten, the chiefs quickly recognized his courtesy and courage. He began to study their character and customs, their legends and their art. He learned the language, he interested himself in their health and general well-being, and he helped to found schools for them. He made an honest attempt and had some success in clearing up the difficulties of the land question, and showed himself to be a strong man by opposing the British government when it tried to impose its constitution of 1846 on the colonists. He became an autocrat, but was fortunate in having by his side men like William Swainson his attorney-general and (Sir) William Martin the chief justice, who were in sympathy with his ideals especially in regard to his treatment of the Maoris. One mistake Grey made, he did nothing to stop the execution of a Maori named Wareaitu, who was tried as a rebel for attacking the troops and condemned to death by a court-martial in 1847. The execution was indefensible, it is one of the few real blots on Grey's career. Apart from this he did good work encouraging the Maoris to grow grain, to allow their children to be educated, and to associate themselves with the administration of justice. When Grey left in 1853 he was universally praised by the Maoris. But time was to show a great weakness in that the power of the chiefs had been relaxed without a properly accepted authority having been substituted. When Grey left the binding force between the two races was removed, and a breach gradually widened which eventually brought about the war of 1860. Grey, however, had other problems to deal with while he was governor. In 1848 he inaugurated representative provincial councils and was hoping that the colony would soon be ready for representative government. This, however, was not established until after he left New Zealand on 31 December 1853.
At the end of Grey's term of office in New Zealand he returned to England and at first was received coldly. More than once as governor he had not carried out the instructions of the colonial office, an unforgivable offence in the minds of its officials. He was attacked in the house of commons and made a capable defence of his actions in July 1854. The colonial office, however, could not afford to stand on its dignity. Trouble was brewing in South Africa, a strong man was needed to cope with it, and Grey was accordingly appointed governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner for South Africa. He would have to deal largely with problems relating to the natives, and Grey could be trusted to treat them with justice and sympathy. Before he left for South Africa he saw through the press a work in the Maori language Ko Nga Mahinga a Nga Tupuna Maori containing traditions written down largely from the dictation of chiefs and high priests. His collection of poems, traditions and chants of the Maoris, Ko Nga Moteatea, Me Nga Hakirara, had already appeared in New Zealand in 1853. His Polynesian Mythology and Ancient Traditional History of the New Zealand Race, largely a translation into English of Ko Nga Mahinga, was published in London in 1855, has since been reprinted several times, and continues to be a work of great interest.
In South Africa Grey dealt firmly with the natives but endeavoured by setting apart tracts of land for their exclusive use to protect them from the white colonists. He more than once acted as arbitrator between the government of the Orange Free State and the natives, and eventually came to the conclusion that a federated South Africa would be a good thing for everyone. The Orange Free State would have been willing to join the federation, and it is probable that the Transvaal would also have agreed. Grey, however, was 50 years before his time and the colonial office would not agree to his proposals. In spite of their instructions Grey continued to advocate union, and, in connexion with other matters, such as the attempt to settle soldiers in South Africa after the Crimean war, he several times disregarded his instructions. When all the circumstances are considered it is not surprising that he was recalled in 1859. He had, however, scarcely reached England before a change of government led to his being given another term, on the understanding that his schemes for the federation of South Africa should be abandoned and that he would in future obey his instructions. Grey was convinced that the boundaries of the South African colonies should be widened, but could not obtain the support of the British government. He was still working for this support when, war with the Maoris having broken out, it was decided that Grey should again be appointed governor of New Zealand. When he left his popularity among the people of Cape Colony was unbounded, and the statue erected at Capetown during his lifetime describes him as "a governor who by his high character as a Christian, a statesman, and a gentleman, had endeared himself to all classes of the community, and who by his zealous devotion to the best interests of South Africa and his able and just administration, has secured the approbation and gratitude of all Her Majesty's subjects in this part of her dominions".
Grey arrived in New Zealand on 26 September 1861. His administration of nearly six years was a stormy one. He was often at odds with his ministers, largely because their points of view were fundamentally different from his. Grey was anxious that everything possible should be done to preserve the Maoris, while the legislature of New Zealand at this period attached little importance to the Maoris and great importance to the development of the colony and the prosperity of the colonists. The war dragged on, and in 1863 acts were passed of the severest nature which provided for confiscation of native lands. Grey supported his ministers at first and the royal assent was obtained, though the Duke of Newcastle warned Grey that the confiscation must not be carried too far. Accordingly, in May 1864, Grey refused to issue certain orders in council until the ministry would state the amount of land that was to be confiscated. When Grey found that it was to be eight million acres, he strongly opposed the ministry which eventually fell. The Weld (q.v.) ministry which then took office, however, persuaded Grey to consent to very large confiscations. Grey for once appears to have been inconsistent, but his difficulties were great, for he was also in opposition to the English general in command of the forces, Sir Duncan Cameron, and presently he incurred the enmity of Cardwell, now secretary for war, by bringing a dispatch marked "confidential" before his ministers. This was the beginning of Grey's downfall. In May 1867 the Duke of Buckingham in a dispatch mentioned without any preliminary warning, that in his next dispatch he would inform him of the name of his successor. This was practically a recall, Grey accepted it as such, and was deeply wounded. Both chambers of the legislature passed resolutions of sympathy, the citizens of Wellington organized a great demonstration of farewell, but he would take no part in it. In February 1868 he left for England. No doubt he hoped to successfully defend his actions, but he was given no opportunity and never received another appointment; the colonial office had decided that he was a dangerous man. He made a tour through England and Scotland advocating emigration and spoke to large audiences. He became a candidate for the house of commons in 1870 but withdrew because he could not obtain the support of the liberal party. He then decided to leave England and retired to Kawan Island near the head of Hauraki Gulf not far from Auckland, where he lived for some years. Early in 1875 Grey was elected a member of the house of representatives for Auckland city west. He fought strenuously but without success for the preservation of the provinces, and endeavoured to carry bills establishing manhood suffrage and triennial parliaments. Commonplaces now, these measures caused Rusden (q.v.), a contemporary historian, to speak of Grey as a "demagogue". On 15 October 1877 he became premier, and though his ministry had early troubles he was able to carry on. He started a policy of breaking up the lands, and reducing duties on the necessaries of life. But more than one of his ministers resigned, and obtaining a dissolution in August 1879 he was defeated in the new parliament by two votes, and resigned in October. He had become difficult to work with, and was not even elected leader of the opposition. But his influence remained and he lived to see some of his measures made law, including manhood suffrage, "one man one vote", and Maori representation. A later premier, R. J. Seddon, associated himself with Grey and owed much to his advice. Grey indeed became more of a radical as he grew older, he believed in the power of education and was willing to trust in the good sense of the people. But he also had grown more bitter, less able to brook opposition, and far too ready to impute motives to those opposed to him. In 1891 he renewed his connexions with Australia. At that time it was still thought possible that New Zealand might become one of the federated states of Australia, and Grey attended the 1891 federal conference as a New Zealand representative. He advocated that no limit should be placed on the legislative powers of the federal parliament, and that the governor-general should be elected by the people. He, however, received scarcely any support for either proposal. In 1894 Grey, now 82 years of age, visited England. He was received there with much respect and his views were listened to with attention. He was made a member of the privy council and his last four years brought him quiet and many friends. He had married in 1839 the daughter of Sir Richard Spencer. Parted for over 30 years, he met his wife again and they were reconciled some months before her death on 4 September 1898. Grey died a few days later on 19 September. Their only child, a son, died at the age of five months in 1841. On the suggestion of the colonial office, Grey was buried in St Paul's Cathedral where he lies beside Sir Bartle Frere, not far from the graves of Nelson and Wellington. He had been created K.C.B. in 1848. When he left South Africa he presented his magnificent library to Cape Town. He then collected another great library and presented it to the city of Auckland. These are enduring monuments to Grey as a student.
Grey was tall, slight of frame, distinguished in appearance, blue-eyed and with a fair complexion in his youth. In his later years his estrangement from his wife, his ceaseless battle with authority and his disappointment at the frustration of his ideals, all contributed to a certain bitterness of expression when in repose, and to a look of fierce imperiousness when he had cleared for action. Yet he had an unforced sense of humour and his face would light up in the most charming way when this was appealed to. He was an idealist and a passionate champion of the oppressed. Though he hated injustice he was sometimes unjust to his opponents and unreceptive of their arguments; and though generally the most courteous of men his strong feelings occasionally broke through even his courtesy. He had an extraordinary memory, great breadth of view, and a passion for public service. He was autocratic, and his habit of disregarding instructions must have made him a thorn in the side of the colonial office. But he also had a habit of being in the right, and four times in his life was selected to clear up difficult situations in different colonies. An aristocratic radical, he feared nothing and no man, and his one time radical views are now almost generally accepted. He was not a great leader in parliament, he walked too often alone, neither was he a great debater, but he was a great orator, who could, wherever he was, win the mass of the people to his side. A strong, brave, sincere man, his influence extended far beyond his own time.
Geo. C. Henderson, Sir George Grey, Pioneer of Empire in Southern Lands; James Collier, Sir George Grey, An Historical Biography; The Times, 20 and 27 September 1898; W. Pember Reeves, The Long White Cloud; G. W. Rusden, History of New Zealand; W. L. and L. Rees, The Life and Times of Sir George Grey; James Milne, The Romance of a Pro-Consul; F. Sutton, South Australia and Its Mines, which contains a contemporary sketch of Grey's administration of South Australia.
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GRICE, SIR JOHN (1850-1935),business man,
son of Richard Grice, a Melbourne merchant, was born at Melbourne on 6 October 1850. He was educated at Melbourne Grammar School, Wesley College, and the university of Melbourne, where he graduated LL.B. in 1871, and B.A. in 1872. He rowed for his university and was also a member of the Victoriain four-oared crew in 1872. He was called to the bar in that year but never practised. Instead he entered the firm of Grice Stunner and Company and eventually became one of the leading business men of Melbourne. He was for 45 years on the board of the National Bank of Australasia, and for 26 of these years was chairman of directors. He was also for many years chairman of directors of the Metropolitan Gas Company, of the Trustees Executors and Agency Company, and the Dunlop Rubber Company. His ability, sound business sense, and absolute probity made him an important influence in the commercial life of Melbourne. He was also a good citizen in other ways. He was first elected to the committee of the Melbourne hospital in 1886, and was president from 1905 to 1918. He became a member of the Melbourne university council in 1888, gave valuable service on the finance committee when the institution was passing through a difficult period, and was vice-chancellor from 1918 to 1923. During the 1914-18 war he did good work as honorary treasurer for the Victorian branch of the Australian Red Cross Society. He died at Melbourne on 27 February 1935. He married in 1878, Mary Anne, daughter of David Power, who died in 1931. He was survived by two sons. One of his sons was killed in the South African war in 1901 and another in France in 1916. He was knighted in 1917.
The Argus and The Age, Melbourne, 28 February 1935; Burke's Peerage, etc., 1935; Sir Ernest Scott, A History of the University of Melbourne; personal knowledge.
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GRIFFIN, WALTER BURLEY (1876-1937),designer of the Australian federal capital,
was born at Maywood, Illinois, U.S.A., on 24 November 1876. He took the degree of B.Sc. in architecture at the university of Illinois, and practised as an architect at Chicago in partnership with F. L. Wright. On 30 April 1911 the Commonwealth government invited competitive designs for the federal capital city, which had to arrive at Melbourne by 31 January 1912. By a majority decision Griffin was awarded the first premium of £1750; second and third premium's of £750 and £500 were also awarded, and a fourth design was purchased. A board of departmental officers was then appointed to report on the designs. Its decision was that it was unable to recommend the adoption of any of the designs, but suggested another design prepared by the board which differed radically from Griffin's. The government officially approved of the board's recommendation and a copy of its plan was sent to Griffin in Chicago. In January 1913 he wrote suggesting a conference with the board at Canberra, but this offer was not accepted. In the meantime the board's plan was much criticized, and, when the Cook (q.v.) government came into power in July, it was arranged that Griffin should visit Australia, see the actual site and confer with the board. This was done and the government adopted his premiated plan subject to amendment. On 18 October Griffin was appointed federal capital director of design and construction. He altered his plan slightly, returned to America to settle his private affairs, and took up his duties in May 1914. During the next six years there was considerable friction with the officers of the departments and the war added to Griffin's difficulties. A good deal of preliminary work was done, but in the years ending June 1918, 1919 and 1920 a total of only £8744 was spent on the construction of the city. In 1920 Griffin came into conflict with W. M. Hughes, who was then prime minister, and on 29 December 1920 he was informed that his appointment would not be renewed. Griffin issued a moderate statement of what had occurred, and the impression given is that he was treated with less than justice. The plan which was eventually carried out, though modified, is essentially Griffin's.
Griffin, who had an original mind, had an undoubted influence on architecture in Australia. He had the right of private practice and was responsible for the Capitol Theatre, Melbourne, and largely for Newman College at the university of Melbourne. He lived for some years at Sydney, and planned Castlecrag, a large estate on Middle Harbour with a scenic open-air amphitheatre. In 1935 he went to Lucknow, India, and designed the library building for the university of Lucknow and other important buildings. He died there on or about 13 February 1937. It was stated in Australian papers of 15 February that news of his death had been cabled from India. He married Marion Lucy Mahony, herself a competent architect, who survived him.
The Sydney Morning Herald, 15 February 1937; The Argus, Melbourne, 15 February 1937; F. Watson, A Brief History of Canberra; Federal Capital, Termination by the Government of Engagement of Walter Barley Griffin; Who's Who in America, 1924-25.
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GRIFFITH, SIR SAMUEL WALKER (1845-1920),premier of Queensland and first chief justice of the high court of Australia,
was born at Merthyr-Tydvil in South Wales, on 21 June 1845. He was the younger son of the Rev. Edward Griffith, a Congregational minister, and his wife, Mary, second daughter of Peter Walker. Though of Welsh extraction, his forbears for at least three generations were natives of England. Griffith came to Australia with his family in 1854, living first at Ipswich, then at West Maitland, and from 1860 at Brisbane. He was educated at a private school at Sydney, and at the Maitland high school. He matriculated at the university of Sydney when he was 15, and completed his B.A. course when he was 18, with first-class honours in classics, mathematics and natural science. During his course he was awarded the Cooper and Barker scholarships and other prizes. On his return to Brisbane he was articled to A. Macalister (q.v.), in one of whose ministries Griffith afterwards had his first portfolio. In 1865 he gained the T. S. Mort Travelling Fellowship. Going to Europe he spent some of his time in Italy, and became much attached to the Italian people and their literature. Many years after he was to become the first Australian translator of Dante. He was called to the bar in 1867, obtained a good practice, and in 1871 became a representative for East Moreton in the legislative assembly. In 1874, as a private member, he brought in and carried an insolvency bill and soon afterwards became a member of Macalister's fourth ministry as attorney-general. In the following year he introduced and carried his education bill, which provided that education in Queensland must be free, secular and compulsory. From June 1876 to the end of 1878 he was attorney-general and secretary for public instruction in the Thorn (q.v.) and Douglas (q.v.) ministries. Sir Thomas McIlwraith (q.v.) was in power for nearly five years from January 1879, and found in Griffith a most determined opponent who succeeded in displacing McIlwraith in November 1883, and won the next election largely on his policy of preventing the importation of Kanaka labour from the islands. He passed an act for this purpose, but it was found that the danger of the destruction of the sugar industry was so great that the measure was never made operative. Recruiting was, however, placed under regulations and some of the worst abuses were swept away. Griffith took a special interest in British New Guinea, and was eventually responsible for the sending of Sir William Macgregor (q.v.) there in 1888. In 1887 Griffith was one of the Queensland representatives at the colonial conference held in London, where he initiated the debate on the question of preferential trade and proved himself to be one of the outstanding men at the conference. The McIlwraith and Morehead (q.v.) ministries were in power from June 1888 to August 1890 when Griffith formed a coalition with McIlwraith, who succeeded him as premier in March 1893 when Griffith resigned to become chief justice of Queensland. He had had a distinguished career in Queensland politics. Included in the legislation for which he was responsible were an offenders' probation act, and an act which codified the law relating to the duties and powers of justices of the peace. He also succeeded in passing an eight hours bill through the assembly which was, however, thrown out by the legislative council. His work in connexion with federation was even more important. At the intercolonial conference held at Sydney in November 1883 James Service (q.v.), the Victorian premier, thought that Australia was ready for a real federal government, but Griffith, who was not prepared to go so far, moved and carried a resolution providing that a federal council should be formed to deal with the defence of Australasia, matters relating to the islands and Australia, quarantine, the prevention of the influx of criminals, and other matters of common interest to the various colonies. At the Sydney convention held in 1891 he was appointed vice-president, and as a member of the constitutional committee had an important part in framing the Commonwealth bill. This formed the basis of the constitution which was eventually adopted.
When Griffith was offered the position of chief justice of Queensland there was a general feeling that he was the outstanding man for the position. The salary was, however, comparatively low, Griffith was making a large income at the bar, and it seemed that he was being asked to make too great a sacrifice. Eventually the salary was increased to £3500 a year. He showed himself to be an admirable judge. He had an absolute knowledge of Queensland supreme court practice, and his industry never allowed his general knowledge of law to become rusty. With his fellow judges he compiled the Queensland criminal code which is a monument to the clarity of Griffith's mind. He did not henceforth take any public part in the question of federation. Unofficially he was able to influence the decision to delete the clause from the draft constitution disallowing any appeal from the federal high court to the privy council. He was also able to apply his great knowledge of constitutional law to the final settlement of other problems that had to be cleared up before federation could come into being. From 1899 to 1903 Griffith was also lieutenant-governor of Queensland, and when it was decided in 1903 to constitute the high court of Australia, it was generally agreed that the choice of Griffith for the position of chief justice was the only possible one. A few members of the Labour party who had been opposed to his views on the high court and the privy council raised objections to the appointment but received little support. Griffith carried out his duties as chief justice with great ability until his retirement on 31 August 1919. He then lived at Brisbane until his death on 9 August 1920. He married in 1870, Julia Janet, daughter of James Thomson, who survived him with one son and four daughters. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1886, G.C.M.G. in 1895, and was made a member of the privy council in 1901.
Griffith had been interested in Dante for many years before he published his translation of The Inferno of Dante Alighieri in 1908. This was followed by his translation of the complete work, The Divina Commedia of Dante Alighleri, in 1912, and The Poems of the Vita Nuova in 1914. Critical opinion of Griffith's translation of Dante has ranged from "the finest translation extant" to "he has succeeded in rendering the Poetry of Dante into the language of a parliamentary enactment". The second verdict goes too far. But though the translation is a most painstaking piece of work, Griffith's sense of harmony and rhythm was defective. This is evident when his translation is compared with Longfellow's written in a similar metre.
Griffith was tall, fair and bearded. In private life he was a model husband and father, but he could not be described as a popular man. He had an air of aloofness and apparent coldness which held in check even the most hail-fellow-well-met of his parliamentary colleagues. Yet he was clever as a parliamentarian and a strong party leader. He had perfect faith in himself, but no trouble was too great in ascertaining the facts, no care too great in drafting a clause of a bill. His power of work was tremendous, and it has been said that he kept himself going by drinking large quantities of whisky. The statement is probably based on the fact that he certainly took liquor with his meals and on other occasions, but it has never been suggested that it had any evil effect on him. This has been referred to because his biographer, A. Douglas Graham, found it necessary to deal at some length with the popular stories relating to this question. (See his Life, pp. 96-8). In politics Griffith was consistent except on one occasion, his reversal of policy on the Kanaka question. He regretted this himself, but was convinced that serious injury would have been done to the colony if the prevention of the use of coloured labour had not been postponed. As a lawyer he was astute, brilliant, incisive, with encyclopaedic knowledge and the power of keeping his eye on the principal object, however involved the problem might be. He was an excellent judge, whether he was a great judge is more difficult to say, as later members of the high court have tended to reverse some of his judgments. He did an immense service by broadening the procedure of his time and discouraging that undue taking of technical points that has too often in the past defeated the ends of justice. His mind was possibly over-subtle, and this may have given the impression that he lacked the intellectual honesty of Higinbotham (q.v.). But he was easily the greatest man of his time in Queensland, and one of the very greatest in all Australia.
A. Douglas Graham, The Life of the Right Hon. Sir Samuel Walker Griffith; The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 August 1920, 9 May 1927; The Brisbane Courier, 10 August 1920; C. A. Bernays, Queensland Politics During Sixty Years; Quick and Garran, Annotated Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia; A. B. Piddington, Worshipful Masters; The Argus, Melbourne, 26 July 1919.
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GRIMES, CHARLES (1772-1858),surveyor-general of New South Wales, discoverer of the Yarra,
was born, probably in England, in 1772. Towards the end of 1790 he was appointed deputy surveyor of roads in New South Wales, but he did not arrive at Sydney until 21 September 1791. From there he went to Norfolk Island, and soon after his arrival, on 4 November, Governor King (q.v.) appointed him deputy surveyor-general of New South Wales. At Norfolk Island he was employed correcting a previous survey which had been made without proper instruments, and he also undertook some of the administrative work. He returned to Sydney in April 1794 and, the surveyor-general Augustus Alt being in bad health, Grimes took over most of his work. In February 1795 he spent about a week at Port Stephens and reported unfavourably on the locality. Between then and 1803 Grimes was engaged in surveying grants and roads in the county of Cumberland, and in November 1801, with Barrallier (q.v.), he completed a survey of the Hunter River. In August 1802 he was appointed surveyor-general, in November sailed from Sydney for King Island and Port Phillip, of which he made a survey, and on 2 February 1803 the mouth of the Yarra was discovered. Next day Grimes ascended the river in a boat and explored what is now the Maribyrnong River for several miles. Returning to the Yarra it was explored for several miles but the boat was stopped by Dight's Falls. The journal of James Flemming, a member of the party, has been preserved, and in it he several times refers to finding good soil; and though it was evidently a dry season Flemming, who was described by King as "very intelligent", thought from the appearance of the herbage that "there is not often so great a scarcity of water as at present". He suggested that the "most eligible place for a settlement I have seen is on the Freshwater (Yarra) River". Grimes returned to Sydney on 7 March and, in spite of Flemming's opinions, reported adversely against a settlement at Port Phillip.
Grimes obtained leave of absence and went to England in August 1803. It was nearly three years before he was back in Sydney. In March 1807 he was sent to Port Dalrymple, where he made a survey of the district and examined the route to Hobart. He returned at the end of the year, and became involved in the deposition of Bligh (q.v.) on 26 January 1808. He was one of the committee formed to examine the administration of Bligh, was appointed acting judge-advocate, and sat in that capacity at the trial of John Macarthur (q.v.). He realized, however, that he had no legal training, resigned on 5 April, and was sent to England with dispatches in the same month. He was not well received in England, and his salary was held back for a long period on account of his association with the mutineers. He resigned his position on 18 July 1811, in the following year became a paymaster in the army, and saw service in Canada, Great Britain and India. He was appointed paymaster at the recruiting depot, Maidstone, in September 1833 and was transferred to Chatham in 1836. He retired from the army on a pension in July 1848, and died at Milton-next-Gravesend on 19 February 1858. He married and had two sons.
B. T. Dowd, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XXII, pp. 247-88; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. I to VII, ser. III. vol. I; J. J. Shillinglaw, Historical Records of Port Phillip; The Gentleman's Magazine, March 1858, p. 343.
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GRITTEN, HENRY (c. 1817-1873),artist,
the son of a London picture dealer, was born probably in 1817. He studied art and was on friendly terms with David Roberts and other leading artists of the period. He began exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1835, and during the next 10 years 12 of his pictures were hung at its exhibitions. He was a more frequent exhibitor at the British Institution, and had 30 of his pictures hung there between 1836 and 1848. In the latter year he went to the United States and in about 1852 arrived in Australia. He went first to the Bendigo goldfields, but soon resumed painting in Victoria and Tasmania; there is a View of Hobart in 1857 by him at the Commonwealth national library at Canberra. He was represented at the first exhibition of the Victorian Academy of Art held at Melbourne in 1870. He died suddenly at Melbourne on 14 January 1873 leaving a widow and four children in poor circumstances.
Gritten was quite a capable painter of his period who had a hard struggle in Australia. He is represented in the national gallery and Connell collections, Melbourne, the Mitchell library, Sydney, and the Commonwealth national library, Canberra.
The Argus, Melbourne, 16 January and 12 February 1873; A. Graves, The British Institution and The Royal Academy Exhibitors; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art, which calls him Henry C. Gritten apparently, in error.
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GROOM, SIR LITTLETON ERNEST (1867-1936),politician,
son of William Henry Groom (q.v.), was born at Toowoomba, Queensland, on 22 April 1867. He was educated at Toowoomba Grammar School, where he was dux of the school and captain of the football and cricket teams. Going on to Ormond College, university of Melbourne, he graduated B.A. with the final honours scholarship in modern languages in 1889, and LL.B. with the final honours scholarship in March 1891. He was called to the bar in Victoria and Queensland, and before entering politics was on occasions an acting district court judge in Queensland. He succeeded his father as representative of Darling Downs in the federal house of representatives in 1901, and held this seat continuously for 28 years. In July 1905 he became minister for home affairs in the second Deakin (q.v.) ministry, exchanging this position for the attorney-generalship in October 1906. The ministry was defeated in November 1908, but Deakin formed his third cabinet in June 1909 with Groom as his minister for external affairs. This ministry resigned in April 1910 and Groom was in opposition for three years. He was minister for trade and customs in Cook's ministry from June 1913 to September 1914. He was vice-president of the executive council in Hughes's national government from November 1917 to March 1918, minister for works and railways from March 1918 to December 1921, acting attorney-general from April 1918 to August 1919 and attorney-general from December 1921 to December 1925. He visited Geneva in 1924 as leader of the Australian delegation to the fifth assembly of the League of Nations, was elected chairman of the first committee, and showed much ability in managing the discussions of the committee which was a large one including delegates from every member state of the league. After his return Groom resigned the portfolio of attorney-general on 18 December 1925, and on 13 January 1926 was elected without opposition speaker of the house of representatives. He held this position until in 1929 his refusal to vote with the Bruce-Page government on the question of the transfer of arbitration from the federal sphere to that of the states led to its defeat. He disagreed with the government on the question involved, but his refusal was based on a different reason. He felt that following the British precedent the speaker must be absolutely impartial and keep free of any party ties. At the election which followed Groom was strongly opposed by the government and lost his seat. He was re-elected at the 1931 general election but did not hold office again. From 1932 to 1936 he was chairman of the bankruptcy legislation committee, and in earlier years he also acted on various royal commissions and select committees. He died at Canberra after a short illness on 6 November 1936. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1924. He married in 1894 Jessie, daughter of the Rev. C. Bell who survived him with a daughter. Groom was joint-author with Sir John Quick (q.v.) of the Judicial Power of the Commonwealth, and was part author of various Queensland legal publications. His elder brother, Harry Littleton Groom, was for many years a member of the Queensland legislative council.
Groom took much interest in the Church of England, was a vice-president of the Church of England Men's Society, and a member of the General Synod of Australia. In politics he was hard-working and dependable, and from 1905 to 1926 was a member of every non-Labour ministry. He carried through much important legislation and, though representing a rural district, was a great advocate for the extension of secondary industries, and no trouble was too great in ascertaining the merits of the causes in question. He realized that many problems would have to be treated in a large way as Australian problems. He is found for instance about 1909 and 1910 making several efforts to establish a federal department of agriculture. Though he failed at the time, the Commonwealth Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, established in 1916, included many of the functions of Groom's proposals. He worked hard for federal old age pensions, and carried in 1922 against a good deal of opposition the public service act and the superannuation act. Generally he was both a political and a moral force in federal politics.
Nation Building in Australia, The Life and Work of Sir Littleton Ernest Groom; The Argus, Melbourne, 7 November 1936; The Courier-Mail, Brisbane, 7 November 1936; The Bulletin, 11 November 1936; The Commonwealth Parliamentary Handbook, 1936.
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GROOM, WILLIAM HENRY (1833-1901),politician,
was born at Plymouth, England, on 9 March 1833. He was educated at St Andrew's College, Plymouth, and in 1857 emigrated to Queensland. He began business as a storekeeper at Toowoomba, in 1861 was elected to the local council, and immediately became the first mayor of Toowoomba. Early in 1863 he was elected a member of the Queensland legislative assembly for Drayton and Toowoomba, but in 1866 resigned his seat, having been compelled to assign his estate owing to the failure of the Bank of Queensland. He was re-elected in 1867 and held the seat until he entered the federal house of representatives in March 1901. He more than once had strong opposition, but always headed the poll. He was speaker from 1883 to 1888, but did not become a member of any ministry, largely because of his being opposed to the views of McIlwraith (q.v.) and Griffith (q.v.), the two strong men of his period. He had been practically 38 years in the Queensland parliament when he resigned to go into federal politics, a unique record in Australia up to that period. He died at Melbourne on 8 August 1901. He married Grace Littleton who survived him. There was a family of four sons and three daughters, of whom the third son, Sir Littleton Ernest Groom, is noticed separately.
Groom was an industrious member of parliament, extremely interested in land settlement which he kept constantly before the house. He exercised much influence in Queensland, partly through his journal the Toowoomba Chronicle which he had founded and owned, but principally because he became the leader in parliament of a group colloquially known as the "Darling Downs Bunch". He was a fluent and earnest speaker, and as the "father of the house" his advice was constantly sought and given. When Toowoomba was little more than a village he was probably the only person who was able to visualize the possibilities of the town and the surrounding district. Much of the development of the Darling Downs was due to his efforts.
The Brisbane Courier, 9 August 1901; The Queensland Times, 10 August 1901; C. A. Bernays, Queensland Politics During Sixty Years; Nation Building in Australia. The Life and Work of Sir Ernest Littleton Groom.
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GROSE, FRANCIS (1754-1814),lieutenant-governor of New South Wales,
was the son of Francis Grose the well-known English antiquary. At the time of his death in 1814 he was stated to have been 56 years of age (Gentleman's Magazine, July 1814, p. 85). This would have made the year of his birth either 1757 or 1758, but unless he obtained promotion at unusually early ages the year of birth usually given, 1754, appears to be more probable. He was born in England, received a commission as an ensign in 1775, and fought in America, where he was twice wounded. He attained the rank of major in 1783, in November 1789 was placed in command of the New South Wales Corps, and appointed lieutenant-governor of New South Wales. He did not leave England until late in 1791, and he arrived at Sydney on 14 February 1792. Governor Phillip (q.v.) had already asked permission to resign, and in December left the colony. The conduct of the government then fell on Grose. Phillip had realized that unless there was some control over the sale of spirits great evils would follow, but Grose made no efforts in this direction, and great abuses such as the payment of wages in spirits became common. The custom of officers trading in spirits was almost universal, and in the interregnum before the arrival of Captain Hunter (q.v.) the colony was given up to drunkenness, gambling, licentiousness and crime. How far Grose was responsible for this state of affairs it is now impossible to say. There is, however, no reason to doubt the statements of the chaplain, the Rev. Richard Johnson (q.v.), that he could get no support from the lieutenan t-governor and no assistance in building a church. On the other hand the charges against Grose of making indiscriminate grants of land to his friends and fellow officers appear to be without foundation, as the grants made were in accordance with his instructions. In spite of the low state of morality, and the drinking habits of the people, the position of the colony had improved very much when Grose left for England on 17 December 1794. But the credit for this cannot be given to him. His substitution of military for civil power was not for the good of the state, and he showed no foresight or real strength in his government. In all probability the improvement was simply the result of better farming methods, for much of which credit may be given to the two chaplains, Johnson and Marsden (q.v.). After leaving Australia Grose filled various posts in the army. In 1798 he was on the staff in Ireland, and in 1805 was at Gibraltar with promotion to the rank of major-general. He was again on the staff in Ireland in 1809. He was promoted lieutenan t-general, and died in England about June 1814.
A. Britton, History of New South Wales, vol. II; Historical Records of New South Wales, vol. II; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. I and II.
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GRUNER, ELIOTH (1882-1939),artist,
was born at Gisborne, New Zealand, on 16 December 1882. His father, Elioth Gruner, was a Norwegian, his mother was Irish. He was brought to Sydney before he was a year old and at an early age showed a desire to draw. When about 12 years old his mother took him to Julian Ashton who gave him his first lessons in art. His father and elder brother having died, the boy had to help to maintain the household, and at 34 obtained a position in a shop where he worked from 7.40 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. He managed to do some painting at week-ends, and about 1901 began to send work to the exhibitions of the Society of Artists at Sydney. About 10 years of hard work followed before the merit of his work was recognized. In 1911 a small shop was started in Bligh-street, Sydney, to sell works of art produced in Australia and for a time Gruner took charge of it. He then became an assistant to Julian Ashton at the Sydney Art School, and during Ashton's illness took complete charge of the classes for about three months. In 1916 he was the winner of the Wynne art prize with a small landscape "Morning Light" which was purchased by the national gallery of New South Wales. He was the winner of the Wynne prize again in 1919, and in the following year the trustees commissioned him to paint a large picture for the gallery "The Valley of the Tweed". Though this was awarded the Wynne prize in 1921 and is a capable work it scarcely ranks among his best efforts. He seldom afterwards took anything larger than a 24-inch canvas.
In 1923 Gruner visited Europe and was away for more than two years. The effect of travel on his work was very noticeable. There was generally a good deal of simplification, more attention to pattern, and a freer and wider sweep of his brush. He was less interested in the problems of light and occasionally his work took on a slightly cold aspect. The changes were not always welcomed by his admirers, but Gruner was right not to allow himself to fall into a groove. In 1927 he held a one man show, but he was not a very productive artist and henceforth he was in a position to sell practically everything he produced. He spent much time in finding a suitable subject, and more in carefully considering it before a brush was put to the canvas. He became interested in the study of light again, and some excellent work of his latest period combined the qualities of his first and second periods. He died at Sydney on 17 October 1939. He never married. He is well represented at the national gallery at Sydney, and examples will also be found at Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane, Geelong and Castlemaine. Nearly all his work was in landscape but he did a few flower pieces and interiors, and a small number of dry-points. Memorial exhibitions of his work were held in Sydney and Melbourne in 1940.
Gruner had few interests outside his work. He was scarcely a great draughtsman but had a beautiful feeling for delicate colour, light, and atmosphere. He is entitled to a high place among Australian painters.
The Art of Elioth Gruner; Art in Australia, 1929 and 1933; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; The Sydney Morning Herald, 18 October 1939; D. Lindsay, Catalogue, Melbourne Memorial Exhibition.
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GUERARD, JEAN EUGENE VON (1811-1901), (his first name was never used),
[ebook editor's comment: This person is now referred to as "GUERARD, Johann Joseph Eugen von"--See Australian Dictionary of Biography, Online Edition.]landscape painter
was born at Vienna in 1811. His father, Bernhard von Guerard, was court miniature painter to Francis I of Austria. As a young man Guerard spent some years in studying art in Italy and at Dusseldorf. He emigrated to Australia in 1853 and did much landscape painting. In 1866 his "Valley of the Mitta Mitta" was presented to the national gallery at Melbourne, and in 1870 the trustees purchased his "Mount Kosciusko". In the same year he was appointed master of the school of painting and curator of the gallery. He held these positions until the end of 1881 when he retired and went to live in Europe. In 1885 he published a series of lithographs of Australian landscapes. He died in England in 1901.
Von Guerard's painting was careful and finished though lacking in light and atmosphere. He had some interesting men among his pupils including F. McCubbin (q.v.) and Tom Roberts (q.v.) but appears to have had little influence on their work. He is represented at the galleries at Sydney, Melbourne and Ballarat. A large number of his pencil sketches will be found in the historical collection at the public library, Melbourne, and other examples of his work are in the Commonwealth national library at Canberra, and the Turnbull library at Wellington, N.Z.
Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; E. La T. Armstrong, The Book of the Public Library, Museums and National Gallery of Victoria.
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GUILFOYLE, WILLIAM ROBERT (1840-1912),landscape gardener,
son of Michael Guilfoyle, was born at Chelsea, England, on 8 December 1840, and came to Australia with his father who conducted a well-known nursery at Sydney for many years from 1851 onwards. Guilfoyle was educated at Lyndhurst College, Glebe, and was also helped in his studies by W. S. MacLeay (q.v.) and John McGillivray, the naturalist. In 1868 Guilfoyle was on the Challenger on a botanical voyage to the South Sea islands, and subsequently he was engaged in growing sugar-cane and tobacco in Queensland. In 1873 he succeeded Baron von Mueller (q.v.) as director of the botanic gardens, Melbourne, and spent the next 36 years of his life in developing them. The area was comparatively small when he began, but it grew to slightly over 100 acres, and while not neglecting the purely scientific side of the work Guilfoyle created it as a landscape garden. What had been little better than swamps became lakes, a delightful fern gully was made out of a small depression, noble lawns bounded by carefully disposed groups of trees were laid out, and the result was the finest gardens in Australia and probably one of the finest in the world. Guilfoyle was forced by poor health to resign his position in September 1909, and he died at Melbourne on 25 June 1912. He married late in life and left a widow and one child. He was the author of Australian Botany specially designed for the Use of Schools (1878), the A.B.C. of Botany (1880), and Australian Plants (1911).
Men of the Time in Australia, 1878; The Argus and The Age, Melbourne, 26 June 1912; J. W Maiden, Journal and Proceedings Royal Society of New South Wales, 1921; Sir Frank Clarke, In the Botanic Gardens.
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GUNN, RONALD CAMPBELL (1801-1881),botanist,
son of Robert Gunn, an officer in the army, was born at Capetown on 4 April 1808. He accompanied his father to Mauritius, the West Indies, and Scotland where he was educated. He was given an appointment in the royal engineers at Barbadoes, but left there in 1829 to go to Tasmania, where he obtained the position of superintendent of convict barracks at Hobart, and in 1830 superintendent of convicts for North Tasmania. In 1831 be became acquainted with an early Tasmanian botanist, Robert William Lawrence (1807-1833), who encouraged his interest in botany and placed him in touch with Sir W. Hooker and Dr Lindley, with whom he corresponded for many years. In 1836 Gunn was appointed police magistrate at Circular Head. From there he visited Port Phillip and Western Port and also travelled much in Tasmania. He became assistant police magistrate at Hobart in 1838, and in 1839 private secretary to Sir John Franklin (q.v.) and clerk of the executive and legislative councils. In 1841 he gave up these appointments to take charge of the estates of W. E. Lawrence, and spent much time investigating the flora of Tasmania. But his interests were not confined to botany; he became a general scientist and made collections of mammals, birds, reptiles and mollusca, for the British Museum. Taking up the study of geology he was employed by the government to report on mining fields, and also on the general resources of the colony. In 1864 he was appointed one of the commissioners for selecting the seat of government at New Zealand. Subsequently he became recorder of titles at Launceston, holding this position until 1876 when he retired owing to ill health. He died at Newstead, near Launceston, after a long illness, on 13 March 1881. He became a fellow of the Linnean Society in 1850, and was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, London, in 1854.
Gunn was a first-rate botanist and general scientist. Sir J. D. Hooker, who dedicated his Flora Tasmaniae to Gunn, and another Tasmanian botanist, William Archer (1820-74), speaking of Gunn in his "Introductory Essay" said: "There are few Tasmanian plants that Mr Gunn has not seen alive, noted their habits in a living state, and collected large suites of specimens with singular tact and judgment. These have all been transmitted to England . . . accompanied with notes that display remarkable powers of observation, and a facility for seizing important characters in the physiognomy of plants, such as few experienced botanists possess". (The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage, part III, Flora Tasmaniae, vol. I, p. CXXV). Though so competent Gunn published little. With Dr J. E. Gray he was responsible for a paper "Notices accompanying a Collection of Quadrupeds and Fish from Van Diemen's Land", and he was the author of a few papers on the geology and botany of that island. When private secretary to Sir John Franklin he assisted in founding, and was editor of, the Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science, which recorded papers read at government house. From these beginnings sprang the Royal Society of Tasmania. The Tasmanian Journal was succeeded by the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Dieman's Land, in which some of Gunn's few papers appeared. He was much liked and respected and may be ranked as the most eminent of Tasmanian botanists. He is commemorated by the genus Gunnia and many species.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. XXXIV, p. XIII; J. H. Maiden, Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 1909, p. 15; The Mercury, Hobart, 15 March 1881.
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GUTHRIE, FREDERICK BICKELL (1861-1927),agricultural chemist,
son of Frederick Guthrie, F.R.S., was born at Mauritius in 1861. He was educated at University College, London, and at the university of Marburg. He was assistant to the professor of chemistry at Queen's College, Cork, for some years, and in 1887 became demonstrator in chemistry at the Royal College of Science, London. He came to Australia about 1890 and in that year was appointed demonstrator in chemistry at the university of Sydney. In 1892 he was made chemist to the New South Wales department of agriculture. In this department he did much research in connexion with soil analysis, manures, and the milling qualities of wheat. He was also closely associated with William Farrer (q.v.) and his work on wheat breeding. For periods in 1896, 1904-5, and 1908-9 Guthrie was acting-professor of chemistry at the university of Sydney. In 1901 he was president of the chemical section of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, and in 1913 president of the agricultural section. He was elected president of the Royal Society of New South Wales for 1903 and was one of the joint honorary secretaries from 1906 to 1910. Guthrie was also an original member of the Commonwealth advisory council of science and industry. He retired from the agricultural department of New South Wales in January 1924, and died at Sydney on 7 February 1927. He married Ada Adams, who survived him with a daughter. He lost his two sons in the 1914-18 war. He wrote many papers for scientific societies some of which were published as pamphlets. His work as an economic and agricultural chemist was of widespread benefit to primary production in Australia.
Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 1927, p. 12; The Daily Telegraph, Sydney, and The Sydney Morning Herald, 8 February 1927.
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GWYNNE, EDWARD CASTRES (1811-1888),judge,
son of the Rev. William Gwynne, was born at Lewes, Sussex, England, in February 1811. He was educated at St Anne's Grammar School and under the Rev. George Evans at Sheffield. He studied law, was articled, and then practised as an attorney until 1837. At the end of that year he left for South Australia, and arrived at Adelaide on 15 April 1838 with letters of introduction to judge Jeffcott. He immediately applied for admission to the bar and practised as a barrister. In 1840 he entered into partnership with William Bartley, and later was joined by Charles Mann. He established a reputation as a lawyer, especially for his knowledge of equity law and the law of property. In 1851 he was nominated to the legislative council, and soon afterwards brought in a bill to establish state aid to religion, which was defeated. In 1853, during the discussion of the proposed new constitution, he spoke in favour of a nominee upper house, but it was eventually decided that the house should be an elected one with a property qualification for voters. Gwynne was defeated at the election for the council in 1854, but was elected unopposed to the new legislative council in 1857. He opposed the Torrens (q.v.) real property bill, being afraid that it would have dangerous consequences. Though his opposition was not successful his criticisms had the effect of improving the bill. He was attorney-general in the Baker ministry which lasted for only 10 days in August 1857, and in 1859 was appointed third judge of the supreme court. In 1867 he became second judge and primary judge in equity. From December 1872 to June 1873 he was acting chief-justice, and in February 1877 received extended leave of absence to visit England. He retired on a pension on 28 February 1881. Before becoming a judge he had owned some good racehorses and was himself a good horseman all his life. In retirement he grew oranges on a comparatively large scale, and also gave some attention to viticulture. He died on 10 June 1888. He married a daughter of R. E. Borrow who survived him with four sons and four daughters.
A man of imposing appearance and fine character, Gwynne was an important figure during his comparatively short career in parliament. As a lawyer he was a good pleader, and as a judge he was distinguished for his clearness of apprehension, breadth of view, strict impartiality, and excellent knowledge of the law. Sir John Downer (q.v.), who had appeared before him as a young advocate, spoke of him many years later as "a very great judge".
The South Australian Register, 11 June 1888 and 3 August 1915; The South Australian Advertiser, 11 June 1888; J. Blacket, The Early History of South Australia.
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