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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALIAN BIOGRAPHY
Angus and Robertson--1949
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CLARK, ANDREW INGLIS (1848-1907),federalist and constitutional lawyer,
son of Andrew and Ann Inglis Clark, was born at Hobart, Tasmania, on 24 February 1848. He was educated at the Hobart high school, and on leaving, entered the office of his father, who was an engineer and iron-founder. He did not begin to study law until he was 24 years of age, and it was nearly five years before he was admitted to practise in January 1877. He first distinguished himself in the criminal court and later obtained a large general practice. Elected to the house of assembly for Norfolk Plains in July 1878, he was defeated in 1882 and was out of parliament for five years. In March 1887 he was returned for South Hobart, and at once became attorney-general in the Fysh (q.v.) ministry, which remained in office until August 1892. In 1890 he represented Tasmania at the Melbourne conference on federation and again at the Sydney convention of 1891. He had prepared a complete draft constitution for the use of this convention. He was a member of both the constitutional committee and of the judiciary committee, the only one of the 45 representatives to be on more than one committee. He was also a member of the sub-committee of four that completed the drafting of a bill to constitute the Commonwealth of Australia. Sir Samuel Griffith (q.v.) is generally believed to have taken the most important part in the drafting of this bill, but there is no doubt that Clark's special knowledge of the constitution of the United States must have been of great value. "That our constitution so closely resembles that of the United States is due very largely to his influence" (B. R. Wise, The Making of the Australian Commonwealth, p. 75). He had been sent to England to represent the Tasmanian government in a case before the privy council in 1890, and on his way home visited the United States. He afterwards twice visited America, and always took a special interest in it. From April 1894 to October 1897 he was attorney-general in the Braddon (q.v.) ministry, and in 1896 was responsible for the act which brought in the Clark-Hare system of voting in Tasmania. He resigned from this ministry on account of a difference with his colleagues and became leader of the opposition. He was not a candidate at the election of Tasmanian representatives for the 1897 federal convention, and did not approve of the bill in its final form. In 1898 he was made a judge of the supreme court of Tasmania, and in 1901 published a book, Studies in Australian Constitutional Law. He died on 14 November 1907. He married in 1878 Grace Paterson, daughter of John Ross, who survived him with five sons and two daughters. One of his sons, Andrew Inglis Clark, born in 1882, educated at Hutchins School, Hobart, and the university of Tasmania, became a judge of the supreme court of Tasmania in 1928.
Clark exercised a great influence in Tasmania. He had a passion for knowledge, he was intensely interested in the welfare of his fellow-men, and his house was for long a centre of culture and learning in his native town. An excellent constitutional lawyer, he did good work in the Tasmanian parliament, and his learning and ability had much effect on the movement for federation.
The Mercury, Hobart, 15 November 1907; B. R. Wise, The Making of the Australian Commonwealth; Quick and Garran, The Annotated Constitution of the Australian Commonwealth; Who's Who in Australia, 1933; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.
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CLARKE, SIR ANDREW (1824-1902),administrator,
was born at Southsea, Hampshire, England, on 27 July 1824. He was the eldest son of Lieut.-Colonel Andrew Clarke (1793-1847) and his wife Frances, daughter of Philip Lardner. His father entered the army as an ensign when only 13 years of age, by 1813 became a captain and went with his regiment to New South Wales in that year. In 1818 he was in India, and in 1823 while on leave in England was married. He returned to Europe in 1833, was created a knight of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order in 1837, and succeeded to the command of his regiment in 1839. In 1842 Colonel Clarke took his regiment to the West Indies and was appointed lieutenant-governor of St Lucia, which he left in 1844. In the following year he was appointed governor of Western Australia, where he arrived on 26 January 1846. He became ill not long afterwards and died on 11 February 1847.
Owing to his father's absence from home, Clarke was brought up by his grandfather, Dr Andrew Clarke, and his uncles, James Langton Clarke, who afterwards went to Victoria and became a county court judge, and William Hislop Clarke, the father of Marcus Clarke (q.v.). He was educated at the King's School, Canterbury, and the Portora School at Enniskillen. At 16 he entered the royal military academy at Woolwich and did a four years' course. He took a high place at his final examination, and in June 1844 became a second lieutenant in the royal engineers. In 1845 he was stationed in Ireland and in the following year, on his father's suggestion, applied to be sent to New South Wales or Tasmania. In July 1846 he was promoted lieutenant and sent in command of a small detachment of royal sappers and miners for service in Tasmania. He sailed in the same ship as Sir William Denison (q.v.), the newly-appointed governor of Tasmania. A few weeks after his arrival he heard of the death of his father in Western Australia.
Clarke's principal reason for coming to Australia was the hope that he might obtain a position somewhere near his father and mother. In the changed circumstances he was very glad in 1848 to go to New Zealand to assist in improving the communications. Sir George Grey (q.v.) was not only pleased to have his help in making roads, but also employed him in endeavouring to reconcile the Maoris to British rule. However, in August 1849 Sir William Denison wrote to Clarke offering him the position of private secretary to the governor. Clarke accepted and, becoming a member of the legislative council, was able to be a tactful mediator between the governor and the colonists. In May 1853 he was offered the position of surveyor-general of Victoria with a seat in the council. He was still under 30 when he began his duties, which included not only the management of his department, but a share in the government of the colony. In February 1854 he was promoted to be captain, in July he acted as secretary of an exhibition held in Melbourne of the articles to be sent to the Paris exhibition, and about this time was one of the founders of the Philosophical Society, afterwards the Royal Society of Victoria. When responsible government was established Clarke was elected a member of the legislative assembly for Emerald Hill, and as surveyor-general in the first Haines (q.v.) ministry, brought in a bill for the establishment of municipal institutions. This was passed and Clarke may be called the founder of municipal government in Victoria. In 1857 he carried a bill largely extending railways in the colony, and in March 1858 he was asked by the governor, Sir Henry Barkley, to form a government. Clarke's request for a dissolution was, however, refused and he abandoned the attempt to form an administration. In 1858 Clarke decided to return to England. He was anxious to obtain the position of governor of Queensland, and considered he would be in a better position to advance his claims in London. He had good support but the position was given to Sir George Bowen (q.v.).
Clarke was much disappointed, but carried on his work as a military officer, though he found the routine duties at Colchester, where he had been placed in command of the royal engineers, very tedious. He was able to do a useful piece of work for Victoria by firmly refusing to accept obsolete arms for the volunteer forces there. In 1863 Clarke, now with the rank of major, was sent to the Gold Coast to command the forces, and in the following year was brought back to England to become director of works at the admiralty. There be designed many important works, including the Bermuda floating dock in 1868. At the end of 1869 he visited Egypt when the Suez Canal was opened, and suggested that an endeavour should be made by an English company to purchase the canal, but the proposal was opposed by Gladstone and others and nothing came of it. For the nine years from 1864 to 1873 Clarke carried through a series of important works relating to the navy, docks and harbours, and in May 1873 was appointed governor of the Straits Settlements. In 1875 he became a member of the council of the viceroy of India, and head of the public works department. In this position, he formulated many schemes which unfortunately could not at the time be carried out for want of money. In 1881 he was appointed commandant of the school of military engineering at Chatham, and from 1882 to 1886 was inspector-general of fortifications and director of works, in which position he was able to give advice to the Australasian colonies on defence questions. On more than one occasion he was acting agent-general for Victoria, and vigorously pressed the Australian views in connexion with the cession of the New Hebrides to France. He resigned from his position of inspector-general of fortifications on 25 June 1886, and became a candidate for Chatham in the house of commons in July 1886, as an ardent home ruler, but was defeated. In 1891 Clarke acted as agent general for Victoria for a few months, and holding the same position from November 1892 to April 1894, worked hard to uphold the financial credit of Australia during the 1893 financial crisis. He was again acting agent-general in January 1897, and two years later the qualification of "acting" was dropped and he was appointed agent-general. He held this position until his death at London on 29 March 1902. He also acted on occasions as agent-general for Tasmania. He married in 1867 Mary M. E. Mackillop, who died in 1895, and was survived by a daughter. He was created C.B. in 1869, K.C.M.G. in 1873, C.I.E. in 1878, and G.C.M.G. in 1885. He was promoted colonel in 1872, major-general in 1884, and lieutenant-general in 1886.
Clarke was a genial man of strong feelings, able and hard-working. He was only a few years in Australia, but in addition to his work for the extension of railways and municipal government, he was also a strong influence for improved water supplies, telegraph extensions, and the keeping of meteorological statistics. He drew a pension of £800 a year from Victoria, but this was not paid to him while he was agent-general.
R. H. Vetch, Life of Lieut.-General the Hon. Sir Andrew Clarke; Men of the Time in Australia, 1878; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.
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CLARKE, GEORGE (1823-1913),New Zealand pioneer, educationist,
was born at Parramatta, New South Wales, on 29 June 1823. His father, George Clarke, an early missionary to New Zealand, came from Norfolk and arrived at Hobart in September 1822. He then went to Sydney, and while waiting for a ship to New Zealand, took charge of an establishment of aborigines near Parramatta. The family went on to New Zealand in 1824 and settled at Bay of Islands. In 1832 George Clarke the younger was sent to Hobart and went to R. W. Giblin's school. Returning to New Zealand early in 1837 the boy studied with the Rev. W. Williams, afterwards Bishop of Waiapu. In 1839 he went with Williams to Poverty Bay, still continuing his studies, and there obtained an excellent knowledge of the Maori language, and of the mentality of the Maoris; an invaluable experience that he found of great use a year or two later. In 1840 his father was made protector of aborigines by the recently appointed lieutenant-governor, Captain Hobson (q.v.). The seat of government was transferred to the site of Auckland, and there the elder Clarke bought a large block of land from the Maoris for the government. In January 1841 his son was appointed a clerk in the native department of the civil service of New Zealand. He had already formed the ambition of becoming a clergyman, but for five years he remained in the government employ, first as an interpreter, then as a Maori advocate and protector, and eventually as a negotiator with the Maoris. In all these capacities he did most valuable work. He accompanied Commissioner Spain during his inquiry into the claims of the New Zealand Land Company, and was fiercely assailed by the representatives of the company. Eventually the claims of the company were considerably reduced. In June 1844 Clarke was sent to Otago to assist in the purchase of a large block of land for the projected Scotch settlement. Clarke had to fight hard to preserve the Maoris' village cultivations and burial grounds, but eventually succeeded, and the sale of something over 400,000 acres of what is now the province of Otago was concluded. Clarke wrote out the original Maori deed and English translation, and took pride in the fact that no dispute ever arose subsequently in regard to the transaction. For eight of the early months of 1845 Clarke was in the centre of the war with the Maoris, and for most of the time was the only representative of the government in the district. On 18 November Governor Grey (q.v.) arrived and Clarke was at once attached to his personal staff. Grey was anxious to put an end to the war and eventually peace was declared. Clarke said of this conflict "Heke's war stands quite alone in the history of our struggles with the Maori race; alone in its magnanimity, its chivalry, its courtesy, and, I dare say, its control by Christian sentiment". In another place he mentions that "Heke always said, if fight we must, let us fight like gentlemen". But though Clarke could pay these well deserved tributes in his account of the great chief, he could say little about his own conduct as representative of the government, which was equally creditable. In 1846, greatly to the regret of Grey, Clarke resigned from the government service. Grey pointed out to him that he had splendid prospects if he would remain, but his health had suffered, he still retained his ambition to be a minister of the Gospel, and, moreover, he could not reconcile his conscience with some of the acts of the government.
From New Zealand Clarke went to Hobart and early in 1847 sailed to London and entered at New College. He was ordained in the Congregational Church in 1851, and at once returned to Hobart to become minister of the Collins-street church. Soon a larger church was built in Davey-street, and for over 50 years he remained its pastor, honoured and beloved by all and never losing his appeal to the younger people. He took much interest in higher education, and was long a member and for some years president of the council of education. He was one of the founders of the university of Tasmania, its first vice-chancellor from May 1890 to May 1898, and chancellor from May 1898 to May 1907, when he retired. He had given up his church work In 1904. He died at Hobart on 10 March 1913. Apart from his Notes on Early Life in New Zealand, which appeared in 1903, Clarke's only publications were some separately published sermons and addresses and a small collection of Short Liturgies for Congregational Worship. He also wrote the memoir of James Backhouse Walker prefixed to his Early Tasmania. Clarke married a daughter of Henry Hopkins and was survived by two sons and four daughters.
Clarke's career might have reached any height had he remained in the New Zealand public service, or entered politics. Few men have done so much or had such prospects before the age of 23, and to some it might seem an anti-climax to have given these up to become a clergyman in a comparatively small town. But his influence in the community at Hobart was always being felt, and its value cannot be estimated by ordinary standards of success.
George Clarke, Notes on Early Life in New Zealand; Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 1913, p. 313; The Mercury, Hobart, 11 March 1913; Calendar of the University of Tasmania, 1940.
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CLARKE, HENRY LOWTHER (1850-1926),fourth bishop and first Anglican archbishop of Melbourne,
son of the Rev. W. Clarke, of Firbank, Westmorland, England, was born on 23 November 1850. He was educated at Sedbergh school, and, winning a scholarship which took him to St John's College, Cambridge, graduated B.A. in 1874 as seventh wrangler, and M.A. in 1877. He was ordained deacon in 1874 and priest in 1875, and was curate of St John's, Kingston-on-Hull, from 1874 to 1876. He subsequently held various vicarages in the north of England during the next 26 years, and was vicar of Huddersfield when he was appointed bishop of Melbourne in February 1903. During the period since the resignation of Bishop Goe (q.v.) the area of the diocese of Melbourne had been much reduced by the formation of new dioceses at Bendigo, Wangaratta and Gippsland. When Clarke began his work he appointed a commission to tabulate the present position and future needs of the diocese, and he later came to the conclusion that certain parishes had become too large and needed subdividing, that means must be found for a more complete training of the clergy, and that there must be an extension of secondary education by means of church schools. In 1905 Clarke became first archbishop of Melbourne and metropolitan of Victoria. He ruled his diocese with a firm hand refusing to allow himself to be allied to any party. Recognizing that what may be called the puritanical and the aesthetic types of mind are permanent in human nature, he held that the greatest safety would be found in a middle course, and that no good would be done by straining after uniformity in minor matters. The question of the reunion of the churches was given some consideration, but little progress was made. There was, however, much expansion in the social work of the church, and several successful secondary schools were established, including the Melbourne Church of England Girls' Grammar School, and Trinity Grammar School, Kew. In March 1920 Clarke went to London to attend the Lambeth conference, and in November resigned his position as archbishop of Melbourne. He lived in retirement at Lymington, Hampshire, and busied himself with literary work. His published writings include: History of the Parish of Dewsbury (1899), Addresses delivered in England and Australia (1904), The Last Things (1910), Studies in the English Reformation (1912), Addresses delivered to the Synod of the Diocese of Melbourne (1914), The Constitutions of the General Provincial and Diocesan Synods of the Church of England in Australia (1918), Constitutional Church Government in the Dominions Beyond the Seas (1924), an authoritative and comprehensive work; Death and the Hereafter (1926), and with W. N. Weech a History of Sedbergh School (1925). Clarke died on 23 June 1926. He was given the honorary degree of D.D. by both Cambridge and Oxford. He married in 1876 Alice Lovell, daughter of the Rev. Canon Kemp. She died in 1918. Two sons and a daughter survived.
Clarke was a man of good presence, a witty and lively conversationalist, interested in music and the fine arts, and well read in the poets, whom he often quoted with effect in his addresses. He was a clear, scholarly and forcible speaker, and a liberal-minded and sound administrator. His 18 years of office at Melbourne was a time of steady progress, particularly on the educational side of the work of his church.
The Times, 25 June 1926; The Argus, Melbourne, 24 June 1926; Crockford's Clerical Directory, 1926; Year-Books of the Melbourne Diocese, 1903-20.
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CLARKE, MARCUS ANDREW HISLOP (1846-1881), always known as Marcus Clarke,novelist and miscellaneous writer,
[ also refer to Marcus CLARKE page at Project Gutenberg Australia]
was born at Kensington, London, on 24 April 1846. His father, William Hislop Clarke, was a barrister, his mother died before he was a year old. Clarke was educated at a private school kept by Dr Dyne at Highgate, where he spent most of his time in reading. He was early initiated into the Bohemian life of the period by visitors to his home, but his father died when the boy was 16, leaving only a few hundred pounds, though he had apparently been in prosperous circumstances. Clarke's uncle, James Langton Clarke, who was a county court judge at Melbourne, suggested he should try his fortune there. He arrived on 7 June 1863 and obtained a position in the Bank of Australasia, but was found to be quite unfitted for that kind of work. In 1865 he was on a station near Glenorchy where he remained for two years and began writing sketches for the magazines. Early in 1867 a Dr Robert Lewins visited the station and met Clarke. He was much impressed with his ability, and on returning to Melbourne recommended him to the editor of the Argus, and Clarke became a member of the literary staff of that paper. He found it impossible to carry out the ordinary routine tasks of a journalist, but remained a contributor for several years. In 1868 he became proprietor and editor of the Colonial Monthly to which his first novel, Long Odds, was contributed. It appeared in book form in 1869 with a dedication "to G. A. W. in grateful remembrance of the months of July and August". This has reference to the fact that during those months Clarke was suffering from the effects of a serious accident in the hunting field, and Walstab carried on the story while he was incapacitated. In 1868 the Yorick Club was founded with Clarke as its first secretary. Other members were Adam Lindsay Gordon (q.v.), Henry Kendall (q.v.) and George Gordon McCrae (q.v.), and these men made Melbourne the literary centre of Australia. In the following year Clarke started a weekly satirical paper called Humbug which, however, lasted only three months. On 22 July 1869 he was married to Marian Dunn, a rising young actress of the period. Clarke at this time was making his living by journalism. He now tried his hand at drama and his adaptation of Charles Reade's novel Foul Play was produced at Melbourne with but moderate success. He then interviewed the proprietors of the Australian Journal and suggested that he should write a serial novel dealing with the convict days. The first instalment of his well-known novel His Natural Life appeared in the issue for March 1870. In June Clarke was given the appointment of secretary to the trustees of the public library. No man was less fitted by training and temperament for this position, but much was forgiven on account of his personal charm and his powers as a writer. For the Christmas season of 1870 he wrote the words of the pantomime Goody Two Shoes, and his Old Tales of a Young Country was published in 1871. He was steadily writing the instalments of His Natural Life, though later on he found it very difficult to be up to time with them. In the issue for December 1871 the proprietors of the Australian Journal, in apologizing for the absence of the usual monthly instalment, stated that although they had delayed publication they had been unable to obtain "either copy or explanation". The story was published in book form in 1874 differing in some particulars from the serial issue. On the advice of Sir Charles Gavin Duffy (q.v.) some portions had been omitted and a new prologue was written. In later editions the book is sometimes called For the Term of his Natural Life. This title is given to the edition of the story issued by Angus and Robertson in 1929 which is stated to be the "first complete edition in book form". A short novel 'Twixt Shadow and Shine was published in Melbourne in 1875, but did not go into a second edition until many years after the author's death. Much of this work was done under great anxiety. He had early fallen into the hands of the money lenders, and in 1874 had been compelled to become insolvent. His industry was unfailing but he had no sense of business. Among his activities of this period were a play called Plot, which had a fairly successful run in 1873, much local journalism, and two or three pantomimes. He was also the Melbourne correspondent of the London Daily Tele graph. He had a fair salary and one way and another must at times have had a good income. Probably, as one of his biographers suggested, he had no conception of what was meant by 60 per cent interest. In 1877 he did a piece of hack work, a History of Australia, for the use of schools. He had been appointed sub librarian at the public library in 1873, but his work there must always have been subordinated to his literary work. In 1880 he became involved in controversy with Bishop Moorhouse (q.v.); he had a facile pen but it is doubtful whether he had the knowledge to fit himself for controversy of this kind. His private affairs were again involved about this period, and to add to his worries he had been appointed agent for his cousin Sir Andrew Clarke (q.v.), with a comprehensive power of attorney. Clarke was as little fitted to look after the affairs of another man as his own. In July his estate was again sequestrated and, worn out by anxiety and disappointment, he died on 2 August 1881, leaving a widow and six young children. Shortly before his death he was a candidate for the office of public librarian, but the position was given to Dr T. F. Bride.
Marcus Clarke was short and slight with a face remarkable for its beauty. His wit was polished, his humour refined, he had great powers of description, and a slight stutter did not detract from his charm as a conversationalist. He was an excellent though unequal journalist, and he wrote some good light verse. His sketches of the early days in Old Tales of a Young Country (1871) still retain their interest, and of his novels Long Odds (1869) is good in its way. 'Twixt Shadow and Shine (1875), and Chidiock Tichbourne, published posthumously in 1893, might, however, have been written by any fairly competent writer of the period. His Natural Life is his title to fame. A powerful story of a grim period, it triumphs over its minor improbabilities, and its reader is carried on by its pure human interest to the last word.
Hamilton Mackinnon, biography prefixed to the Austral Edition of the Selected Works of Marcus Clarke; H. G. Turner in The Development of Australian Literature; D. Byrne, Australian Writers; A. W. Brazier, Marcus Clarke: His Work and Genius; H. M. Green, An Outline of Australian Literature. A list of Clarke's works will be found on pp. 63-4 of The Marcus Clarke Memorial Volume, which also has a portrait, and a large amount of information is included in the bibliographies and commentary in E. Morris Miller's Australian Literature. See also, Samuel R. Simmons, Marcus Clarke and the Writing of "Long Odds".
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CLARKE, WILLIAM BRANWHITE (1798-1878),geologist,
was born at East Bergholt, Suffolk, on 2 June 1798. Educated at Dedham Grammar School he went to Jesus College, Cambridge, in October 1817, and in 1819 entered a poem for the Chancellor's gold medal. This was awarded to Macaulay, but Clarke's poem Pompeii, published in the same year, was placed second. He obtained the degree of B.A. in 1821, entered holy orders, and became a curate first at Ramsholt and then at East Bergholt. He was also master of the Free School of East Bergholt for about 18 months in 1830-1. He continued the geological and mineralogical studies he had begun under Professor Sedgwick at Cambridge, and enlarged his knowledge by taking trips to the continent. He had become an M.A. in 1824. In 1833 he was presented to a living in Dorset and became one of the chaplains of the bishop of Salisbury, but in 1839, partly for reasons of health, he decided to go to Australia. He had been commissioned by some of his English colleagues to ascertain the extent and character of the carboniferous formation in New South Wales (Clarke's letter to Sydney Morning Herald, 18 February 1852), but soon after his arrival in May 1839 he became headmaster of The King's School, Parramatta, until the end of 1840. He had charge of the parish of Castle Hill and Dural until his transfer to Campbelltown in 1844, but later in that year removed to the parish of Willoughby in North Sydney. He was to remain there for 26 years. Early in 1844 he showed Sir George Gipps (q.v.), then governor of New South Wales, some specimens of gold he had found. Sir George asked him where he had got it, and when Clarke told him said "Put it away or we shall have our throats cut". Clarke, in his evidence before the select committee on his claims, which sat in 1861, stated that he knew of the existence of the gold in 1841. He, however, agreed with Gipps that it might not be wise to announce the presence of gold in the colony. He continued his clerical duties, but was occasionally lent to the government to carry out geological investigations. In August 1849 he announced the discovery of tin in Australia, and towards the end of 1853 he was given a grant of £1000 by the New South Wales government for his services in connexion with the discovery of gold. A similar sum was voted by the Victorian parliament. In 1860 his Researches in the Southern Gold Fields of New South Wales, a volume of some three hundred pages, was published at Sydney, and went into a second edition in the same year. He continued his geological investigations all his life, and did particularly valuable work in connexion with the permo-carboniferous coalfields of New South Wales. He discovered secondary (Cretaceous) fossils in Queensland in 1860 and gave the first account of Silurian fossils in Australia. It was on his suggestion that search was made for gold in New Zealand. He resigned his clerical charge in 1870, in 1876 was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London, and in 1877 he received the award of the Murchison medal of the Geological Society of London. He finished the preparation of the fourth edition of his Remarks on the Sedimentary Formations of New South Wales on his eightieth birthday, and died about a fortnight later on 16 June 1878. Clarke married and was survived by at least one son. He was for long a vice-president of the Royal Society of New South Wales, and his portrait was painted for the society in 1876. In 1878 the society founded the Clarke memorial medal in his honour.
Clarke did a large amount of writing. He published two substantial volumes of poems, The River Derwent . . . and other Poems, 1822, and Lays [sic] of Leisure, 1829. He also published some sermons and was responsible for probably more than 200 scientific papers. He came to Australia with a fine equipment, having personally examined the most famous formations in Europe (see G. B. Barton's Literature in New South Wales, pp. 163-166). He was thoroughly conscientious, and somehow contrived to carry out his clerical duties in spite of the time devoted to science. That his profession meant something to him is shown by the fact that more than once he refused important scientific positions at a higher salary than he was receiving. He was the father of geology in Australia, and had a great influence on the work done in his time. After his death the New South Wales legislative assembly voted £7000 for the purchase of his invaluable collection of fossils and other objects and his scientific library.
John Smith, Anniversary Address, Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 1879; Sydney Morning Herald, 17 June 1878; Progress Report on the Claims of the Rev. W. B. Clarke, Legislative Assembly, N.S.W., May 1861; P. Serle, A Bibliography of Australasian Poetry and Verse; The Claims of the Rev. W. B. Clarke, Sydney, 1860; E. W. Skeats, David Lecture, 1933, Some Founders of Australian Geology; G. B. Barton, Literature in New South Wales; W. B. Clarke, Researches in the Southern Gold Fields of New South Wales, pp. 290-4; S. M. Johnstone, The History of the King's School, Parramatta.
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CLARKE, SIR WILLIAM JOHN (1831-1897,pastoralist and philanthropist,
was the son of William John Turner Clarke (1804-1874), an early Tasmanian colonist, who acquired large pastoral properties in Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia and New Zealand. He settled afterwards in Victoria and became a member of the legislative council. On his death in 1874 his eldest son William John Clarke was left the Victorian estate. He was born in Tasmania in 1831 and in 1850 crossed to Victoria, had experience on his father's properties in both Victoria and Tasmania, and in 1862 settled permanently in Victoria and acted as manager for his father. He took some interest In local government and was chairman of the Braybrook Road Board. On the death of his father he found himself with a very large income, much of which he began to use for the benefit of the state. His largest gifts were £10,000 for the building fund of St Paul's cathedral and £7000 for Trinity College, Melbourne university. He was elected a member of the legislative council for the Southern Province in 1878, but never took a prominent part in politics. In the same year he was appointed president of the commissioners of the Melbourne international exhibition which was opened on 1 October 1880. In 1882 he gave 3000 guineas to found a scholarship in the Royal College of Music, and for many years he bore the full expense of the Rupertswood battery of horse artillery at Sunbury. He took interest in various forms of sport, his yacht, the Janet, won several races, but he was not very successful on the turf; the most important race he won being the V.R.C. Oaks. He was the patron of many agricultural societies and did much to improve the breed of cattle in Victoria. Before the establishment of the Victorian department of agriculture he provided a laboratory for R. W. E. McIver, and paid him to lecture on agricultural chemistry in farming centres. In 1886 he was a member of the Victorian commission to the Colonial and Indian exhibition, and in the same year Cambridge gave him the honorary degree of LL.D. He was well-known also as a freemason and became grand master of the United Grand Lodge of Victoria. In his later years, although his interests lay principally in the country, he lived at his town house Cliveden in East Melbourne. He died suddenly at Melbourne on 15 May 1897. He was created a baronet in December 1882. He married (1) in 1860 Mary, daughter of the Hon. John Walker and (2) in 1873 Janet Marian, daughter of Peter Snodgrass, M.L.C., who survived him with two sons and two daughters of the first marriage, and three sons and two daughters of the second marriage.
Clarke's name was a household word in Victoria. He was kindly, hospitable, and rather retiring by nature, content to be a good citizen who desired to use his wealth wisely. He made few large donations but his help could constantly be relied on by hospitals, charitable institutions, and agricultural and other societies. He cut up one of his estates into small holdings and was a model landlord, and he showed much foresight in allying science with agriculture by employing McIver as a lecturer. His second wife, Janet Lady Clarke, who had been associated with him in philanthropic movements, kept up her interest in them, especially in all matters relating to women, until her death on 28 April 1909. One of their sons, Sir Frank Clarke, went into politics and was a member of several Victorian ministries. He became president of the legislative council in 1923 and held that position for nearly 20 years. He was created K.B.E. in 1926.
The Argus, and The Age, Melbourne, 17 May 1897; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography; The Cyclopaedia of Victoria, 1903; Burke's Peerage, etc., 1897; Who's Who in Australia, 1941.
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CLAXTON, MARSHALL (1811-1881),painter,
son of a Wesleyan minister, was born at Bolton, Lancashire, on 12 May 1811. He studied under John Jackson, R.A., and at the Royal Academy school, and had his first picture in the Royal Academy, a portrait of his father, the Rev. Marshal Claxton, in 1832. In subsequent years about 30 of his pictures were shown at Academy exhibitions. He was awarded the first medal in the painting school in 1834, and obtained the gold medal of the Society of Arts in 1835 for his portrait of Sir Astley Cooper. He afterwards worked in Italy for some time and returning to London gained a prize of £100 for his "Alfred the Great in the Camp of the Danes". In 1850 he went to Sydney, bringing with him a large collection of pictures, but had little success in selling them. While in Sydney he painted a large picture, "Suffer little children to come unto me", a commission from the Baroness Burdett Coutts. In September 1854 Claxton left Sydney for Calcutta, where he sold several of his pictures and returned to England three or four years later. He died at London after a long illness on 28 July 1881. He married and had two daughters, Adelaide and Florence A. Claxton, both of whom were represented in Royal Academy exhibitions between 1859 and 1867.
Claxton was a painter of some ability. His "General View of the Harbour and City of Sydney" is in the royal collection in England, and there are two pictures by him in the Dickinson collection at the national gallery, Sydney. His portraits of Bishop Broughton and Dean Cowper are at St Paul's College, the university, Sydney, and that of the Rev. Robert Forrest in The King's School, Parramatta.
Sir William Dixson, Journal and Proceedings The Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. IX, p. 168; Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; U. Thieme, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler; A. Graves, The Royal Academy Exhibitors; The Times, death notice, 4 August 1881.
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CLOWES, EVELYN MARY,See MORDAUNT, ELINOR.
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COATES, GEORGE JAMES (1869-1930),artist,
was born at North Melbourne on 8 August 1869. His father, John Coates, was an artist-lithographer of English stock, his mother was the daughter of Ephraim Irwin who came from Ireland. He was educated at St James Grammar School, and at the age of 15 was apprenticed to a firm of glass-stainers, Messrs Fergusson and Urie. He attended the North Melbourne school of design and then joined the evening classes at the national gallery, Melbourne. He could not, however, attend continuously. His father had died when he was eight years old and the boy was sometimes unable to afford the comparatively trifling fees. Though not tall he was beautifully formed, an excellent swimmer and a first-rate amateur boxer. Lionel Lindsay tells the story of how a trainer had suggested that he should give up art and take up a "man's work".
At the national gallery classes he won first prizes for drawing and for painting from the nude, and before the conclusion of his course opened a life class. Among the students associated with him were the Lindsay brothers, Max Meldrum and George Bell, all destined to become well-known as artists. In 1896 he won the Melbourne national gallery travelling scholarship, and in 1897 went to Europe as did also a fellow competitor, Miss Dora Meeson, whom he was afterwards to marry. Coates entered Julien's classes and always felt that he had been fortunate in spending his student days in Paris at such a good period of French art, while Puvis de Chavannes, Monet, Renoir, Degas and Jean-Paul Laurens were still living. He met Miss Meeson again in Paris and they became engaged, but as his only income came from his scholarship their marriage had to be postponed. In 1900 Coates left Paris and took a studio in London. He obtained employment in supplying drawings for the Historian's History of the World, but after that ceased there was great difficulty in selling black and white work and portrait commissions were scarce. However, on 23 July 1903 Coates and Miss Meeson were married, her father having agreed to make the young couple an allowance of £100 a year. Augustus John owned a studio which he let to them at £50 a year, and a long struggle to obtain recognition followed. An early success was a portrait of Miss Jessica Strubelle, which gained an honourable mention at the salon of 1910 and is now in the Bendigo gallery; but Coates did not really come into notice until the 1912 Royal Academy exhibition where he had three important canvases hung, "Arthur Walker and his brother Harold", now at Melbourne, Christine Silver", and "Mother and Child" now in the Adelaide gallery. The success of these pictures led to some commissions and the financial position became easier. The exhibition of the painting of the Walker brothers in 1913 at the Société Nationale des Beaux Arts led to his being elected an associate of that society, and full membership followed some years later. In 1913 Mrs Coates brought some of their pictures to Australia which were exhibited in Melbourne and Adelaide. However, Coates fell ill, and his wife had to abandon a proposed exhibition of his work at Sydney and returned with him to Europe where a holiday in Italy soon restored his health.
When the war came Coates joined the Territorial R.A.M.C. and worked as a ward orderly. He was promoted to be a sergeant and given charge of the recreation room. In April 1919 he became an official war artist to the Australian government, and made several paintings of war scenes. But he had felt the strain of the war very much, and in April 1919 was officially discharged as "no longer physically fit for war service". He, however, was able to go on with his paintings of war subjects. In 1921 he revisited Australia, exhibitions were held at the principal cities, and several pictures were sold. Returning to England in 1922 busy years of painting followed, but his health was often not good. He died suddenly on 27 July 1930.
Coates was a modest, sympathetic man who often spared time to give criticism and help to struggling artists. His modesty tended to delay the full appreciation of his powers as an artist, and he was quite incapable of pushing himself or his work. Primarily a portrait painter, when opportunity offered he could manage a subject painting with great ability showing beautiful feeling for rhythm and composition. His painting was usually low toned without losing luminosity, and the drawing was always excellent. He is represented in the Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane, Perth, Bendigo, Ballarat, Geelong and Castlemaine art galleries, and at the Australian war museum, Canberra. Some examples of his work are also in English galleries and at the Canadian war museum. He was survived by his wife Dora Meeson Coates, a capable artist, who is also represented in Australian galleries. How much his wife meant to Coates may be gathered from the statement made by a friend that "he was utterly unhappy separated from her".
Dora Meeson Coates, George Coates His Art and His Life; The Argus, 27 February 1937; private information.
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COCKBURN, SIR JOHN ALEXANDER (1850-1929),premier of South Australia,
son of Thomas Cockburn, was born at Corsbie, Berwickshire, Scotland, on 23 August 1850. Educated at Chomeley School, Highgate, and King's College, London, he obtained the degree of M.D. London, with first class honours and gold medal. He emigrated to South Australia in 1875 and, practising at Jamestown, began to take an interest in municipal affairs, and in 1877 was elected mayor of the town. In 1884 he entered politics as member for Burra in the house of assembly, and in the following year became minister for education in the first Downer (q.v.) ministry, which resigned in June 1887. Cockburn had been elected for Mount Barker at the April 1887 general election and held this seat for 11 years. He became premier and chief secretary on 27 June 1889, and though only in office for 14 months passed some progressive measures including acts providing for succession duties and land taxation. After two years in opposition Cockburn became chief secretary in Holder's (q.v.) cabinet in June 1892, but this ministry was defeated a few weeks later. He joined the Kingston (q.v.) ministry on 16 June 1893 as minister for education and for agriculture and held these portfolios until April 1898, when he resigned to become agent-general for South Australia at London. He took an important part in the federation movement. With Playford (q.v.) he represented South Australia at the Melbourne conference in 1890, and he was one of its seven representatives at the Sydney convention held in 1891. When the election of to delegates to represent South Australia was held in 1897 there were 33 candidates and Cockburn came third on the poll after Kingston and Holder. A collection of his articles and speeches on federation was published in London in 1901 under the title Australian Federation. As agent-general he did very good work, but he resigned in 1901 and never returned to South Australia, though he continued to show his interest in that state in every possible way. He represented Australia at workmen's insurance, eugenics, and other congresses held in the early years of this century, and he took much interest in nature study, in child study, and in the London school of economies and political science. He wrote various articles and pamphlets on Australian, Imperial and educational subjects, and was on the London board of directors of several Australian companies. He died at London on 26 November 1929. He married in 1875 Sarah Holdway, daughter of Forbes Scott Brown, who survived him with a son and a daughter. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1900.
A picturesque and charming figure, Cockburn had a long and busy life of which only 23 years were spent in Australia. As minister of education he instituted arbor day in South Australia, and had much to do with the foundation of the South Australian school of mines and industries. He had an alert and quick-moving mind, and as a politician he was able to sympathize with the demands of a growing democracy. He worked for payment of members of parliament, for women's suffrage, and in addition to legislation for which he was personally responsible, he was often the inspiration for advanced legislation which was brought into being by other men.
The Times, 27 November 1929; The Advertiser, Adelaide, 28 November 1929; Debrett's Peerage, etc., 1929.
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COCKBURN-CAMPBELL, SIR THOMAS.See CAMPBELL, SIR THOMAS COCKBURN
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COCKLE, SIR JAMES (1819-1895),first chief justice of Queensland,
was the second son of James Cockle of Great Oakley, Essex, England, and was born On 14 January 1819. He was educated at the Charterhouse and by private tuition. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1837, and graduated B.A. in 1812 and M.A. in 1845. He was called to the bar in 1846 and joined the Midland circuit in 1848. In 1863 on the recommendation of Sir William Erle, then chief justice of the court of common pleas, he was appointed first chief justice of Queensland. The position was somewhat delicate when he arrived in Brisbane, because Mr justice Lutwyche who had been sole judge from the foundation of the colony, had expected the position. Cockle, however, by tact and kindliness won over Lutwyche and they became fast friends. In 1866 he was appointed senior member of a royal commission to revise the statute law of Queensland. This was completed in 1867 and (Sir) Charles Lilley (q.v.), another member of the commission who was eventually to succeed Cockle as chief justice, stated that the major part of the work had been done by Cockle. Though his office made him a busy man Cockle found time to do much work in mathematics and to contribute able papers to the Philosophical Magazine, and the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics in England, and to the Proceedings of the Royal Societies of New South Wales and Victoria. He was president of the Queensland Philosophical Society and published some of his presidential addresses delivered before it. He visited England in 1878, and in 1879 resigned his position as chief justice. He had been elected a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1854 and of the Royal Society, London, in 1865, and after his retirement took much interest in them and continued his mathematical writings. He was a commissioner for Queensland at the Colonial and Indian exhibition in 1886. He died at London on 27 January 1895. He married in 1855 Adelaide Catherine daughter of Henry Wilkin, who survived him with eight children. He was knighted in 1869.
Socially Cockle gave the impression in Brisbane of being somewhat shy and austere. It was a small community, and he probably felt that it was wise that the chief justice should be above the battle and remote from the jealousies and ambitions of men in pioneer settlements. In his last years he became a regular and popular member of the Garrick, Savile, and Savage clubs, London, and was treasurer of the last from 1884 to 1889. As a scientist he was much interested in the motion of fluids, and the action of magnetism on light, but he was best known as a mathematician who did much research in algebra, especially in connexion with the theory of differential equations. He worked for many years on the problem of expressing a root of the fifth degree by a finite combination of radicals and rational functions, but failed as others had done before him. His labour, however, was not wasted and his methods and results had much influence on later work on the subject. As a judge he showed himself to be a good lawyer, courteous and kindly to the profession, accurate and impartial in his thinking, wasting no time with unnecessary words, and earning the respect and confidence of the whole community.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. LIX; C. A. Bernays, Queensland Politics During Sixty Years; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.
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COGHLAN, SIR TIMOTHY AUGUSTINE (1856-1926),statistician,
son of Thomas Coghlan of Irish Roman catholic stock was born at Sydney on 9 June 1856. He was educated at Sydney Grammar School, in 1873 joined the public works department, and became assistant-engineer of harbours and rivers in 1884. When it was decided to have a department of statistics for New South Wales Coghlan was appointed government statistician, and began his duties early in 1886. The appointment was much criticized, but Coghlan held the position for 19 years and showed great industry and ability in the conduct of it. He published in 1887 the first issue of The Wealth and Progress of New South Wales which continued to appear almost at yearly intervals. The thirteenth issue covered the years 1900-1. In 1895 appeared Statistics of the Seven Colonies of Australasia 1861 to 1894, called in later issues A Statistical Account of the Seven Colonies of Australasia. These books vied in interest and value with the admirable works that Hayter (q.v.) of Victoria had begun issuing at earlier dates. Other volumes issued by Coghlan included Handbook to the Statistical Register of the Colony of New South Wales, first issue 1886, and various pamphlets on statistical subjects. He was also the author of Picturesque New South Wales, a popular illustrated guide-book, and he collaborated with T. T. Ewing in The Progress of Australasia in the Nineteenth Century, published in 1903.
Coghlan was also registrar of Friendly Societies from 1892 to 1905, a member of the public service board from 1896 to 1900, chairman of board of old age pensions 1901-5, and was president of the economics and statistics section at the 1902 meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1905 he was appointed agent-general for the state of New South Wales at London and, except for three short breaks, held the position until his death. He was an excellent man for this kind of work, qualified in every way to give information, and to deal with the many loans floated in London. He published in 1918 in four volumes his most important book, Labour and Industry in Australia from the first Settlement in 1788 to the Establishment of the Commonwealth in 1901. It is a history of labour, not a history of the labour movement, nor a history of Australia, but it should prove a mine of information for the future historian of Australia. It is especially valuable for its information about the prices of commodities and the consequent effect on the social life of the people. Coghlan was still carrying out his duties, and apparently in good health, when he died suddenly at London on 30 April 1926. He married in 1897 Helen, daughter of D. C. Donnelly, M.L.A., who survived him with a son and a daughter. He was knighted in 1914 and created K.C.M.G. in 1918.
The Times, 1 May 1926; The Sydney Morning Herald, 3 May 1926; Who's Who, 1920.
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COLE, EDWARD WILLIAM (1832-1918),bookseller, founder of the book arcade, Melbourne,
was born at Woodchurch Kent, England, in January 1832. He received little education, his father died young, and, after his mother had married again, the boy ran away to London. In 1850 he went to Cape Colony and in November 1852 came to Victoria. He spent some time on the diggings at various avocations, and on 30 September 1865 started a book shop at the eastern market, Melbourne, with a stock of 600 volumes. His total takings at the end of October amounted to £15 12s., most of which was spent in buying fresh stock. He gradually prospered and became lessee of the whole of the market, most of which was sub-let to small stall-holders. He engaged a band, spent a comparatively large sum on advertising, and made the market a popular resort. Though Cole had little education he read a great deal, and in 1867, under the pseudonym of "Edwic", he published The Real Place in History of Jesus and Paul, which is largely a discussion on the validity of miracles. The last paragraph of the book stated that it had been written largely to show what Jesus was not, and that he hoped to publish another book showing "what he really was and Paul also, namely that they were two honest visionaries". This volume was never published.
In 1874 Cole took a building fronting on Bourke-street near the market, and opened his first "book arcade". This business was successful and he also continued renting the market until 1881, when he was unable to secure a renewal of the lease on sufficiently favourable terms. He then began negotiations for a building lower down Bourke-street near the general post office. This was opened on 27 January 1883 and grew into one of the great book businesses of Australia. The shop was extended to Little Collins-street and afterwards buildings on the other side were bought through to the Collins-street frontage. The statement that there was once a stock of two million books is manifestly absurd, but the arcade certainly had one of the largest stocks of books in the world. Members of the public were invited to walk through the arcade, and to spend as much time as they liked turning over the books or even reading them. A large second hand department was on the first floor, where a band played every afternoon. The business continued to prosper and Cole eventually opened various new departments including one of printing. He compiled a large number of popular books, of which Cole's Funny Picture Book and Cole's Fun Doctor were most successful, their sales running into hundreds of thousands. He died at Melbourne on 16 December 1918. He married in 1875 Eliza Frances Jordan, who predeceased him. Two sons and three daughters survived him.
Cole was below medium height, of benevolent appearance and quiet manner. He started with no advantages and gradually found what he could do best. His establishment had a considerable effect on the culture of Melbourne. The business was continued for about 10 years after his death, when the executors decided to close it and sell the properties which had now become very valuable. A member of his family bought the goodwill, and the shop was continued for another 10 years in Swanston-street on a comparatively small scale.
A. Chitty and H. Williams, Incidents in the Life of E. W. Cole; H. Williams, E. W. Cole, Founder of the Book Arcade; L. Slade, Melbourne's Early Booksellers, Victorian Historical Magazine, vol. XV; personal knowledge.
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COLES, SIR JENKIN (1842-1911),politician,
son of Jenkin and Caroline Coles, came of an old north of Ireland family, and was born at Sydney on 19 January 1842. When he was seven years old his family returned to Europe, and he was educated at Christ's Hospital School, London. His parents came to Australia again in 1858 and settled at Adelaide. Coles obtained a position as a junior clerk with the Murray River Navigation office, but gave this up to become assistant dispenser and receiver of stores at the Adelaide hospital for three years. He then joined the mounted police and served for three years in the country. On leaving this service he became an auctioneer and stock salesman and a member of the firm of Coles and Goodchild. The business prospered so much that Coles was able to practically retire from it before he was 40. He was returned to the house of assembly as member for Light in 1875, but did not stand at the 1878 election as he found that the strain of carrying on both business and parliamentary duties was too great. In 1881 he was elected for Light, afterwards merged in Wooroora, and represented the district for over 30 years. He was commissioner of crown lands from June 1884 to February 1885, and commissioner of public works from February to June 1885 in the second Colton (q.v.) ministry and showed himself to be a vigorous administrator. He was commissioner of crown lands again in the Playford (q.v.) ministry from June 1887 to June 1889. In 1890 he was elected speaker of the house of assembly in succession to Sir John Bray (q.v.), and held the position until he resigned, about three weeks before his death on 6 December 1911. He married in 1865 Ellen Henrietta Briggs, who survived him with four sons and seven daughters. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1894.
Coles was a man of fine presence, dignified and conscientious. He was speaker for over 21 years, a record in Australia, and until his last illness never missed a sitting. He had a great knowledge of the standing orders and was firm, tactful, alert and wise. He was thoroughly respected on both sides of the house, his rulings and requests were always obeyed, and under his sway the house of assembly in South Australia established a high reputation for the orderly conduct of its business.
The Register, Adelaide, 7 December 1911; The Advertiser, Adelaide, 7 December 1911.
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COLLINS, DAVID (1754-1810),first governor of Tasmania,
was born on 3 March 1754. He was the eldest son of General Collins and his wife, Harriet Fraser, and grandson of Arthur Collins the antiquary. He was educated at the Exeter Grammar School, became a lieutenant of marines in February 1771, and in 1776 adjutant of the Chatham division. If the generally given year of his birth, 1756, were correct that would mean that he was a lieutenant at 14 and an adjutant at 20. His monument at Hobart states that he was "aged 56 years" when he died, and that appears more likely to be correct. He was fighting in America in 1775, in 1779 was promoted captain, and in 1782 took part in the action when Lord Howe relieved Gibraltar. He was on half pay for about five years, but in October 1786 received the appointment of judge-advocate of New South Wales and sailed with Phillip (q.v.) in 1787. After his arrival he became colonial secretary to the colony, and as his duties as judge-advocate were not heavy, found no difficulty in doing the work and in being a much valued officer. He was a well-educated man but had had no training in law, yet practically he was the chief justice of the colony. In 1791 he suffered some loss of salary on account of the withdrawal of the marines to England, and in December 1792 applied for permission to return to England. This was given but he did, not actually leave Sydney until 1796. He was then judge-advocate and secretary to governor Hunter (q.v.). It is clear from a letter of Hunter's to the Duke of Portland, that he valued Collins's services very highly. In 1798 Collins resigned his position of judge-advocate, and published An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales, the best of the early accounts of the new settlement. It is clear from a statement on page 501 that the book was actually written in Australia before Collins left, and it has great value as a contemporary account of the early days to the end of September 1796. In 1802 the second volume was published which carried on the story for another four years. G. B. Barton in his History of New South Wales says that this volume was not written by Collins but by Hunter. The evidence for this statement appears to be insufficient, but it was of course impossible for Collins to write this volume from personal knowledge, and it is quite likely that Hunter may have supplied him with the necessary facts on which it is based. The last paragraph of the book ends on a despondent note. He speaks of the "country in whose service I spent the first nine years of its infancy, during all the difficulties and hardship-- without other reward--than the consciousness of having been a faithful and zealous servant of my employers". Probably this reached the notice of the authorities, for in February 1803 he received his commission as lieutenant-governor of a settlement to be formed "in Bass's Streights". He sailed in the Calcutta with about 330 convicts and arrived in Port Phillip on 9 October 1803. He chose a bad spot for the settlement on the south shore and found the soil poor, and that there was little water. Better water was found on the east shore near the present site of Frankston, but Collins decided that the country was of a too inhospitable nature, and on 30 January he sailed for Tasmania and arrived in the Derwent on 15 February 1804. Collins's decision to leave Port Phillip suggests some lack of courage or initiative, though it is possible that he may have had reasons for thinking that he would find better land in Tasmania. Governor King (q.v.), in a dispatch dated 1 March 1804, spoke of the good accounts Lieutenant Bowen had given of Van Diemen's land. On 18 February Collins selected for the settlement the present site of Hobart. It is generally agreed no better choice could have been made, and three days later Collins stepped ashore and began his reign as lieutenant-governor.
Though the land at Hobart was better than that surrounding Sydney, it was some time before much food could be grown, and several times the settlement was on the verge of starvation. Gradually huts were built, mostly of a primitive kind, and regulations were issued fixing the weekly rations for all hands, hours of labour, and the issuing of clothes and utensils. The small band of free settlers with the party, they numbered fewer than a dozen, were given grants of 100 acres each, and every one set to work to make the best of the conditions. But too many of the convicts were old and worn out men, few had had any experience on the land, and, a crowning misfortune, much of the seed brought out failed to germinate. In May there was an unfortunate affray with the aborigines at the settlement at Risdon, which had been formed under Lieutenant Bowen before Collins's arrival, and having received fresh instructions from King, Collins took over the command of the Risdon settlement, placing Bowen in charge for the time being. In August Bowen left for Sydney taking with him most of the Risdon convicts and his small force of soldiers. This was the end of the Risdon settlement, but much exploring needed to be done, and Collins was fortunate in receiving the help of Robert Brown (q.v.), the famous botanist, who by his explorations during the first year much extended the knowledge of the country. There were the usual currency difficulties which Collins got over to some extent by introducing a system of promissory notes. But of necessity most transactions were carried out by barter, in which spirits formed an important item. A supply of cattle, horses and pigs was sent from Sydney, but in the starvation years which followed it was difficult to feed the stock properly, or prevent it from being stolen and killed for food. Knopwood (q.v.) in 1807 records that three prisoners were sentenced to 500 lashes each for killing a goat. In spite of the brutality of these punishments it was most difficult to keep law and order. Another problem was the prevention of communication between free settlers and convicts who had become bushrangers. Collins wanted a supply of food sufficient to last two years to be always on the island, but stores continued to be sent from Sydney which had similar troubles even at this date. The population at and near Hobart was gradually increased by transfers of settlers from Norfolk Island. By October 1808 a total of 554 persons had been received from this source, of whom 109 were women and 220 children. In 1809 Collins was placed in a difficult position when Governor Bligh (q.v.) sailed to Hobart after his deposition. He treated Bligh with courtesy, but after receiving dispatches from Sydney, forbad any intercourse with him. Nine months later Bligh sailed away, and a great anxiety was removed from Collins, whose health had been feeling the strain of his position for some time. He died suddenly on 24 March 1810 and was buried at Hobart, where a monument to his memory was unveiled in 1838. This states that he died on 28 March, the date of the funeral having been given in error. Collins married an American woman who signed the preface and prepared the 1804 edition of his book. The Gentleman's Magazine says that his wife survived him without issue, but Knopwood's diary refers to George and Mary Collins, the son and daughter of the governor. The entry for 14 February 1805, says: "At eight, the governor's son and self went up to Risdon in my boat". Two years after Collins's death Mrs Collins was given a pension of £120 a year.
Collins had a good presence and was affable and friendly with his subordinates. In a brutal age, though sometimes obliged to punish the convicts he often showed great clemency, and he did his best to protect the aborigines. As an official and administrator, he gets little commendation and some blame from Rusden (q.v.) in his History of Australia, and generally the value of his work has not been sufficiently appreciated. He was an able lieutenant to both Phillip and Hunter in New South Wales, and as governor of Tasmania he earned the love and admiration of his contemporaries. Cut off by distance from any immediate help, he faced famine fully and met bravely and resourcefully the many difficulties that arose in the first six years of Tasmanian history.
The Gentleman's Magazine, 1810, pt. II, p. 489; Mabel Hookey, Bobby Knopwood and His Times; J. Collier, Introduction to Collins's An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales, 1910 ed.; R. W. Giblin, The Early History of Tasmania, vol. II; The Derwent Star and Van Diemen's Land Intelligence, 3 April 1810; Memoirs of Joseph Holt, vol. II, pp. 250-6; Journal and Proceedings, The Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. III, p. 122; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. I, II, IV to VII, ser. III, vol. I; W. R. Barrett, History of Tasmania to the Death of Lieut.-Governor Collins in 1810.
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COLLINS, TOM.See FURPHY, JOSEPH
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COLTON, SIR JOHN (1823-1902),premier of South Australia and philanthropist,
son of William Colton, a farmer, was born in Devonshire, England, on 23 September 1823. He arrived in South Australia in 1839 with his parents, who went on the land. Colton, however, found work in Adelaide, and at the age of 19, began business for himself as a saddler. He was shrewd, honest and hard-working, and his small shop eventually developed into a large and prosperous wholesale ironmongery and saddlery business. In 1859 Colton was elected a member of the Adelaide city council, and on 17 November 1862 was returned to the house of assembly for Noarlunga, at the head of the poll. On 3 November 1868 he became commissioner of public works in the Strangways (q.v.) ministry, but when this cabinet was reconstructed in May 1870 he was omitted. He was mayor of Adelaide 1874-5, and on 3 June 1875 joined the second Boucaut (q.v.) ministry as treasurer, but he resigned in March 1876. On 6 June he formed his first ministry as premier and commissioner of public works. His ministry lasted until 26 October 1877, when it resigned after a constitutional struggle with the upper house, which had not been consulted about the new parliamentary buildings. The government, however, had succeeded in passing a liberalized crown lands consolidation bill, and a forward policy of public works in connexion with railways and water supply had been carried out. Colton might have been premier again in June 1881, but stood aside in favour of Bray (q.v.). On 16 June 1884 he became premier and chief secretary in his second ministry, which in the following twelve months passed some very useful legislation, including a public health act, an agricultural crown land act, a pastoral land act, a vermin destruction act and a land and income tax act. The ministry was defeated on 16 June 1885. Seldom had a ministry done so much in so short a time, but Colton was prostrated by overwork and was compelled to live in retirement for some months. On his return to parliament he attempted to lead the opposition, but an attack of paralysis finished his political career and he resigned from parliament in January 1887.
Colton paid a visit to England and regained some of his health. Henceforth, he gave much of his time to philanthropic work. It was said of him that no society or charitable institution ever appealed to him in vain for either financial or personal assistance, if they could show that their aims were worthy. He took a great interest in Prince Alfred College, and was its treasurer for many years, and was for a time chairman of the board of management of the Adelaide hospital. He was a great advocate for temperance and retained his interest in the Methodist Church throughout his life. He died on 6 February 1902. He married on 4 December 1844, Mary, daughter of Samuel Cutting, who died in 1898. He was survived by four sons and a daughter. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1892.
Colton never had robust health and felt the strain of politics very much; twice before his final retirement he was obliged to give up politics for a period. A man of deep earnestness, rich in saving common-sense, he was not a fluent orator but on occasions could speak with vigour and fire. He was an excellent administrator and a great worker who commanded the respect of all. Had his strength been equal to his will he would have taken an even more important part in South Australian politics. His life was spent in untiring labour for his fellow creatures, and few men of his time took so important a part in the business, religious, philanthropic and political life of the period.
Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891; The Register, Adelaide, 7 February 1902; The Advertiser, Adelaide, 7 February 1902; E. Hodder, The History of South Australia.
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CONDER, CHARLES (1868-1909),artist,
was the third son of James Conder, an engineer, and his first wife, formerly Anne Ayres. His ancestors appear to have been ordinary middle-class folk without any suggestion of artistic talent. Conder's latest biographer, John Rothenstein, rejects the often-repeated story of his descent from Roubiliac the famous sculptor. He was born in London on 24 October 1868 and educated at a boarding school at Eastbourne. Little is known of his childhood, except that he showed an impatience of restraint and early evinced a desire to practise art. In 1883 he was sent to Australia to work under his uncle W. J. Conder, who was an official in the lands department at Sydney' A few months later he was working in a trigonometrical survey camp, but was much more interested in his sketch book and was already trying his hand at painting in oil. After two years in the country, Conder returned to Sydney and endeavoured to obtain work as an illustrator. He met A. J. Fisher and Frank Mahony (q.v.) who helped him to obtain a position on the Illustrated Sydney News. Another artist, G. Nerli (q.v.), whom Conder met about this time, influenced to some extent his early paintings. Yet a more important influence was to come, for in 1887 Conder met Tom Roberts (q.v.) at Mosman, who talked eloquently to him on the new theory of art called impressionism. A few months later Conder joined Roberts and Streeton in Melbourne, and worked in the open air at Eaglemont, near the suburb of Heidelberg. Conder was then a tall, loosely built youth, still under 20 years of age, strong in body yet "sympathetic with delicate and feminine things". So wrote Streeton of him, and in another letter he says, "Though of the same age, he seemed 30 years my senior in knowledge of humanity and worldly affairs: he knew all about Browning, Carlyle, Herrick, and the Rubaiyat".
Conder had his first success in 1888 when his "Departure of the S.S. Orient", exhibited at the Art Society of New South Wales, was purchased for the national gallery at Sydney. Next year the famous 9 x 5 exhibition was opened in Melbourne on 17 August 1889. Streeton, just 21, exhibited 40 pictures, Conder, a few months younger, showed 46. The prices ranged from one to five guineas, and Conder was pleased to have had his name before the public and to have made between 30 and 40 pounds. He began to long for Europe, and in October 1889 his uncle agreed to make him a yearly allowance so that he could study in Paris. In April 1890 he left Australia and never returned. In a letter to Roberts, dated 2 May, he acknowledged his debt to him and to Streeton.
In Paris he worked hard, he also played hard, and at intervals his devotion to wine and women threatened his health if it did not greatly affect his art. He became an entirely individualistic painter. He may have owed something to Watteau, but his art stood apart from the influences of his day, though his friend Anquetin may have helped him to improve his drawing, never a strong point with him. He developed a gift for painting fans and painted much in water-colour on silk. He began to be recognized in France; the government bought one of his water-colours and he was made an associate of the Société Nationale des Beaux Arts. He became friendly with William Rothenstein, with Emile Blanche, with D. S. MacColl, who in an article in the Studio helped to bring his work before the British public. He was frequently in money difficulties, as the prices obtained for his fans were low, often no more than 10 guineas, but in 1900 he was fortunate in meeting a young widow of independent means, Stella Maris Belford, of the type that is willing to love and cherish a genius whatever his frailties might be. They were married on 5 December 1900, and her influence was strong enough to enable Conder to pull himself together to some extent. For a time his health improved, but during the last three years of his life there was a gradual brain deterioration. His wife did all that was possible, spending the whole of her fortune in trying to save a man whose case was hopeless. He died at Virginia Water, near London, on 9 April 1909. His wife died three years later. There were no children.
At the close of the 19th century Conder had a great reputation, in 1938 his biographer could say "he is almost forgotten". After a well-known artist dies a period of depreciation often follows, and many years pass before it is possible to give the artist his true place. Conder had great imagination, a beautiful sense of colour, and exquisite taste. He painted largely from memory, his forms are inclined to be tenuous, and the drawing is not strong, but it is unlikely that so individual a talent will ever be quite forgotten. Handsome and personally charming, the best part of Conder's life was spent in a world of imagination peopled by his own creations. He is represented in the national galleries at Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide, and in the Tate and several other European collections.
W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; John Rothenstein, The Life and Death of Conder; R. H. Croll, Tom Roberts, The Father of Australian Landscape Painting; personal knowledge.
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COOK, EBENEZER WAKE (1843-1926),water-colour painter,
was born at Maldon, Essex, England, on 28 December 1843. He was brought to Melbourne in 1852, and when 17 years of age became an assistant to Nicholas Chevalier (q.v.), who instructed him in painting, wood-engraving and lithography. He was one of the original members of the Victorian Academy of Arts in 1870, and in 1872 studied under Eugene von Guerard (q.v.) at the national gallery of Victoria. In that year he won the medal for the best water-colour exhibited at the exhibition of the New South Wales Academy of Art. In 1873 he went to London, and from 1875 until 1926 was a constant exhibitor at the Royal Academy. In 1904 he published a pamphlet, Anarchism in Art and Chaos in Criticism, which was followed 20 years later by Retrogression in Art and the Suicide of the Royal Academy, an attack on all un-academic painters from Manet onwards. Cook for a time was president of the Langham Sketch Club, and an original member and honorary secretary of the Royal British-Colonial Society of Artists. He died early in 1926. His work was popular with some collectors and dealers, but it was too often merely pretty when it was meant to be beautiful, and it has few lasting qualities. He is represented in the national galleries at Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide.
W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; Royal Academy Catalogues; U. Thieme, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Kuünstler.
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COOK, JAMES (1728-1779),discoverer of eastern Australia, captain in the navy,
[ also refer to James COOK page at Project Gutenberg Australia]
was born at Marton, Yorkshire, England, the second son of James and Grace Cook, on 27 October 1728. His father was a farm labourer at the time, but improved his position by becoming bailiff of Airy Holme Farm, near Ayton, in 1736. The boy was sent to a village school and obtained a little elementary education. At 13 years of age he began working for his father on the farm, and four years later obtained a position in a grocer's shop at Staithes, a village about to miles from Whitby. He was there for about 18 months when an unfortunate incident led to his leaving. The young man had noticed a shilling of unusual design in the till, and exchanged it for one of his own. But his master had also noticed this shilling and missing it accused Cook of having stolen it. His explanation was accepted, but not liking having been suspected Cook decided to leave. He was then bound apprentice to John Walker, a member of a coal shipping firm at Whitby, and made his first voyage in the Freelove, a ship of some 450 tons. His next ship was the Three Brothers, on which he remained until the end of his apprenticeship in 1750. In 1752 he was appointed mate of the Friendship, and three years later he was offered the command of it. He must have made some study of navigation in the meantime, and probably had improved his general education. He was now 27 years old, evidently on good terms with his employers, as few men at that time would have had the chance of commanding a ship at so early an age. Cook had, however, decided to enter the navy, and was accepted for service as an A.B. on 17 June 1755. He joined H.M.S. Eagle and a few weeks later became master's mate. The Eagle fought a successful action against a French ship in May 1757, and while it was being refitted Cook left it. He was given a master's warrant and on 30 July joined H.M.S. Solebay as master. In October he was transferred to H.M.S. Pembroke. In June 1758 the Pembroke was working in conjunction with the transports conveying the British troops for the assault on Quebec and, shortly before this, General Wolfe and Cook met in connexion with the positions to be occupied by some of the vessels. It had been part of Cook's duties to ascertain the safe channels between the shoals of the river. Cook was on the Northumberland in May 1760, surveying the St Lawrence, and had acquired a considerable knowledge of marine surveying, as his chart of the river, which is still in existence, shows. He also studied mathematics and astronomy about this period: In January 1761 Cook received a special grant of £50 for his work in mastering the pilotage of the St Lawrence. He was still on the North American station in the summer of 1762, but the Northumberland returned to England in November. In April 1763 he was sent in the Antelope to Newfoundland to make a survey of its harbours, and he spent the next five years on this work, returning each winter to England. In August 1766 he carefully observed an eclipse of the sun at one of the Burges Islands, near Cape Ray, and communicated a report of it to the Royal Society. Cook prepared many of his charts for publication, and it is a tribute to their excellence that they were not finally superseded for over 150 years.
Cook was now at the turning point of his career. The Royal Society desired to send a competent observer to the South Pacific, so that the transit of Venus should be observed on 3 June 1769. After much discussion of ways and means, it was announced in March 1768 that the King had made a grant of £4000 for the cost of the expedition. Cook's account of the 1766 eclipse of the sun had impressed the council of the Royal Society, and on 26 May 1768 he was promoted lieutenant and given command of the expedition. His ship, the Endeavour, was only 100 feet long with a draught of 13½ feet, and was a slow sailer, but she was well fitted for her special work. There was no secret about Cook's sailing instructions in relation to the transit of Venus, but he also received secret instructions from the admiralty to seek for a southern continent, and "take possession of convenient situations in the country in the name of the King of Great Britain". These instructions were published for the first time by the Navy Records Society in 1928, and Sir Joseph Carruthers (q.v.), in his Captain James Cook, R.N., argued that the southern continent that the admiralty had in mind was Australia, of the eastern side of which, except for a small portion of Tasmania, nothing was then known. The evidence, however, is against this view, though when Cook had carried out his instructions to proceed south from Tahiti in search of this continent, and then westward until he fell in with the eastern side of New Zealand, it was quite within their spirit for him to have searched for the eastern side of Australia.
The Royal Society decided on King George III Island (Tahiti) as the site of their station, and one of their fellows, Sir Joseph Banks (q.v.), also became a member of the expedition, with a suite of nine persons, including Dr Solander (q.v.) and three artists. On 25 August 1768 the Endeavour sailed with 94 persons on board and nearly 18 months' provisions. It arrived off Rio de Janeiro on 13 November, sailed round the Horn about the end of January, and reached Tahiti on 13 April 1769. The last voyager to arrive there had had about a hundred cases of scurvy on board. Cook had not a single case. He had insisted on cleanliness in the men's quarters, and had persuaded the men to eat sauerkraut with their salt meat. Banks had adapted himself quickly to the travelling conditions, became very helpful to Cook, and at Tahiti took charge of the bartering between the ship and the natives. There were seven weeks to spare before the date of the transit, which were occupied in botanizing and studying the habits of the natives. The day of the transit was fortunately cloudless, and Cook and his fellow observer, Green, were able to see it in the best circumstances. They were disturbed to find that they were not in exact agreement as to the moment of contact, but similar discrepancies occurred among observers in other parts of the world, and it was found that the cause was that the disc of Venus was distorted owing to irradiation, when apparently making and breaking contact with the sun. Cook, after spending three months at Tahiti, sailed to the westward and discovered the Society Islands, and then went to the south, and on 7 October 1769 sighted the North Island of New Zealand. During the next six months he sailed completely round New Zealand and chartered the coast line. He had now only provisions for four months, and he had to decide whether he would return by Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope. He decided to turn to the west and make for Van Diemen's Land. But the wind forced him to the north, and the first land he sighted was Point Hicks, near the present boundary of New South Wales and Victoria. He reached here on 20 April 1770, and following the coast to the north came to Botany Bay on 29 April. Proceeding to the north the Endeavour just escaped being totally wrecked on the night of 11 June, when she went aground, and was got off with difficulty, seriously leaking. The ship was successfully beached at the mouth of the Endeavour River and temporarily repaired. Cook was glad to be able to find a way outside the Great Barrier Reef, and on 22 August 1770, on reaching Torres Strait, he landed again and took formal possession of the coastline to 38° S. On 11 October he arrived at Batavia and remained 11 weeks while the Endeavour was repaired. Cook had not had a single death from scurvy, but at Batavia malaria and dysentery were rife, and no fewer than 31 of his complement died from these causes. The Cape of Good Hope was reached in March, and Cook landed in England on 13 July 1771. He had been away some six weeks less than three years. On 14 August he was presented to the King, and was given a captain's commission.
Cook started on his second voyage on 13 July 1772. Before leaving he had visited his parents at their cottage, now re-erected at Melbourne. The admiralty apparently was not satisfied that the often spoken of southern continent did not exist, and Cook was now to settle the question once and for all. He had two ships, the Resolution, 462 tons, and the Adventure, 336, and several of the men who had been on the Endeavour sailed with him again. The Cape was reached on 30 October, and on 22 November a course was set for the Antarctic regions. He then turned to the east, skirting the floating icepack. On 17 January 1773 Cook was the first explorer to cross the Antarctic circle, but finding the ice increasing, turned more northerly. On 8 February the two vessels parted company during a gale, but it had been agreed that should that happen they should meet at Queen Charlotte's Sound, New Zealand. The Adventure arrived first, the Resolution following six weeks later. They left on 7 June, but an outbreak of scurvy on the Adventure led to Cook's altering his course and going to Tahiti. On starting again, various islands were discovered to the west and south, and Queen Charlotte's Sound was reached again by the Resolution on 3 November 1773. The ships, however, had become separated and the Adventure was not seen again on this voyage. The Resolution proceeded to the south-east, and on 30 January 1774 reached 71°10' S. which stood as a record farthest south for 50 years. Turning north again and then westerly, Cook reached Easter Island and then made for Tahiti again, which he reached on 22 April 1774. He searched for and identified the group of islands which de Quiros had occupied in 1606, and then went to Queen Charlotte's Sound again, arriving on 17 October. He sailed for home by way of Cape Horn on 10 November 1774. On New Year's day, soon after passing the Horn, he sighted the island he named South Georgia, proceeded east and south and then east until he reached the meridian of Greenwich, and, shortly after, his outward bound track, having completed his circuit of the Antarctic. On 23 February 1775 he sailed for the Cape of Good Hope, which was reached on 22 March, and on 30 July he arrived in England.
During Cook's absence the account of his first voyage and of some earlier voyages by other men had been prepared for the press by Dr John Hawkesworth. The editor had taken many liberties with the text and largely spoilt it, but nevertheless it had been much read and Cook had become famous. On 9 August he was presented to King George III and given his commission as post-captain. He was also appointed fourth captain of Greenwich hospital, with residence and £200 a year and allowances. Cook busied himself preparing the account of his second voyage for publication, but soon afterwards was selected to lead an expedition to the Arctic regions by way of the Pacific, to search for an inlet running towards Hudson Bay or Baffin Bay. He left on the Resolution on 12 July 1776 and reached the Cape in November, where the Discovery, a small vessel of 229 tons, joined him. The two vessels sailed for New Zealand and reached Queen Charlotte's Sound on 12 February. Leaving for Tahiti 13 days later, Cook met head winds and found it would be impossible for him to do any useful work in the Arctic regions until a year later than he had intended He reached Tahiti on 12 August 1777. From there he proceeded to the Society Islands and in December sailed to the north. In January 1778 the Hawaiian group was discovered, and on 2 February the ships sailed for the north-west coast of America. At the end of March Vancouver Island was reached, and a month was spent repairing the Resolution. The ships anchored in Behring Strait on 9 August 1778, but on sailing to the north it was found that winter was coming on so fast that nothing useful could be done. On 26 October Cook sailed for Hawaii, spent some time in charting the island, and on 17 January 1779 anchored on the west side of it. While carrying out some surveys the Resolution sprung her top-mast, and Cook returned to his previous anchorage at Kealakekua Bay. On the night of 13 February the Discovery's cutter was stolen, and on the following day Cook decided to seize the king, or an important chief, as a hostage for the return of it. A fight began between the natives and the marines who fired a volley of musketry. While reloading they were rushed by the natives who killed four of them while Cook, turning at the water's edge to give an order to the boats, was stabbed in the back, dragged ashore and killed. Lieutenant Wilkinson who was in charge of the nearest boat made no attempt to go to Cook's help, and has been blamed for his captain's death. But the whole incident occurred so quickly that it is doubtful whether Cook could have been saved. His remains were not recovered for some days, but on 21 February 1779 were buried at sea. The ships endeavoured to carry out their programme, and passing Behring Strait again were stopped by ice on 19 July 1779 in 70° 33' N. They returned by way of the Cape of Good Hope and arrived in England on 4 October 1780.
Cook married on 21 December 1762 Elizabeth Batts. Of their six children three died in infancy, and the three surviving sons all died comparatively young leaving no descendants. Mrs Cook lived to a great age in very good circumstances until her death in 1835. She was given a grant of arms, a pension of £200 a year, an allowance for the children, and half the profits from the publication of Cook's journals. During his absence the Royal Society had awarded him the Copley medal for his work in preventing scurvy, and it struck a special medal in his honour, which was sent to Mrs Cook with an expression of the regret of the whole Society of which Cook had been elected a fellow in 1776.
Cook was a good-looking man of over six feet in height, somewhat spare, but strong, strictly cleanly, and temperate in both eating and drinking. In spite of a hasty temper he was benevolent and humane, with a strong understanding and a genius for taking pains. In spite of the aloofness that is characteristic of all good captains, he was beloved and respected by both officers and men. He was quite fearless, and when danger came was the bravest and cheeriest man on board, but to this was added a wise caution and a sense of the proximity of land which seems to have been almost an instinct. More than once Cook altered course without apparent reason when the ship was running into danger. It did not matter whether he were among the fogs of the Antarctic or the intricacies of the Great Barrier Reef, his seamanship was always excellent, ranking him with the great navigators and discoverers of all time. Statues to his memory are at Sydney, Melbourne and London, and other memorials are at many places in England and at Tahiti, Hawaii, New Zealand, Canada and France. The best portrait of him is probably that by Nathaniel Dance, R.A., which has been frequently reproduced. He was also painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A., and other well-known artists.
A. Kitson, Captain James Cook; R. T. Gould Captain Cook; H. Zimmerman, Voyage Round the World with Captain Cook; J. R. Muir, The Life and Achievements of Captain James Cook; G. Campbell, Captain James Cook; J. Carruthers, Captain James Cook; see also various editions of the three voyages and the Bibliography of Captain James Cook, Public Library, Sydney, 1928.
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COOMBES, RICHARD (1855-1935),journalist, father of amateur athletics in Australia,
was born on 18 March 1855 at Hampton Court, Middlesex, England. Educated at Hampton Grammar School, he was for some years in an insurance office, and became well known as an amateur runner and walker. He was captain of the Harefield Hare and Hounds Club, and champion walker of the London Athletic Club. Emigrating to Sydney in 1886 he took up journalism, and became a contributor to the Referee. In 1888 he founded the New South Wales Amateur Athletic Association, introduced cross country running, and formed the Amateur Walkers Club. The amateur movement gradually spread all over Australia, and in 1897 the Amateur Athletic Union of Australia was formed. Coombes was a vice-president of the New South Wales Amateur Athletic Association from its foundation, in 1893 was elected president, and held the position until his death. He also frequently acted as handicapper, starter, judge of field games or referee, at important athletic meetings, managed the New South Wales team in contests with the other states, and in 1911 was manager of the Australian team at the Empire games in London. He was much interested in rifle-shooting, was captain of the Sydney Rifle Club and afterwards president, and was interested in rowing and coursing, being president of the New South Wales National Coursing Association for 22 years. When the Australian Coursing Union was formed in 1917 he was elected its first president. About 1895 he formulated a set of walking rules which have been widely adopted.
As a journalist Coombes did a large amount of excellent work for the Referee under various pen-names. He was editor for over 20 years, and showed himself to be a good editor and administrator. Advancing years led to his giving up the editorship, but he remained a contributor until 1932 when he resigned on a pension. He died at Sydney on 15 April 1935. He married in 1895 Abbe May Teas who survived him with a daughter. Coombes's greatest work was the inauguration of the Australasian amateur athletics movement, which at the time of his death was healthy, vigorous and carried on in the best traditions.
The Sydney Morning Herald, 16 April 1935; The Referee, Sydney, 18 April 1935; Who's Who in Australia, 1933; personal knowledge.
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COOPER, SIR CHARLES (1795-1887),first chief-justice of South Australia,
was the third son of Thomas Cooper of Henley-on-Thames, and was born in 1795. He was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in February 1827, practised on the Oxford circuit until 1838, and was then appointed judge at Adelaide. He landed there in March 1839, and was for many years the sole judge, then senior judge, and in June 1856 was appointed the first South Australian chief justice. He retired in 1861 owing to ill-health and was given a pension of £1000 a year. He returned to England in 1862, resided at Bath, and improving much in his health lived to be 92 years of age. He died at London on 24 May 1887. He married in 1853 Emily Grace, daughter of C. B. Newenham of South Australia. He was knighted in 1857. Cooper's Creek in central Australia was named after him by his friend, Captain Sturt (q.v.). Cooper was a thoroughly capable judge who earned the esteem of the colonists. He held courts at first in his own house, which had the advantage that he was constantly on the premises. He was a sound lawyer and framed the first insolvency legislation of the colony. Though not robust looking, he was hospitable and interested in the social and intellectual life of the colony.
The Times, 27 May 1887; The South Australian Register, 27 and 28 May, 1887.
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COOPER, SIR DANIEL (1821-1902),first speaker of the legislative assembly of New South Wales,
son of Thomas Cooper, merchant, and his wife Jane, daughter of Samuel Ramsden, was born at Bolton, Lancaster, England, on 1 July 1821. He was taken to Sydney by his parents when a child, but was sent to England again in 1835 and spent four years at University College, London. He began business at Havre, France, but his health failing he returned to Sydney in 1843. There he acquired an interest in a mercantile firm afterwards known as D. Cooper and Company, and bought much property in Sydney and suburbs. This afterwards appreciated in value and Cooper became a wealthy man. In 1849 at the age of 28 he was made a member of the legislative council, and in 1856 with the coming in of responsible government was elected a member of the legislative assembly. At its first meeting Cooper was elected speaker by a majority of one vote over Henry Watson Parker (q.v.). His election was not popular, but Cooper held office with dignity and impartiality and set a standard for future speakers. In January 1860 his health was again troubling him and he found it necessary to resign. He was asked to form a ministry in March, but declined and in 1861 returned to England. During the Crimean war he had exerted himself in raising a fund for the relief of widows and children of soldiers, and in England in 1863 he did much work to relieve the distress in Lancashire caused by the cotton famine. He continued his interest in New South Wales and occasionally acted as agent-general, did useful work in connexion with the exhibition held at Sydney in 1880, and in 1886 was a member of the royal commission for the Colonial and Indian exhibition at London. He died at London on 5 June 1902. He married in 1846 Elizabeth, daughter of William Hill, and was survived by two sons and three daughters. He was knighted in 1857, created a baronet in 1863, K.C.M.G. in 1880 and G.C.M.G. in 1888. He was an early member of the senate of the university of Sydney, to which he gave £500 for a stained glass window, and £1000 to found a scholarship. This sum was invested in property which increased considerably in value, and it now provides for several scholarships.
The Sydney Morning Herald, 7 June 1902; The Times, 6 June 1902; Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891; The Official History of N.S.W.
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COOPER, SIR POPE ALEXANDER (1848-1923),chief justice of Queensland,
was the son of Francis Cooper, a squatter, and was born at Willeroo station, Lake George, New South Wales, on 12 May 1848. He was educated at the Sydney Grammar School and the university of Sydney, where he won the Cooper and Gilchrist scholarships and graduated B.A. Proceeding to London he completed the LL.B. course, became a student of the Middle Temple, and was called to the English bar in June 1872. He returned to Australia and began to practise as a barrister at Brisbane in June 1874. He became a crown prosecutor and in January 1879 entered the Queensland legislative assembly as member for Bowen. On 31 December 1880 he joined the first McIlwraith (q.v.) ministry as attorney-general and held this position until 6 January 1883, when he resigned on being appointed a supreme court judge for the northern district of Queensland. In 1895 he became senior puisne judge at Brisbane, and in 1903 chief justice. He resigned this position in 1922 and died on 30 August 1923. He married in 1873 Alice Frener, daughter of James Cooper died in 1900, and was survived by a son and two daughters. He was knight 1904 and created K.C.M.G. in 1908. He was chancellor of the university Queensland from 1915 to 1922.
Cooper had only a short career in parliament but made some reputation as a polished speaker. As a judge he was always seeking the essentials of a case and generally adopted a common attitude on legal questions. His summings up were usually brief and to the point. In criminal cases he could be severe though just. In his conduct of the court, though always courteous, he insisted that the dignity of the bench must be upheld, and he was quick to restrain anything in the nature of contempt of court He was an efficient lieutenant-governor.
The Brisbane Courier, 31 August 1923; C . A . Bernays, Queensland Politics During Sixty Years; Who's Who, 1923.
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COPPIN, GEORGE SELTH (1819-1906),actor and politician,
was born at Steyning, Sussex, England, on 8 April 1819. His grandfather had been a well-known clergyman at Norwich. His father, George Selth Coppin (1794-1854), qualified for the medical profession but gave this up to go on the stage. His mother was formerly Elizabeth Jane Jackson. George Coppin, he seldom used his second name, became an assistant in his father's company. At the age of 18 he had an engagement at the Woolwich theatre, and soon afterwards was playing at Richmond, where he became low comedian at a salary of twenty-five shillings a week. He next obtained an engagement at the Queen's Theatre, London, and in subsequent years played as first low comedian in the provinces and at Dublin, where he had a long engagement. He sailed for Australia towards the end of 1842 and arrived at Sydney on 10 March 1843. After a successful season he took a hotel but, being quite inexperienced, lost his money and went to Tasmania. At Launceston he formed a company and in June 1845 took it to Melbourne and opened at the Queen's Theatre, recently built by John Thomas Smith (q.v.). Next year he went to Adelaide, built the Queen's Theatre in a few weeks, and on 2 November 1846 began his season with The King and the Comedian, Coppin playing the part of Stolbach (the comedian). He subsequently played a variety of parts including Sir Peter Teazle, Jacques Strop in Robert Macaire, Jemmy Twitcher in The Golden Farmer, Don Caesar in Don Caesar de Bazan and many others in quite forgotten plays. In 1848, having had heavy losses in copper-mining, he left Adelaide and returned to Victoria. He tried his fortunes as a gold-digger without success, began playing at Geelong, and in 1854 visited England where he acted in the provinces. There he met G. V. Brooke (q.v.), engaged a company, and returned to Australia bringing with them an iron theatre in sections. Brooke was to establish a great reputation in Australia. In July 1855 Coppin was playing Colonel Damas with him in The Lady of Lyons, and about this time they became partners. They bought the Theatre Royal and the Cremorne Gardens and spent £60,000 on them. The partnership was dissolved in 1859 and Coppin, having become security for a large sum in connexion with the Melbourne and Suburban railway, was in financial difficulties again. The line was sold and he became freed from his liability. In 1862 he built the Haymarket Theatre on the south side of Bourke-street, and in 1863 Mr and Mrs Charles Kean played a season there.
Some time before this Coppin began to take an interest in public affairs. He became a councillor in the Richmond municipality, and in 1858 was elected for the south-western province in the legislative council for a term of five years. In 1859 he brought in a transfer of property bill which was passed in the council and rejected in the assembly. Three years later it became law, James Service (q.v.) taking charge of it in the assembly, and Coppin in the council. This measure, often referred to as the "Torrens Act", has proved to be a very valuable one. In 1864 Coppin again lost his money and went to the United States. At a farewell dinner he was presented with a cheque for £300 and was given a public reception when he returned in 1866. He joined Messrs Harwood, Stewart and Hennings in the management of the Theatre Royal, and, although they lost heavily at times, Coppin's record from this point is one of increasing prosperity. He was elected to the legislative assembly in 1874 and did good work, one of his measures established post office savings banks. He opposed the payment of members of parliament, and when it was passed gave his salary to charities. He retired from theatrical management on 28 June 1882, but remained a member of the legislative assembly until 1889 when he lost his seat. Soon after he was elected as member for Melbourne Province in the legislative council for a term of five years. He took an interest in the development of Sorrento where he had a seaside home, and kept up his connexion with the Old Colonists' Association (which he had founded), the Humane Society, Gordon house and other institutions. When managing the Cremorne Gardens he had brought out the first balloon to ascend in Melbourne, and was responsible for the acclimatization of English thrushes and white swans. He was also the first to suggest the value of camels for the interior. He died early in the morning of 14 March 1906 having very nearly completed his eighty-seventh year. He was married twice, (1) in 1855 to Harriet Bray, (2) in 1861 to Lucy Hilsden, who survived him with several children.
Coppin first made his reputation as an actor but, after he had been a few years in Australia, management took up an increasing amount of his time. He was a comedian pure and simple, who excelled in parts like Paul Pry, Bob Acres, and Lancelot Gobbo. Among his other portrayals were Aminadab Sleek in The Serious Family, Mawworm in The Hypocrite and Tony Lumpkin. James Smith (q.v.), a critic of his time, spoke of his success in presenting "the ponderous stolidity and impenetrable stupidity of certain types of humanity--the voice, the gait, the movements, the expression of the actor's features, were all in perfect harmony with the mental and moral idiosyncrasies of the person he represented, so that the man himself stood before you a living reality".
Coppin was a man of great courage, over and over again he was in money difficulties, but nothing could keep him down, and he had a pleasing habit of calling his creditors together and paying them 20 shillings in the pound. He was generous in his charities, and there can have been few instances of a man so successfully combining the roles of actor and manager, legislator, and public-spirited citizen. A bronze plaque to his memory was unveiled at the Comedy Theatre, Melbourne, on 26 March 1939. He is there described as "Philanthropist and Father of the Theatre in Victoria".
Men of the Time in Australia; The Argus, 14 March 1906; The Age, 14 March 1906; Cyclopedia of Victoria, 1903; Burke's Colonial Gentry; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.
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COUVREUR, JESSIE CATHERINE (1848-1897),novelist,
was born at Highgate, London, on 28 October 1848. Her father, Alfred James Huybers, came originally from Antwerp, and his daughter was of Dutch, French and English descent. She arrived in Tasmania with her parents in December 1852 and was educated at Hobart. In June 1867 she was married to Charles F. Fraser and went to live in Melbourne. The marriage was unfortunate, and was dissolved on the petition of the wife about 1870. In 1873 she visited Europe, and between 1879 and 1883 spent much time there giving courses of lectures in French at various European cities. She also wrote for the Nouvelle Revue and received from the French government the decoration of Officier d'Académie. She revisited Tasmania but returned in 1883 to live permanently in Europe. In 1885 she married M. Couvreur a well-known Belgian politician and publicist.
As a girl of 16 Madame Couvreur had had verses accepted by the Australian Journal, and she afterwards contributed essays and short stories to the Australasian and the Melbourne Review. Her first novel, Uncle Piper of Piper's Hill, appeared serially in the Australian Journal in 1888, and was published in London in 1889 under the pseudonym of "Tasma". It had an immediate success and was followed by In her Earliest Youth (1890), A Sydney Sovereign and other Tales (1890), The Penance of Portia James (1891), A Knight of the White Feather (1892), Not Counting the Cost (1895), and A Fiery Ordeal (1897). Her husband died in 1894 and Madame Couvreur took up his duties as correspondent of The Times at Brussels. She proved to be "a conscientious painstaking journalist, keenly alive to all political, intellectual and social movements". She continued to hold this position until her death on 23 October 1897.
Madame Couvreur was tall and handsome, with a highly cultivated mind. Her first book, Uncle Piper of Piper's Hill, was her best. There is not much plot, but there is excellent character-drawing and the interest is well-sustained to the end. Of her other novels In her Earliest Youth and The Penance of Portia James are possibly the best.
H. M. Green, An Outline of Australian Literature and information given to him by relations; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography; Turner and Sutherland, The Development of Australian Literature; D. Byrne, Australian Writers; The Times, 25 October 1897.
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COWAN, EDITH DIRCKSEY (1861-1932),social worker,
was born at Geraldton, Western Australia, on 2 August 1861. Her father, K. Brown, was the son of F. Brown who came to Australia in 1841, her mother was the daughter of the Rev. J. B. Wittenoom, the first colonial chaplain in Western Australia, who arrived in 1829. Miss Brown was sent to a school kept by the Misses Cowan at Perth, and was also instructed by Canon Sweeting at Guildford. In 1879 she married James Cowan, registrar and master of the supreme court. The care of her children and her home kept Mrs Cowan occupied for many years, but in the meanwhile her husband had become a police magistrate, and from him she learned much about cases of distress among women and children. She became interested in social questions, the franchise for women, day nurseries, and the boarding-out system. In 1912 she was appointed a member of the bench of the newly-formed children's court, and sat regularly for 18 years. During the 1914-18 war she was a prominent member of the red cross centre and other war activities, and in 1920 became a justice of the peace and was made an O.B.E. At the general election for the legislative assembly held in 1921 she defeated T. P. Draper, the attorney-general, and became the first woman member of parliament in Australia. She lost her seat in 1924, but during her three years in parliament she succeeded in amending the administration act so that mothers were placed in the same position as fathers when children died intestate, and she also introduced the women's legal status act. She had become a member of the Anglican synod in 1922, and in 1926 she was one of the first women appointed to its provincial synod. She was also one of the first women members of the Perth hospital board, and other institutions she supported and worked for were the King Edward Memorial Hospital, the House of Mercy, afterwards the Alexandra Home for Women, the Infant Health Centre, and the Ministering Children's League. She died at Perth on 9 June 1932 and was survived by her husband and three daughters.
Mrs Cowan was a well-known figure in Western Australia. She was a good speaker and a thoroughly level-headed and capable woman whose life was given up to the betterment of the community.
The West Australian, 10 June 1932; Ed. by J. G. Wilson, Western Australia's Centenary, 1829-1929, p. 168.
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COWPER, SIR CHARLES (1807-1875),premier of New South Wales,
was the third son of the Rev. William Cowper, D.D. (q.v.). He was born in Yorkshire on 26 April 1807, and was brought to Sydney by his father in 1809. Educated by his father, in 1825 he was in the public service, and when barely 19 years of age was appointed clerk of the Clergy and School Lands Corporation. He held this position for some years and in 1831 married the second daughter of Daniel Sutton. When the Clergy and School Lands Corporation was dissolved in 1833, Cowper went on the land and held extensive properties in Cumberland and Argyle counties. He was elected a member of the legislative council in 1843 and held his seat until 1850. In September 1848 he sent out a circular convening a meeting to consider the establishment of a railway company. The company was formed and the first railway in New South Wales was begun on 3 July 1849. This railway was taken over by the government some six years later. At the end of 1851 he was elected for Durham and he was also active as president of the anti-transportation league. When responsible government was established he was elected a member of the legislative assembly for the city of Sydney, and was offered and declined the position of colonial secretary in the first ministry under the leadership of S. A. Donaldson (q.v.). This ministry lasted less than three months, when Cowper formed his first ministry, which had an even shorter life. He again came into power in September 1857. This was a ministry of many changes, no fewer than 13 men holding the seven positions in its life of just over two years. Among the acts passed were the electoral law amendment act, municipalities act, and an act to prohibit future grants for public worship. In the John Robertson (q.v.) ministry which was formed in March 1860 Cowper held the position of chief secretary, and in January 1861 he became premier with Robertson as secretary for lands. Early in this year Cowper introduced a bill intended to substitute elected members for the nominee members of the legislative council. The council suggested amendments which Cowper could not accept, and a little later a similar position arose over his land bills which had passed the assembly. Cowper induced the new governor Sir John Young to appoint 21 new members to the legislative council, but before administering the oath to the new members the president of the council, Sir W. W. Burton (q.v.), announced his resignation and left the chamber. Other members followed his example, there was no quorum, and on the same day parliament was prorogued. Defeated in October 1863 Cowper was premier for the fourth time in February 1865, but his ministry had a life of less than a year. He was premier for the last time in January 1870 and was appointed agent-general for New South Wales in London at the end of that year. He died in London on 19 October 1875 and was survived by Lady Cowper and children.
Cowper did useful work but does not rank among the more distinguished Australian politicians. Parkes (q.v.) in 1852 referred in public to his "mild, affable and benignant character". In later years he spoke of his "quick insight in dealing with surrounding circumstances, and much good humour and tact in dealing with individuals". His political adroitness was such that it secured for him the popular sobriquet of "Slippery Charley". Probably Cowper deserved this title no more than bishop Wilberforce deserved his of "Soapy Sam", but Rusden speaks of Cowper as "ever anxious to link himself with a majority" and frequently shows animus when speaking of him. He was personally popular, and towards the end of his life the estate of Wivenhoe was purchased by public subscription and settled on his wife. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1872.
The Sydney Morning Herald, 30 October 1875; Autobiography and Reminiscences of William Macquarie Cowper; Sir Henry Parkes, Fifty Years in the Making of Australian History; G. W. Rusden, History of Australia; Historical Records of Australia, vols. XII and XIV; The Times, 22 October 1875.
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COWPER, WILLIAM (1778-1858),early clergyman,
was born at Whittington, England, on 28 December 1778. His father was a yeoman farmer. At 17 years of age Cowper became a tutor in a clergyman's family, and some time later was a clerk in the Royal engineers department at Hull. He began reading for the ministry, was ordained in March 1808, and became a curate at Rawdon near Hull. There he was found by the Rev. S. Marsden (q.v.) who induced him to come to Australia. He arrived at Sydney on 18 August 1809 and became first assistant chaplain at a salary of £260 a year. He was also incumbent of St Phillip's church, the name was spelt so in honour of the first governor. He found the state of morality in Sydney deplorable, and actively set to work by preaching and example to bring about an improvement. He was one of the founders and secretary of the Benevolent Society of New South Wales, and was at one time secretary of six religious and charitable societies. In 1842 his eyesight began to fail and, obtaining leave of absence to go to London to have an operation, was presented with a purse of £780 by his parishioners to cover his expenses. He returned in 1843 with his sight much improved, and with the honorary degree of D.D., which had been conferred on him by the archbishop of Canterbury. In 1848 he was instrumental in starting the building of the new church of St Philip and himself gave £500 towards the cost of it. In 1849 he had a dangerous illness but recovered, and in 1852 was appointed to administer the diocese during the absence of Bishop Broughton (q.v.) on a visit to England. The bishop died in February 1853 and Cowper had to continue his duties until Bishop Barker (q.v.) arrived in May 1855. The new church of St Philip was sufficiently complete to be consecrated in March 1856, greatly to Cowper's joy. He died on 6 July 1858. He was married three times and was survived by four sons and two daughters. Two of his sons, Sir Charles Cowper and William Macquarie Cowper, are noticed separately.
Cowper was devoted to his work. He several times refused to become a magistrate because he considered the duties incompatible with his clerical life. He was courageous and uncompromising as a preacher, charitable and kindly in his life, and unlike other clerics of the period refused to meddle in secular and political matters.
The Sydney Morning Herald, 7 July 1858; The Empire, 7 July 1858; W. M. Cowper, Autobiography and Reminiscences; Andrew Houison, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. III, pp. 359-66. Many references will also be found in the Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vol. VII onwards.
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COWPER, WILLIAM MACQUARIE (1810-1902),dean of Sydney,
son of Rev. William Cowper, D.D. (q.v.), was born at Sydney on 3 July 1810. Educated by his father and at Oxford he graduated B.A., 1833, and M.A. 1835. On returning to Australia in 1836 he was chaplain at Port Stephens for 20 years, and then principal of Moore College, Sydney, for a few months in 1856. In 1858 he succeeded his father at St Philip's church, Sydney, and in the same year was appointed archdeacon and dean of Sydney. He several times acted as commissary for bishops Barker (q.v.) and Barry (q.v.) during their absences in England, and showed much administrative ability. He was venerated and loved for his piety and kindliness and died in his ninety-second year on 14 June 1902 honoured by all. He was married twice and was survived by children. He published in 1888 Episcopate of the Right Reverend Frederic Barker, D.D., and his The Autobiography and Reminiscences of William Macquarie Cowper appeared soon after his death.
Sydney Morning Herald, 16 June 1902; W. M. Cowper, Autobiography and Reminiscences; Crockford's Clerical Directory, 1902.
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COX, WILLIAM (1764-1837),pioneer,
son of Robert Cox, was born at Wimborne Minster, Dorset, England, on 19 December 1764. He was educated at Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School at Wimborne Minster, and afterwards went to live at Devizes. He was a landowner, served in the Wilts militia, and in July 1795 joined the regular army as an ensign. He became a lieutenant in February 1797, and in September 1798 was appointed paymaster at Cork. He was given the same position when he joined the New South Wales Corps and sailed for Sydney on 24 August 1799 on the transport Minerva, on which were about 160 convicts including General Holt (q.v.) and the Rev. H. Fulton (q.v.), both of whom, and indeed many of the other convicts, were really political prisoners. Cox used his influence so that the prisoners were frequently allowed up on deck to get fresh air, and Holt in his memoirs states that in consequence "the ship was the healthiest and best regulated which had ever reached the colony". It arrived in Sydney harbour on 11 January 1800. Almost immediately Cox bought a farm of 100 acres and installed Holt as its manager. Gradually considerable amounts of land were added, but Cox had incurred large liabilities and in 1803 his estate was placed in the hands of trustees. He had much money owing to him and though Cox believed that his assets were worth considerably more than the amount of his liabilities, his accounts as paymaster were involved, and he was suspended from office. In 1807 he was ordered to go to England. He evidently succeeded in clearing himself as he was promoted captain in 1808 (Aust. Ency.), in 1811 was again in New South Wales and principal magistrate at the Hawkesbury.
On 14 July 1814 Cox received a letter from Governor Macquarie accepting his voluntary offer to superintend the making of a road across the blue mountains from a ford on the river Nepean, Emu Plains, to a "centrical part of Bathurst Plains". He was given 30 labourers and a guard of eight soldiers. Work was begun on 18 July 1814 and it was finished on 14 January 1815. In April Macquarie drove his carriage across it from Sydney to Bathurst. It was not metalled, being merely a dirt track 12 feet wide, but it was nevertheless an amazing feat to have grubbed the trees, filled in holes, levelled the track, and built bridges in so short a time. There is no difficulty in believing the governor's statement that if it had been done under a contract it would have taken three years. The length of the road was 101½ miles and settlement of the land beyond the mountains began almost at once. Cox himself established a station near the junction of the Cudgegong and Macquarie rivers. He was now in prosperous circumstances and remained so until his death at Windsor on 15 March 1837. He married (1) Rebecca Upjohn and (2) Anna Blackford. There were five sons by the first marriage and three sons and a daughter by the second.
Cox was a man of great kindliness and fine character. Holt, who had worked for him, could never speak too well of him. Only a man of real ability with a genius for managing men could have built the track across the mountains in so short a time, and it would be difficult to find an equally remarkable feat in the early history of Australia.
Memoirs of William Cox, J.P.; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. IV, VI to IX; Memoirs of Joseph Holt.
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CRAWFORD, ROBERT (1868-1930),poet,
son of Robert Crawford, born at Doonside, New South Wales, in 1868, was educated at The King's School, Parramatta, and the university of Sydney. He settled on a farm as his forefathers had done before him, but not succeeding, became a clerk at Sydney and afterwards had a typewriting business. Some of his poems were published in the Bulletin and other periodicals, and in 1904 a small collection of them, Lyric Moods, was published at Sydney. An enlarged edition appeared at Melbourne in 1909 under the same title. In 1921 another volume, The Leafy Bliss, was published, and an enlarged edition appeared three years later. Crawford died suddenly at Lindfield, Sydney, on 13 January 1930.
Very little is known about Crawford. He was short of stature, poetical in spirit. He mixed little in literary circles and appeared to be forgotten a few years after his death. The fates seem to have conspired against him in every way. The statement that he was educated at The King's School originally appeared in the Bookfellow, and probably came direct from Crawford. If so there is no reason to doubt it, yet in the records of The King's School of his period the only R. Crawford is listed as Richard Crawford. It was also not possible to identify him positively with the Robert James G. W. Crawford who graduated B.A. at the university of Sydney in 1912, when the poet was about 44 years of age. Crawford is represented in some of the anthologies, and A. G. Stephens (q.v.) thought highly of his work. Other critics of his period have scarcely done him justice. His work has a delicate charm and, though at times one fears it will not rise above merely pretty verse, in some of his quatrains and lyrics Crawford does succeed in writing poetry of importance. Possibly, as Stephens once suggested, he may be better appreciated in the next century.
The Bookfellow, 15 August 1923; The Bulletin, 22 January, 1930, 8 December 1943; death notice, The Sydney Morning Herald, 15 January 1930; information from The King's School, Parramatta, and H. M. Green, Fisher Library, University of Sydney.
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CRESWELL, SIR WILLIAM ROOKE (1852-1933),vice-admiral,
was born at Gibraltar on 20 July 1852. His father, Edmund Creswell, was head of the postal service at Gibraltar and for the Mediterranean, his mother was Mary Margaret Ward, daughter of the Rev. W. Fraser. Educated at Gibraltar and Eastman's Academy, Southsea, Creswell entered the navy in January 1866 as a cadet on the Britannia. He first went to sea in the Phoebe, and on 20 October 1871 became a sub-lieutenant. On 16 September 1873 he was especially promoted lieutenant for his work against pirates near Penang. He was afterwards on the Topaze and the London in connexion with the suppression of the slave trade off the cast coast of Africa between 1875 and 1878. He was known as a capable and zealous officer and received the thanks of the foreign minister for his services. His health having broken down he was given a harbour appointment at Devonport. He, however, found it necessary to resign from the service on 6 September 1878, and he then went to Australia and took up land in Queensland and the Northern Territory. On 24 October 1885 he entered the naval service of South Australia, in 1891 became a commander, and in 1894 captain. He was naval commandant for some years, strongly advocated the formation of an Australian fleet, and in 1899 with the secretary of the Victorian defence department drew up a report on the future of Australian sea defence. As commander of the Protector he took this warship to the China Seas in 1900, and in the same year was given command of the marine defence forces of Queensland. In 1902 he revived his proposals for an Australian navy but his report was overshadowed by the agreement reached at the colonial conference in that year. In 1904 Creswell was appointed director of the Commonwealth naval forces, and in 1909, in company with Colonel J. F. G. Foxton (q.v.), he attended the Imperial conference, as a result of which the naval defence act of 1910 was passed which created the Australian navy. Creswell became rear-admiral in 1911 and first naval member of the Commonwealth naval board. The efficiency of his training was shown in the good work of the Commonwealth ships and seamen during the 1914-18 war. He retired in 1919 and was promoted vice-admiral in 1922. He lived in retirement in the country in Victoria and died on 20 April 1933. He married in 1888 Adelaide Elizabeth, daughter of Mr Justice Stow (q.v.), who survived him with two sons and a daughter. He was created C.M.G. in 1897, K.C.M.G. in 1911 and K.B.E. in 1919.
The Times, 21 April 1933; The Advertiser, Adelaide, 21 April 1933; The Argus, Melbourne, 21 April 1933; Debrett's Peerage, etc., 1933.
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CROSS, ADA.See CAMBRIDGE, ADA
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CROSSLEY, ADA (1874-1929),singer,
daughter of E. Wallis Crossley, a farmer, was born at Tarraville, Gippsland, Victoria, on 3 March 1874. Her mother belonged to the same family as the poet, Cowper. Miss Crossley's singing in the country met with so much appreciation that she was sent to Melbourne to be trained, where (Sir) F. H. Cowen, who had come from London to conduct the orchestra at the Melbourne international exhibition of 1888-9, heard her sing and gave her advice. She studied under Madame Fanny Simonsen for singing, and under Alberto Zelman the elder for piano and harmony. Her first appearance was with the Philharmonic Society at Melbourne in 1892, and she sang frequently in Melbourne in 1893 at concerts and in oratorio, and was the principal contralto at the Australian Church. In 1894 she went to Europe and studied under Madame Mathilde Marchesi for voice production, and under Santley for oratorio work. Her first appearance in London was at the Queen's Hall on 18 May 1895, when she had an immediate success. For many years she held a leading place at music festivals and on the concert platform, and five command performances were given by her before Queen Victoria in two years. She was also successful in America, and on returning to Australia in 1904 her tour was a series of triumphs. She also visited South Africa, and her second tour in Australia in 1908 was again very successful. She sang regularly at English festivals until 1913 but retired a few years later, though she made occasional appearances for charity. She never lost her love for her native country and her London house was always open to young singers and artists from Australia. There they received advice, hospitality, and sometimes assistance, without any suggestion of patronage. She died at London after a short illness on 17 October 1929. She married in 1905 Mr Francis Muecke, C.B.E., F.R.C.S. There were no children.
Miss Crossley had a charming personality and had hosts of friends in both England and Australia. Her voice had delightful evenness of quality, and its production was beautifully natural. She appealed to every class of audience in ballad concerts, in oratorio, and in recitals of classic songs. Her renderings of the Agnus Dei from Bach's B minor Mass, and of the solo part in Brahm's Rhapsody, have been especially mentioned as being among her highest achievements.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians; The Times, 19 and 21 October 1929; The Argus and The Age, Melbourne, 19 October 1929.
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CROWTHER, WILLIAM LODEWYK (1817-1885),premier of Tasmania,
was the son of William Crowther, for many years resident surgeon at Hobart. He was born at Haarlem, Holland, on 15 April 1817 and came to Tasmania with his parents in 1824. He was educated at a private school at Longford and then went to England to study medicine. In 1842 he returned to Tasmania and practised at Hobart. He was elected a member of the house of assembly in October 1866, but two months later resigned his seat. In March 1869 he was elected to the legislative council as a representative of Hobart and held this seat until his death. He was a constant attendant and an able speaker. In July 1876 he joined the Reibey (q.v.) cabinet as a minister without portfolio, and on 20 December 1878 became premier. In the state of parties in that period it was practically impossible to do anything constructive. Crowther resigned on 29 October 1879 and did not again hold office. He died at Hobart on 12 April 1885. He married Victoria Marie Louise, daughter of General Muller, who survived him with eight children. There is a statue in his memory at Hobart. One of his sons, Dr E. L. Crowther, was an able member of the Tasmanian parliament for many years, and a leading citizen of Hobart.
The Mercury, Hobart, 13 April 1885; The Examiner, Launceston, 13 April 1885; J. Fenton, A History of Tasmania; The Mercury, Hobart, 10 August 1931.
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CULLEN, SIR WILLIAM PORTUS (1855-1935),chief-justice of New South Wales,
son of John Cullen, was born at Mt Johnston, Jamberoo, New South Wales, on 28 May 1855. He was educated at country state schools and the university of Sydney, where he graduated B.A. with a first class in classics in 1880, M.A. in 1882, LL.B. in 1885 and LL.D. in 1887. During his university career he won the University, Lithgow, Barker, and Renwick scholarships, and the John Smith prize. He was called to the bar in 1883 and his progress at first was slow; but he eventually took high rank at the equity bar, and argued with much success before the supreme court of New South Wales and the high court of Australia. He became a K.C. in 1905. He entered politics in 1891 when he was elected a member of the legislative assembly for Camden. He was defeated at the 1894 election, and in 1895 was nominated to the legislative council. Though not a strong party man, or even a politician by temperament, he was a useful member of the house who never spoke unless he could contribute something constructive to the debate. In January 1910 he was appointed chief justice of New South Wales in succession to Sir Frederick Darley (q.v.), and in March was appointed lieutenant-governor. He found much business awaiting him at the supreme court, but his great capacity for work soon cleared up the arrears. His chief interest from his undergraduate days was the university of Sydney, of which he was elected a member of the senate in 1896, vice-chancellor in 1908, and chancellor in 1914. In his early days in the legislative council he had introduced a bill embodying important reforms in the conduct of the university, though some of these were not brought into force until many years after. He was elected term after term as chancellor, and when he resigned on account of his health and his advanced age in December 1934, he had been in office for a longer period than any previous chancellor, during a time of great expansion.
Cullen retired from the chief justiceship in January 1925 but retained the position of lieutenant-governor until September 1930. He several times acted as governor during the absence of governors from the State or between appointments. He died at Leura on 6 April 1935. He married in 1891 Lily, eldest daughter of the Hon. R. H. D. White, who died in 1931. He was survived by two sons and a daughter. He was knighted in 1911 and created K.C.M.G. in 1912.
Cullen was a simple, rather shy man, much interested in literature, in the Australian flora, and in social and philanthropic movements. He was a very sound equity and constitutional lawyer who as chief justice worthily upheld the traditions of his court. He was courteous and considerate to juniors appearing before him, and could hold his own with the most experienced barristers. He had great conscientiousness, excellent knowledge of the law and sound judgment, and consequently his judgments were seldom upset. As administrator of the government he was always dignified, courteous and competent.
The Sydney Morning Herald, 8 April 1935; The Times, 8 April 1935; The Australian Law Journal, 15 May 1935; The Daily Telegraph, Sydney, 8 April 1935; The Bulletin, 10 April 1935; Burke's Peerage, etc., 1935; Calendar of the University of Sydney, 1936, p. 932.
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CUNNINGHAM, ALLAN (1791-1839),botanist and explorer,
[ also refer to Allan CUNNINGHAM page at Project Gutenberg Australia]
was born at Wimbledon, Surrey, on 13 July 1791. His father, Allan Cunningham, came from Renfrewshire, Scotland, his mother was English. He was well educated at a private school at Putney and then went into a solicitor's office. He afterwards obtained a position with W. T. Aiton superintendent of Kew gardens, and this brought him in touch with Robert Brown (q.v.) and Sir Joseph Banks (q.v.). Recommended by Banks, Cunningham in October 1814 was sent travelling by the government as a botanical collector. He spent nearly two years in Brazil collecting specimens, and on 28 September sailed for Sydney where he arrived on 20 December 1816. He established himself at Parramatta. In April 1817 he was attached as botanist to the exploring expedition beyond the Blue Mountains led by John Oxley (q.v.), and shared in the privations of the 1200 miles journey. He was able to collect specimens of about 450 species and gained valuable experience as an explorer.
On his return Cunningham found letters from Banks directing him to join the expedition to the north and north-west coast of Australia under P. P. King (q.v.). Their vessel, the Mermaid, was of only 85 tons, but sailing on 22 December 1817 they reached King George's Sound on 21 January 1818. Though their stay was short many interesting specimens were found, but the islands on the west coast were comparatively barren. Towards the end of March the Goulburn Islands on the north coast were reached, and there many new plants were discovered. They reached Timor on 4 June and turning for home arrived at Port Jackson on 29 July 1818. Cunningham's collections during this voyage included about 300 species. Shortly after his return he made an excursion in the country southerly from Sydney, and towards the end of the year he made a voyage to Tasmania arriving at Hobart on 2 January 1819. He next visited Launceston, and though often finding the botany interesting, he found little that was absolutely new, as Brown had preceded him. In May he went with King in the Mermaid on a second voyage to the north and north-west coasts. On this occasion they started up the east coast and Cunningham found many opportunities for adding to his collections. The circumnavigation of Australia was completed on 27 August when they reached Vernon's Island in Clarence Strait. They again visited Timor and arrived back in Sydney on 12 January 1820. The third voyage to the north coast with King began on 15 June, but meeting bad weather the bowsprit was lost and a return was made for repairs. Sailing again on 13 July the northerly course was followed and eventually the continent was circumnavigated. Though they found the little vessel was in a bad state when they were on the north-west coast, and though serious danger was escaped until they were close to home, they were nearly wrecked off Botany Bay. The Mermaid was then condemned and the next voyage was on the Bathurst which was twice the size of the Mermaid. They left on 26 May 1821, the northern route was chosen, and when they were on the west coast of Australia it was found necessary to go to Mauritius to refit, where they arrived on 27 September. They left after a stay of seven weeks and reached King George's Sound on 24 December. A sufficiently long stay was made for Cunningham to make an excellent collection of plants, and then turning on their tracks the Bathurst sailed up the west coast and round the north of Australia. Sydney was reached again on 25 April 1822. Cunningham's "A Few General Remarks on the Vegetation of Certain Coasts of Terra Australis", will be found in King's Narrative of a Survey, etc. In September Cunningham went on an expedition over the blue mountains and arrived at Bathurst on 14 October and returned to Parramatta in January 1823. His account of about 100 plants met with will be found in Geographical Memoirs on New South Wales, edited by Barron Field (q.v.), 1825, under the title "A Specimen of the Indigenous Botany . . . between Port Jackson and Bathurst". In the same volume will also be found his "Journal of a Route from Bathurst to Liverpool Plains". This was an excellent piece of exploring work. On reaching the Goulburn River he turned east and eventually reached the main range, but for five days searched in vain for an opening. On returning to the Goulburn he took a different course but ran into exceedingly difficult country. He, however, persevered with great courage and on 7 June discovered a pass which he named "Pandora's Pass", and made a way to the Liverpool Plains. He reached Parramatta again on 21 July 1823. Some comparatively short journeys followed but on 28 March 1925 he led another expedition to the north of Pandora's Pass, approaching it from the opposite direction to that taken in his previous journey. On 2 May he went through the pass, a fortnight later reached Dunlop Hill, and from there made for Bathurst, which he reached on 7 June 1825 and Parramatta 10 days later.
Cunningham had long wished to visit New Zealand and on 28 August 1826 he was able to sail on a whaler. He was hospitably received by the missionaries in the Bay of Islands, was able to do much botanical work, and returned to Sydney on 20 January 1827. Accounts of his work in New Zealand will be found in Hooker's Companion to the Botanical Magazine, 1836, and Annals of Natural History, 1838 and 1839. Cunningham's next expedition was of great importance. Between April and August 1827, starting from Segenhoe on the Upper Hunter, he skirted the Liverpool Plains, crossed the Peel and Dumaresq rivers, and discovered the Darling Downs. He then returned to the Hunter River and back by a new road to Parramatta. In the following year he showed that the country he had discovered could be reached from the site of Brisbane. Early in 1829 he was again working in the Bathurst district, and in 1830 went to Norfolk Island. He visited England in 1831 and was offered the position of colonial botanist at Sydney. This he declined in favour of his brother Richard. He worked at Kew Gardens for about five years, but his brother having died in 1835, he accepted his position. He arrived at Sydney on 12 February 1837. After a few months, finding that he was required to grow vegetables for government officials, he resigned. He arranged to pay another visit to New Zealand, but deferred his departure until the new governor, Sir George Gipps (q.v.), arrived. Gipps endeavoured, without success, to have Cunningham's services retained as government botanist. Cunningham finally left the gardens in April 1838 and went to New Zealand in the same month. He returned to Sydney in October 1838, but his health which had long been precarious was now rapidly getting worse. He died of consumption on 27 June 1839.
Cunningham was a modest man of fine character. He was an indefatigable worker as a botanist, and scarcely had time between his journeys to give evidence of his scientific powers, though a few of his papers will be found in journals of the period. His immense collections of specimens mostly went to Kew Gardens and eventually to the British museum. He also takes high rank among Australian explorers, for though his parties were small in number and comparatively poorly equipped, his courage, resourcefulness, and knowledge, enabled him to achieve what he set out to do, and his journeys opened up much country for settlement.
R. Heward, in W. J. Hooker's The Journal of Botany, vol. IV, 1842; The London journal of Botany, vol. I, 1842; J. H. Maiden, The Sydney Botanic Gardens. Biographical Notes Concerning the Officers in Charge, V; J. H . Maiden, Sir Joseph Banks the Father of Australia, p. 141; Ida Lee, Early Explorers in Australia, reprints a large selection from Cunningham's Diary; G. H. Mitchell, Journal and Proceedings Parramatta and District Historical Society, vol. IV; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. IX, X, XIII, XIV, XVI, XVIII.
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CURR, EDWARD MICKLETHWAITE (1820-1889),writer on aborigines and on stock,
was the son of Edward Curr (1798-1850) and was born at Hobart in 1820. His father spent over three years in Tasmania, from February 1820 to June 1823, and on his return voyage to England wrote An Account of the Colony of Van Diemen's Land principally designed for the use of Emigrants, which was published in 1824. He subsequently returned to Tasmania and became manager of the Van Diemen's Land Company. He was one of the early settlers at Port Phillip, and in later years took a prominent part in the agitation for separation from New South Wales. Westgarth (q.v.) calls him the "Father of Separation". He died on 11 November 1850 at the comparatively early age of 52 and was buried at Melbourne. His son was educated in England and France, paid his first visit to Melbourne in 1839, and in 1841 again came to Port Phillip to take over a station his father had purchased about five miles from the site of the present township of Heathcote. His experiences on this and other stations is described in his Recollections of Squatting in Victoria, published 42 years afterwards. In 1851 he went to Europe and the Middle East for three years. He afterwards had properties in Queensland and New South Wales, but apparently did not have much success with them as in 1862 he was appointed an inspector of sheep in Victoria. In 1863 he published a book on Pure Saddle-Horses, and in 1865 won a prize Of £150 for An Essay on Scab in Sheep. This was published in the same year, and the measures advocated by Curr were used with such success that the disease became rare. He had been made chief inspector of sheep in 1864, and in 1873 he became chief inspector of stock. He took much interest in the aborigines, their manners, customs and languages. He was not a trained ethnologist but he got in touch with a large number of helpers, and in 1886 published The Australian Race, its Origins, Languages, Customs . . . in four volumes, a work of great value at the time; and, though few of his assistants were trained observers, the book is still remembered and consulted. Curr died at Melbourne on 3 August 1889. In addition to the works mentioned Curr was the author of a little volume of verse, Frivolities by E. M. C.
E. Finn, Chronicles of Early Melbourne, p. 859; W. Westgarth, Personal Records [sic--should read 'Recollections'] of Early Melbourne and Victoria, p. 164; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography; The Argus, 5 August 1889.
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CUSSEN, SIR LEO FINN BERNARD (1859-1933),advocate and judge,
son of Maurice Cussen, was born at Portland, Victoria, on 29 November 1859. Educated at Hamilton College, Cussen went to the university of Melbourne and obtained his certificate as a civil engineer in 1879. He then entered the department of railways and did good work on a difficult section of the line from Melbourne to Ballarat. Having decided to study law he went to the university again, and after a brilliant course graduated B.A. in 1884 and M.A., LL.B. in 1886. In September of that year he was called to the bar and in 1890 he became one of the lecturers in law at the university. Though of a modest and retiring nature, and entirely without influence, he was already building up a large practice as a barrister. A few years later, though the Victorian bar included such brilliant men as Isaacs, Higgins (q.v.), Duffy (q.v.), Weigall, Irvine, Purves (q.v.) Coldham and Mitchell, Cussen had as large a practice as any of them. It has been said that at this period it almost became a maxim that if a solicitor had a difficult case and did not consult Cussen, he was guilty of negligence. In 1906 Cussen was made a supreme court judge, and as a judge proved as great a success as he had been as an advocate. He was asked to consolidate the Victorian acts and completed his task in 1915. In 1922 he did another remarkable piece of work, the drafting of the bill which became the Imperial acts application act, an attempt unique in the British empire to select and edit the statutes in English law applicable to the State of Victoria. Five years later, with some assistance, Cussen made a second consolidation, with the result that practitioners in Victoria had a complete view of the relative statutes both Imperial and Victorian. In recognition of his great labours Cussen was given 12 months leave of absence, but unfortunately his health had suffered and he was never quite the same man again. He had been acting chief-justice for a period in 1924 and again held that position in 1931-2.
In spite of this work Cussen gave much time to cultural and other activities. He was a member of the council of the university of Melbourne for 30 years, and was appointed a trustee of the public library, museums and national gallery of Victoria in 1916. In 1928 he was elected president of the trustees and in this position he did admirable work. As a young man he had been a good cricketer and footballer, was later elected to the committee of the Melbourne Cricket Club, and for many years was its president. In spite of failing health in his later years, Cussen managed to carry on most of his activities until his death at Melbourne on 17 May 1933. He married in 1890 Johanna, daughter of John Bevan, who survived him with six sons and a daughter. His portrait by Longstaff (q.v.) is in the national gallery at Melbourne, another by McInnes (q.v.) is in the pavilion at the Melbourne cricket ground. He was knighted in 1922.
Cussen had an unassuming disposition; no one could ever associate him with pride or self-esteem. His genial and lovable character had a background of sincere religion. As an advocate he showed great legal ability, clarity in argument, sound knowledge of the law, and a talent for unravelling intricate cases. These qualities were just as evident when he went on the bench, where his courtesy, patience and consideration made him much liked in the legal profession. A man of quiet wisdom with a judicial mind, a great sense of what was just and right, and the knowledge and ability to avoid mere technicalities, his judgments carried great weight throughout the Commonwealth, and earned him the reputation of being a great judge.
The Age, 18 May 1933; The Argus, 18 May 1933; The Advocate, 25 May 1933; Who's Who, 1933; The Book of the Public Library, 1906-1931.
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CUTHBERTSON, JAMES LISTER (1851-1910),poet,
was the eldest son of William Gilmour Cuthbertson and his wife, Jane Agnes Cuthbertson. He was born at Glasgow on 8 May 1851, and was educated at Trinity College, Glenalmond, Scotland, where he played in the school eleven. He studied for the Indian civil service, and having been admitted as a probationer went on to Merton College, Oxford. He failed to pass a necessary examination and was obliged to abandon the idea of a career in India. His father had in the meantime become manager of the Bank of South Australia at Adelaide, and in 1874 Cuthbertson decided to go to Australia too. In 1875 he joined the staff of the Geelong Grammar School as classical master. He founded the School Quarterly, to which he contributed many poems, and the first collection of these was published at Geelong under the title Grammar School Verses in 1879, an exceedingly rare little pamphlet not listed in the bibliographies of either Serle or Miller. In 1882 he returned to England and continued his course at Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1885. He immediately returned to Australia and rejoined the staff of Geelong Grammar School. In 1893 Barwon Ballads by "C" was published in Melbourne, and at the end of 1896 Cuthbertson resigned his position. After a visit to England he lived for a period at Geelong and then near Melbourne, still occasionally sending verse to the school magazine. He died suddenly while staying with a friend at Mt Gambier on 18 January 1910. After his death a memorial edition of his poems, Barwon Ballads and School Verses, with portrait frontispiece, was published by members of the Geelong Grammar School.
Much of Cuthbertson's work is occasional verse, only of interest to old boys of the school he loved so much; but he sometimes wrote verse with simplicity and restraint, which gives him a place among the poets of Australia. He is represented in several anthologies. As a school-master he was a strong influence, and set standards which have become traditions of the school. (See "In Memoriam, J.L.C.", Light Blue Days, by E. A. Austin).
Introduction, Barwon Ballads and School Verses; H. M. Green, An Outline of Australian Literature; E. Morris Miller, Australian Literature.
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