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Dictionary of Australian Biography Br-By

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Angus and Robertson--1949


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BRACKEN, THOMAS (1843-1898),

poet and journalist,

was born at Clones, near Dublin, in 1843. His mother died soon afterwards, his father when he was 10 years old. About two years later he was sent to Victoria where an uncle was a farmer near Geelong. He worked on his uncle's farm, then in a chemist's shop at Bendigo, and then on a station. In 1867 he published a small volume of verse, The Haunted Vale a Legend of the Murray and other Poems. Two years later he went to New Zealand and for many years was a journalist. His second volume, Behind the Tomb; and other Poems, was published at Melbourne in 1871 and in 1877 Flowers of the Free Lands was published at Dunedin. In 1881 Bracken was elected to the house of representatives for Dunedin Central, but at the 1884 election lost his seat by three votes. He was elected again in 1886 but was not a candidate in 1887 or at any subsequent election. In the meantime he had published in 1884 Lays of the Land of the Maori and Moa, which contains some of his best work. A collection of his poems with illustrations, Musings in Maoriland, was published in 1890. Bracken went to Australia to push its sales, and a large number of copies was disposed of. He also did some lecturing which was not a success. In 1893 a selection from his poems, Lays and Lyrics; God's Own Country and other Poems was published, and in 1894 Bracken was given the bill readership in the house of representatives at Wellington. His health, however, was declining and he returned to Dunedin within a year. He died there in straightened circumstances on 16 February 1898. He had come from Protestant Irish stock but became a Roman Catholic during the last two years of his life. He left a widow and one son.

Bracken was a man of generous temperament and a good journalist, but his reputation as a poet has steadily declined. Some of his work is good popular verse, but the bulk of it is quite undistinguished. He is remembered as the author of the phrase "God's Own Country" as applied to New Zealand, and for a set of verses "Not Understood", the somewhat over-facile sentiment of which has had much appeal to more than one generation of reciters. A selection from Bracken's poems, Not Understood and other Poems, first published in 1905, has since been reprinted in many editions. A list of his works will be found in Serle's A Bibliography of Australasian Poetry and Verse.

Otago Daily Times, 17 February 1898; G. W Otterson, Memoirs of Thomas Bracken.

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premier of Tasmania,

came of an old Cornish family and was born on 11 June 1829. He was the son of Henry Braddon, a solicitor and his wife, formerly Fanny White. Miss Braddon the novelist was a younger sister. Educated privately and at University College, London, he went to India in 1847 to join his cousin's mercantile firm. He afterwards joined the Indian civil service and became an assistant-commissioner, fought with distinction as a volunteer during the Indian mutiny, and afterwards filled various important official posts. He was inspector-general of registration and commissioner of excise and stamps when he retired with a pension in 1878. He went to Tasmania, in the following year was elected a member of the house of assembly for West Devon, and represented that constituency until November 1888. He became leader of the opposition in 1886 and on the defeat of the Agnew (q.v.) ministry in March 1887 was asked to form a cabinet. He, however, resigned the premiership to (Sir) Philip Fysh (q.v.) and became minister for lands and works. On 1 November 1888 he was appointed agent-general for Tasmania in London, and held this position with distinction until September 1893. On returning to Tasmania he was again elected member for West Devon and leader of the opposition. In April 1894 he became premier and held office until 12 October 1899, the longest period any ministry had been in power in Tasmania up to that date.

Braddon also took an important part in the federal movement in Tasmania, and in 1888 represented Tasmania on the federal council. He was in England when the 1891 convention was held, but, after his return, did much speaking for the movement. He was elected as one of the Tasmanian representatives to the 1897 convention and was responsible for the famous "Braddon Clause" known by its opponents as the "Braddon Blot". The individual colonies, by surrendering their powers to levy customs duties, were deprived of their principal source of revenue, and their problem was how to make this good. Braddon moved a motion the effect of which was that the Commonwealth must return to the states three-fourths of the amount collected in each state from customs and excise duties. It was passed, but there was much discussion about it, and at one stage Reid (q.v.) was insisting that New South Wales would stand out unless the clause was omitted. Eventually a compromise was arrived at by which it was agreed that the clause would be operative for a period of 10 years only. It was a subject of many conferences during the first 10 years of federation, and was eventually superseded by the Surplus Revenue Act, No. 8, of 1910. Braddon was elected as a Tasmanian member to the first federal house of representatives, as an ardent freetrader became a member of the Reid party, and during Reid's absence occasionally acted as leader of the opposition. He was reelected for Wilmot in December 1903, but died suddenly at his home in Tasmania on 2 February 1904 before parliament met. He was a scholarly and picturesque figure in Tasmanian politics who did excellent administrative work. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1891 and was made a member of the privy council in 1897. He wrote a good deal for newspapers and magazines and was the author of two volumes, Life in India (1872), and Thirty Years of Shikar (1895). He married (1) in 1857, Amy G. Palmer and (2), in 1876, Alice H. Smith who survived him. Of the family by the first marriage of two sons and four daughters, the second son, Sir Henry Yule Braddon, born 27 April 1863, had a distinguished career. Educated at Dulwich College, London, on the continent, and at the Church of England Grammar School, Launceston, he was for some years in banking, transferred to Dalgety and Company Limited, in 1884, and rose to be superintendent for Australia (1914-28). He was president of the Sydney chamber of commerce and was a commissioner for Australia in the United States, 1918-19. He was the author of several volumes, Business Principles and Practice (1907), American Impressions (1920), Essays and Addresses (1930), and The Making of a Constitution (1930). He was created K.B.E. in 1920.

Burke's Colonial Gentry, 1891; The Mercury, Hobart, 3 February 1904; The Times, 3 February 1904; B. R. Wise, The Making of the Australian Commonwealth; H. G. Turner, The First Decade of the Australian Commonwealth; British Museum Catalogue; Who's Who in Australia, 1941.

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son of Robert John Bragg, a sea captain who had become a farmer, and his wife Mary Wood, daughter of a clergyman, was born at Stoneraise Place, Wigton, Cumberland, on 2 July 1862. He was educated at King William's College, Isle of Man and, winning a scholarship, Trinity College, Cambridge. He graduated in 1884 as third wrangler in the mathematical tripos. In 1885 he was appointed Elder professor of mathematics and physics at the university of Adelaide and began his duties there early in 1886. He then had little knowledge of physics, but there were only about a hundred students doing full courses at Adelaide of whom scarcely more than a handful belonged to the science school. Bragg was thus enabled to develop his knowledge of the subject in his early years, but it was not until he was past 40 that he began to do research work of importance. At the meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Dunedin in 1904, Bragg, as president of his section, delivered an address on "Some Recent Advances in the Theory of the Ionization of Gases". This paper was the origin of his first book Studies in Radioactivity, published in 1912. Shortly after the delivery of his 1904 address some radium bromide was placed at the disposal of Bragg with which he was able to experiment. In December 1904 a paper by him "On the Absorption of a Rays and on the Classification of the a Rays from Radium" appeared in the Philosophical Magazine, and in the same number a paper "On the Ionization Curves of Radium", written in collaboration with R. Kleeman, also appeared. At the end of 1908 Bragg resigned his professorship at Adelaide to become Cavendish professor at Leeds university. During his 23 years in Australia he had seen the number of students at Adelaide university nearly quadrupled, and had had a full share in the development of its excellent science school.

At Leeds Bragg continued his work on X-rays with much success. He invented the X-ray spectrometer and with his son, W. L. Bragg, founded the new science of X-ray analysis of crystal structure. In 1915 father and son were jointly awarded the Nobel prize. Their volume, X-Rays and Crystal Structure, published in this year, had reached a fifth edition 10 years later. Bragg was appointed Quain professor of physics at University College, London, in 1915 but did not take up his duties there until after the war. He did much work for the government at this time, largely connected with submarine detection, at Aberdour on Forth and at Harwich, and returned to London in 1918 as consultant to the admiralty. While Quain professor at London he continued his work on crystal analysis and in 1923 was appointed director of the Royal institution, Fullerian professor of chemistry, Royal Institution, and director of the Davy-Faraday laboratory. This institution was practically rebuilt in 1929-30 and under Bragg's directorship many valuable papers were issued from the laboratory. He had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1907, was elected a vice-president in 1920, and from 1935 to 1940 was president. He died at London on 12 March 1942. He married in 1889 Gwendoline, daughter of Sir Charles Todd (q.v.), who died in 1929. He was survived by a daughter and a son, Sir William Lawrence Bragg, who was born at Adelaide in 1890, educated at St Peter's College, Adelaide, and Adelaide and Cambridge universities, and became one of the most distinguished scientists of his time. In 1938 he was appointed Cavendish professor of experimental physics at Cambridge.

Bragg was essentially modest and was long in realizing his powers. In later years his value was fully recognized and honours crowded upon him. He was given honorary degrees by many great universities and was awarded the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1916 and the Copley medal in 1930. He was created C.B.E. in 1917, K.B,E. in 1920, and in 1931 was given the Order of Merit. In addition to the books already mentioned Bragg wrote The World of Sound (1920), Concerning the Nature of Things (1925), Old Trades and New Knowledge (1926), An Introduction to Crystal Analysis (1928) and The Universe of Light (1933). The first three are reprints of lectures delivered before a "juvenile auditory" at the Royal institution, admirable examples of how a great man can simplify his matter so that it may be intelligible to a young audience. The last book is an extension of a similar course of lectures. Papers by Bragg will also be found in the Philosophical Magazine, in the Transactions of the Royal Society, and elsewhere. Some of his addresses were published separately as pamphlets. He also wrote with his son The Crystalline State, 1933. He was a strong exponent of the value of scientific research, was a member of the advisory council for scientific and industrial research from 1937, and here, as in the realm of pure science, his work was of the greatest value.

The Advertiser, Adelaide, 14 March 1942. The Times, 13 March 1942; Year Book of the Royal Society of London, 1939; Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, ser. A, vol. 181, p. 212; Debrett's Peerage, etc., 1940.

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BRAY, SIR JOHN COX (1842-1894),

premier of South Australia,

son of Thomas Cox Bray, a pioneer colonist, was born at Adelaide on 31 May 1842 (Aust. Ency.). He was educated at St Peter's College, Adelaide, and in England, and on returning to South Australia studied law. He was admitted to the South Australian bar in November 1870, but practised mostly as a solicitor. In December 1871 he was elected to the South Australian house of assembly for East Adelaide and continued to represent it for 20 years. In March 1875 he became minister of justice and education in the third Blyth (q.v.) ministry, which went out of office three months later. He was attorney-general in the first Colton (q.v.) ministry from June 1876, to October 1877. On 24 June 1881 Bray formed a ministry as premier and chief secretary, and remained in office until 16 June 1884, a record term for a South Australian ministry up to that date. Bray then paid a visit to England and the United States, and on his return joined the first Downer (q.v.) ministry as chief secretary in October 1885. He exchanged that position for the treasurership in June 1886. The ministry was defeated in June 1887 and in the following May Bray was elected speaker. He held this position with ability for about two years but declined renomination in 1890. On 19 August he joined the second Playford ministry as chief secretary, but resigned on 6 January 1892 to become agent-general for South Australia in London. Not long after his taking up his new duties he began to show signs of failing memory, his health slowly deteriorated, and in April 1894 he found it necessary to resign. He decided to return to Australia, but died at sea between Suez and Colombo on 13 June 1894. He married Alice Hornabrook, who survived him with two sons and a daughter. He was created K.C.M.G. in January 1890. Bray had a charming personality, always to be relied upon for a kind word or a helping hand. He was an excellent leader of the opposition, ready and good-tempered. He had only one term as premier though he was acting-premier during Downer's absence in 1887, and he cannot be credited with any outstanding legislation. He was, however, an excellent debater and an able and industrious administrator, and during the federation campaign was an active worker for it in South Australia.

The Advertiser, Adelaide, 18 June 1894; The South Australian Register, 18 June 1894; E. Hodder, The History of South Australia; Debrett's Peerage, etc., 1894.

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poet and scholar,

was the eldest son of Christopher Brennan, brewer, who had married Mary Ann Carroll. Both parents were Irish and both were in their twenties when C. J. Brennan was born at Sydney on 1 November 1870. He was educated at Riverview College and Sydney university, where he obtained honours in classics throughout his course and graduated with first-class honours in philosophy and the university gold medal. In 1891 he spent a year in teaching at Goulburn and in 1892, having taken his degree of M.A. with honours in philosophy, was awarded a travelling scholarship of £150 a year for two years and proceeded to the university of Berlin. There he did an enormous amount of reading in the classics,' English, French, German and Italian, and in 1893 his article "On the Manuscripts of Aeschylus" appeared in the Journal of Philology. He had long been working on this subject but other interests intervened and he returned from Berlin in July 1894 without having taken any additional degree. In 1895 he joined the staff of the public library at Sydney where he became assistant librarian. In 1897 XXI Poems 1893-1897 Towards the Source was published, and at intervals Brennan did a large amount of university work as substitute for the professors and lecturers in Latin, French and German, while they were away on leave. In 1908 he was appointed a lecturer in French and German and in the following year resigned from the public library. His work at the university was increasing with the growth in the number of students, and this partly accounted for the delay in the publication of his next and most important volume, Poems, which did not appear until December 1914, although the date on the title page is 1913 and nearly all the poems had been written 10 years earlier. Readers of discernment realized that a new poet of importance had appeared in Australia, but the book was published in a comparatively expensive form, there were no capitals at the beginnings of the lines, and the poems had no titles. When it is added that few of them could be fully appreciated on a first reading, it will easily be understood that the volume was not a popular success, and the first edition was still available more than 25 years after publication. In 1918 another volume, A Chant of Doom and other Verses, was published, a collection of verses written during the war. There is little poetry of real value in this volume. Brennan felt strongly about the war, his own brother was at the front, and only his age and physical condition prevented him from enlisting. He felt he should dedicate his pen to the Allies' cause, but it is probable that the poems would have been better if he had been able to wait until he could recollect his emotion in tranquillity.

In 1920 Brennan was appointed associate-professor of German and comparative literature at Sydney university. He had all the equipment for his work, but there were disturbing elements in his life. He had married in 1897 Anna Elizabeth Werth, and the marriage was unhappy. Brennan had never been able to lead a conventional life and he was now drinking to excess, which led to the neglect of his university work. When his wife brought a suit for judicial separation, the facts of the case came before the public, and the position of the university authorities was difficult. In 1925 Brennan had to resign. The university has been blamed, but A. R. Chisholm in his foreword to Hughes's book on Brennan, has pointed out that there were two sides of the case, and suggests that the real misfortune was that Brennan belonged to a country where the community makes no provision for a man of genius. Brennan for a time was in poverty but gradually the position improved. He succeeded to some extent in pulling himself together and was able to do coaching. A small Commonwealth literary pension was granted to him and he also obtained some teaching at schools. His last six years were not without happiness. He died on 7 October 1932, leaving a widow and two sons. Two daughters predeceased him. In 1938 Twenty-Three Poems, by Chris Brennan, was published by the Australian Limited Editions Society. This volume includes two poems from a manuscript source. Other poems remain in manuscript.

Brennan "stood six feet tall (with a scholar's stoop); fair and ruddy; with black-rusty hair, blue-grey eyes and a beak like Brennus the Raven" (A. G. Stephens). "He was essentially sociable, and though he loved a good dinner, with a bottle of wine . . . he loved them less in themselves than as essential accompaniments and stimulants of conversation. . . . My predominant image of Brennan is of a huge heavy amicable figure leaning back in an easy chair behind a haze of smoke" (H. M. Green). Randolph Hughes says of his mind, what impressed one most was "its capaciousness, its amplitude, the diversity of its dominion; then, its weightiness, its titanic laboriousness, without, however, anything that was awkwardly or ungracefully cumbersome--on the contrary, it was always well girt, alert, poised in delicate equilibrium, instantly efficient in all demands; but it was a mind clad in heavy panoply . . . carrying the maximum of equipment; it was not a darting skirmisher, and it moved powerfully, rather than nimbly; but move it did, and it moved very far, and it always had further horizons in sight". Those are the impressions of three men who knew Brennan personally, and one is left with the feeling why did he produce so little. In poetry, one volume only of importance, and for his scholarship, one article in the Journal of Philology and some in the Modern Language Review of Australia and the Bookfellow. His text-book From Blake to Arnold is a well-done piece of hack-work, and nothing else remains but a pleasant Mask published in 1913, which he wrote with J. le Gay Brereton (q.v.). It is possible that, as Hughes suggests, he fell between the stools of poetry, philosophy and exact scholarship, and what Brennan said of himself to Stephens towards the end of his life "I have been wild and weak and wilful and wayward" no doubt had more than a little to do with it. But when all is said, he was a great scholar. He ranks very high among the Australian poets; some of his admirers do not hesitate to give him first place. He has been called obscure, but that is seldom true, and his best poems have few difficulties for the intelligent reader. Both Hughes and Green, in their volumes on Brennan, devote space to the consideration of his use of metre and his symbolism. His metre is used with freedom, as most poets have used it from Shakespeare onwards, and though an occasional elision is necessary when reading it aloud, the rhythm is always sufficiently apparent. Of his symbolism, probably too much has been made; he was a symbolist as many poets are, but the influence of Mallarmé and his school has been exaggerated.

A. G. Stephens, Chris Brennan; H. M. Green, Christopher Brennan; Randolph Hughes, C. J. Brennan, An Essay in Values; private information.

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BRENNAN, LOUIS (1852-1932),


son of Thomas Brennan, was born at Castlebar, Ireland, on 28 January 1852. He was taken to Melbourne by his parents in 1861, and a few years later was articled to Alexander Kennedy Smith, a well-known civil and mechanical engineer of the period. He conceived the idea of a dirigible torpedo in 1874, from observing that if a thread is pulled on a reel, the reel will move away. Brennan spent some years working out his invention, and received a grant of £700 from the Victorian government towards his expenses. In 1880 he went to England and brought his invention before the war office. Sir Andrew Clarke (q.v.) pointed out to the authorities the possibilities of the torpedo if used in the defence of harbours and narrow channels, and the patent was eventually bought for a sum believed to be over £100,000. In 1887 Brennan was appointed superintendent of the Brennan torpedo factory, and from 1896 to 1907, he was consulting engineer. He did much work on a mono-rail locomotive which was kept erect by the action of a gyrostat. From 1916 to 1919 Brennan served in the munitions inventions department. During the next seven years he was engaged by the air ministry in aircraft research work, and gave much time to the invention of a helicopter. The government spent a large sum on it, but in 1926 the air ministry gave up working on it, much to Brennan's disappointment.

In January 1932 he was knocked down by a motor car at Montreux, Switzerland, and died on the seventeenth of that month. He married in 1892, Anna Quinn, who died in 1931. He was survived by a son and a daughter. He was created C.B. in 1892.

The Times, 21 January 1932; The Argus, Melbourne, 21 January 1932; Who's Who, 1932; Debrett's Peerage, etc., 1931; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.

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BRERETON, JOHN LE GAY (1871-1933),

scholar and poet,

was born at Sydney on 2 September 1871. His father, John Le Gay Brereton (1827-1886), was a well-known Sydney physician who published five volumes of verse between 1857 and 1887. The younger Brereton was educated at Sydney Grammar School and at the university of Sydney, where he graduated B.A. in 1894. He was in the office of the government statistician for some years, but in 1902 was appointed assistant librarian at the university of Sydney, and librarian a few years later. He published in 1896 Perdita, A Sonnet Record, and The Song of Brotherhood and Other Verses. These were followed in 1897 by Sweetheart Mine: Lyrics of Love and Friendship and by Landlopers in 1899, mostly prose, based on a walking tour with Dowell O'Reilly (q.v.). The verse in Brereton's earlier volumes though pleasant enough was not very distinguished, but Sea and Sky, which appeared in 1908, contained stronger work. In 1909 his volume Elizabethan Drama Notes and Studies proclaimed him a scholar of unusual ability and knowledge, and his studies in this period stimulated him to write his one-act play in blank verse Tomorrow A Dramatic Sketch of the Character and Environment of Robert Greene. This is possibly the best Australian poetical play of its period, and has the merit belonging to comparatively few Australian plays that it is actable. The war of 1914-18 led to a slender volume of verse published in 1919. The Burning Marl, dedicated to "All who have fought nobly". In 1921 he was appointed professor of English literature at the university of Sydney. A volume of poems, Swags Up, appeared in 1928, and in 1930 a collection of his prose articles and stories was published under the title of Knocking Round. The sketches of Henry Lawson (q.v.) and Dowell O'Reilly are of particular interest. His edition of Lust's Dominion or the Lascivious Queen was published at Louvain in 1931. It was in the press in 1914 and it was long supposed that the book had perished during the destruction of Louvain. So Long, Mick! a short one-act play in prose, was also published in 1931. Brereton died suddenly on 2 February 1933. He married in 1900 Winifred Odd, who survived him with a daughter and four sons.

Brereton was tall and angular, with the complexion of a man who always went hatless and lived much in the open air. He was inclined to be a mystic and had a beautiful simplicity of character. As an Elizabethan scholar his only rival in Australia was E. H. C. Oliphant (q.v.). His prose work was interesting and sensitive, and the best of his verse gives him an assured place among Australian poets. He was entirely unselfish and did much for Lawson when he was most in need of friends. His kindness, indeed, was extended to all with whom he came in contact. The number of budding authors who sent him manuscripts must have run into hundreds, and if there were but a gleam of talent, the writer could be sure of appreciation and helpful criticism.

Sydney Morning Herald, 3 February 1933; The Bulletin, 8 February 1933; H. M. Green, An Outline of Australian Literature; Who's Who, 1933.

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was born at Greenock, Scotland, on 18 February 1861. His father, who was a captain in the royal navy, came of an Essex family, his mother was an Australian, the daughter of Charles Throsby of Moss Vale, New South Wales. The boy was educated in the Isle of Wight and afterwards at the royal naval school at Greenwich, and at the Canadian military college at Kingston, where he graduated. His father having left Canada to go to Australia, Bridges followed him and obtained a position in the New South Wales roads and bridges department. In 1885 he was given a commission in the permanent artillery, and was placed in charge of the Middle Head fort at Sydney where he continued to study his profession. He served as a major of artillery in the South African war, and was in several actions before being invalided to Australia, following typhoid. He became chief of intelligence in 1905, was promoted colonel in 1906, and visited Canada and Europe on military duty. He was appointed chief of the general staff at headquarters and Commonwealth representative on the Imperial general staff in London in 1909. In the following year Kitchener reported on a system of defence for Australia, and recommended that a military college should be established. A site for it was found at Duntroon, Federal Territory, Bridges was placed in charge with the rank of brigadier-general, and after he had visited the leading military colleges in Europe, the college was opened in 1911. In less than four years he made it one of the finest military colleges in the world (The Times, 24 May 1915). He was devoted to it, watching every detail and yet keeping the general lines of the organization firm and true.

When the 1914-18 war broke out Bridges, who was then inspector-general of the Commonwealth military forces, was given the command of the 1st Australian division with the rank of major-general. He got together a magnificent staff; no fewer than 11 of its members were generals before the end of the war. The transports left Australia on 1 November 1914 and arrived at Port Said almost exactly a month later. The formation of the Australian and New Zealand forces into an army corps under Major-general Birdwood began at once, with Bridges as commander of the Australian Imperial Forces, and training was carried on steadily in the desert near Cairo. In April 1915 the troops sailed for Gallipoli and at the landing on 25 April, Bridges himself went ashore early in the day and made his headquarters in a gully. There was much confusion, plans had been altered, it was difficult to get in touch with commanders, and when this was achieved there was a constant demand for reinforcements. Bridges remained cool, apportioned his reserves where they seemed most needed, and resisted the views that began to be advanced that the wisest course would be to evacuate the troops. But the weight of opinion grew so great that he asked General Birdwood to come ashore for a conference. Birdwood was as little inclined to take this course as Bridges, but the matter was referred to Sir Ian Hamilton, who decided that the troops must dig in and hold on. This was done, and in the following days Bridges paid particular attention to the question of bringing Australian artillery fire on the Turkish position. It was, however, found almost impossible to do this effectively. On 15 May, while visiting a section where much sniping was prevalent, Bridges was severely wounded in the thigh by a bullet. He was taken to a hospital ship, and died on 18 May 1915 (Off. Hist. of Aust. in the War, vol. I, p. 22). He married Edith Lilian, daughter of D. Francis, who survived him. He had no children. He was created C.M.G. in 1909 and was gazetted K.C.B. the day before his death.

Bridges was a tall, loosely-built man, a great student, with an inexorable sense of discipline and much driving force. He was fearless and expected others to be fearless too, he did not like opposition, he could not easily unbend, and he never sought publicity. A few men found that he could be a good companion and friend, but in general he was more admired than loved by both officers and men. He was a great soldier, and had he survived might possibly have proved himself the greatest Australian soldier of his time.

The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 May 1915; The Times, 24 May 1915; C. E. W. Bean, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-18, vols. I and II; Journal of the Royal Military College of Australia, August 1915; Burke's Peerage, etc., 1915.

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painter in water-colours,

son of Thomas Brierly, was born at Chester, England, on 19 May 1817. He studied painting at an art school in London, and in 1841 started on a voyage to Australia with Benjamin Boyd (q.v.) in his yacht Wanderer, which reached Sydney on 18 July 1842. He was employed by Boyd as a manager at Twofold Bay for some years, then went to Sydney and in 1848 joined H.M.S. Rattlesnake on its surveying voyage to north-east Australia. In 1850 he went on a voyage to the Pacific in H.M.S. Macander and subsequently to England, which was reached in July 1851. In that year he married Sarah, daughter of Edmund Fry, and in 1854 he joined the British fleet during the war with Russia. He sent several sketches of allied operations to the Illustrated London News, and was thus one of the earliest war artists. At the conclusion of the war he was invited by Queen Victoria to make sketches of the great naval review from the deck of the royal yacht. In 1867 he joined H.M.S. Galatea as part of the suite with the Duke of Edinburgh, and again visited Australia. His name appears as part author of The Cruise of H.M.S. Galatea which was published in 1869, illustrated by him. After Brierley's return to England in 1868 an exhibition of sketches made during the voyage was held at South Kensington. He occasionally exhibited at the Royal Academy, and he also exhibited with the old water-colour society of which he became an associate in 1872, and a member in 1880. His first wife died in 1870, and in 1872 he married Louise Marie, daughter of Louis Huard. In 1874 he was appointed marine painter to the Queen, and in 1881 he became curator of the Painted Hall, Greenwich. He was knighted in 1885 and died at London on 14 December 1894. Brierly was a good looking man whose personality made him welcome wherever he went. He was an able without being a distinguished painter in water-colour, and is represented in the national galleries at Sydney and Melbourne, and in various Australian private collections.

The Times, 17 December 1894; The Art Journal, 1887, p. 129; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; Burke's Peerage, etc., 1894; Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.

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governor of New South Wales, and astronomer,

was born in Ayrshire, Scotland, on 23 July 1773. His father, Sir Thomas Brisbane, Bart., fought at Culloden, his mother was Eleonora, daughter of Sir William Bruce, Bart. He was educated by tutors and at the university of Edinburgh. In his seventeenth year he joined the army as an ensign, in 1793 was on active service in Belgium, and in 1796 in the West Indies. Returning to England in 1799 he held various positions and was appointed adjutant-general of the staff at Canterbury in 1810. He was a brigadier-general in the Duke of Wellington's peninsular army in 1812, was promoted to the rank of major-general in 1813, and went in command of a brigade to the United States in 1814. Recalled to England he was too late to fight at Waterloo, but was with the army of occupation until 1818. In November 1819 he married Anna Maria Makdougall. On 3 November 1820 he was advised that he had been appointed governor of New South Wales, and he arrived at Sydney on 7 November 1821.

Brisbane had always been interested in astronomy and in 1808 had erected an observatory near his house in Ayrshire. He brought with him to Australia two astronomical assistants, Karl Rümker (q.v.) and James Dunlop (q.v.), and while waiting for Macquarie to complete his final arrangements, interested himself in making astronomical observations. A few months later he built at Parramatta the first properly equipped Australian observatory. He took over the government on 1 December j821, and at once proceeded to carry out some of the reforms recommended in the report of J. T. Bigge (q.v.). It was unfortunate that Brisbane did not always receive loyal support from his administrative officers, and in particular from Frederick Goulburn, the colonial secretary. A reference to Brisbane's dispatch to Earl Bathurst dated 14 May 1825 will, however, show that Bigge's recommendations had been carefully considered, and that many improvements had been made (H.R. of A., vol. XI, pp. 571-88). Brisbane did not confine his attention to Bigge's report. Early in April 1822 he discovered with some surprise the ease with which grants of land had hitherto been obtained. He immediately introduced a new system under which every grant had the stipulation that for every hundred acres granted the grantee would maintain free of expense to the crown one convict labourer. He also encouraged agriculture on government land, with the result that not only were the convicts healthily employed, but they helped to pay for their own keep. More system was brought into the granting of tickets of leave and pardons. Generally Brisbane's administration had a good effect on the morality of the colony, as the number of persons convicted at the criminal court fell from 208 in 1822 to 100 in 1824. Another improvement made by Brisbane was the introduction in 1823 of a system of calling for supplies by tender. When Dr Wardell (q.v.) and Wentworth (q.v.) brought out their paper the Australian in 1824 Brisbane decided to try the experiment of allowing full latitude of the freedom of the press.

In 1824 an important step took place in the development of government in Australia by the appointment of a nominee council to assist the governor. Brisbane had no desire to be an autocrat and encouraged the development of the council by continually bringing matters before it for consideration. Improvements were also made in the constitution of the judicial courts, and a restricted form of trial by jury was introduced. One official piece of exploration carried out by John Oxley (q.v.) during Brisbane's administration eventually led to the colonization of Queensland, and the private expedition of Hamilton Hume (q.v.) and W. H. Hovell (q.v.) first drew attention to the possibilities of the colonization of what is now Victoria. Another important development was the encouragement of free immigration.

It is clear that Brisbane was doing useful work, but he could no more escape the effects of the faction fights that were constantly going on than could his predecessors. Henry G. Douglass, the assistant-surgeon, was the centre of one of the conflicts that was fought with great bitterness. Arising out of this, charges of various kinds against Brisbane were sent to England. The worst of these, that he had connived at sending female convicts to Emu plains for immoral purposes, was investigated by William Stewart, the lieutenant-governor, John Stephen, assistant judge, and the Rev. William Cowper (q.v.), senior assistant-chaplain, and found to be without the slightest foundation. Brisbane discovered that Goulburn, the colonial secretary, had been withholding documents from him and acting far too much on his own responsibility, and in 1824 reported his conduct to Earl Bathurst. In reply Bathurst recalled both the governor and the colonial secretary in dispatches dated 29 December 1824. Brisbane left Sydney in December 1825 and returned to Scotland. In 1826 he added the name of Makdougall before Brisbane, and settled down to the life of a country gentleman interested in science, his estate, and his regiment. In 1832 he was elected president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in succession to Sir Walter Scott, and in 1836 he was created a baronet. In the same year he was offered the command of the troops stationed in Canada and two years later the chief command in India, but declined both. He continued his astronomical researches, did valuable work, and died much respected and honoured on 27 January 1860. His four children predeceased him.

Brisbane was tall, handsome and benevolent-looking. He was sincerely religious, perfectly impartial, rational and far-seeing, an intellectual and scientific man and a patron of science. The only charge made against him that appears to have any foundation is that he left details to his subordinates. Some people would consider that to be the essence of government. There is no evidence for the suggestion that Brisbane's interest in his observatory caused him to neglect his official duties. When he found that Goulburn was not supporting him he brought the matter before the colonial office, which quite characteristically solved the question by recalling both officers without giving any reason for doing so. Brisbane did good work as a governor, and was the ideal man to be in that position when the first step from autocracy to responsible government was made by establishing the nominee council. He was the first patron of science in Australia, and as such was eulogized by Sir John Herschel when he presented Brisbane with the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1828. Oxford and Cambridge gave him the honorary degree of D.C.L., and he was elected a fellow of the Royal Societies of both London and Edinburgh. He was created K.C.B. in 1814 and G.C.B. in 1837.

Reminiscences of General Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, Edinburgh, 1860; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. X and XI; The Gentleman's Magazine, 1860, vol. I, p. 298; H. C. Russell, Report of First Meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 5-7; The Times, 1 February 1860.

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Anglican bishop of Tasmania,

son of the Rev. J. H. Bromby and brother of Dr J. E. Bromby (q.v.), was born at Hull, England, on 11 July 1814. He was educated at Uppingham School and St John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1837 with third-class honours in classics, M.A. in 1840 and D.D. in 1864. He was a curate at Chesterfield from 1838-9, and then headmaster of Stepney Grammar School. In 1843 he was appointed vicar of St Paul's, Cheltenham, and was joint-founder and principal of the Cheltenham training college for teachers from 1843 to 1864. He published in 1846 The Sorrows of Bethany and other Sermons, which was followed by The Pupil Teacher's English Grammar (1848), and a volume on Liturgy and Church History (1852). The third edition of this appeared in 1862 under the title of Church Students' Manual. In 1864 he was appointed bishop of Tasmania, the last Australian bishop nominated by the crown, and was consecrated in Canterbury cathedral. In 1868, when the question of the abolishing of state aid to religion was dealt with, Bromby was largely responsible for the passing of the commutation act which resulted in the Church of England in Tasmania receiving about £60,000 as a perpetual endowment instead of the former yearly payments. Early in 1869 a contract was made for the building of the nave of St David's cathedral, and the cathedral was consecrated in 1874. In 1880 Bromby visited England, and in 1882 resigned his see. His episcopate was marked by the building of several new churches and a great increase in the number of clergy.

On Bromby's return to England he became rector of Shrawardine-cum-Montford (1882-1887), and assistant-bishop of Lichfield (1882-1891). He was also warden of St John's Hospital, Lichfield (1887-1891). He then became assistant bishop to the bishop of Bath and Wells until he resigned in 1900 at the age of 86. Henceforth he lived in retirement with his son, Canon Bromby, at Clifton, and died there on 14 April 1907. In addition to the works mentioned Bromby published several sermons and addresses in pamphlet form. He married in 1839 Mary Anne, daughter of Dr Bodley of Brighton, and there were several children. The eldest son, Henry Bodley Bromby (1840-1911), was educated at Cheltenham College and Jesus College, Cambridge, where he was a good all round athlete representing his college at cricket, football and rowing. He was ordained deacon in 1864 and went with his father to Tasmania. He became dean of Hobart in 1876 and exercised influence for good on the church life of Tasmania. He was, however, a churchman and came into conflict with the extreme section of those opposed to his views. He resigned in 1884, returned to England, worked at St Bartholomew's Smithfield, and in 1885 was offered the parish of Bethnal Green. He was there until 1892 when he became incumbent of All Saints, Clifton, where he had full scope for his unusually sympathetic and understanding powers. "It was the ceaseless sympathy--for all the woes and sins of his flock that led multitudes to his feet as a father confessor" (memoir by J. H. B. Mace). The consequent over-work eventually led to a breakdown of health and he died on 21 December 1911. His brother, Charles Hamilton Bromby (1843-1904), was educated at Cheltenham College, and St Edmund Hall, Oxford. He was called to the bar in 1867, went to Tasmania, and was elected a member of the house of assembly. He was attorney-general in the Reibey (q.v.) ministry from July 1876 to August 1877. He returned to England in 1879 and practised as a barrister until his death on 24 July 1904. He was a well-known Chaucer and Dante scholar and published a translation of Dante's Quaestia de Aqua et Terra in 1897. He edited the third edition of E. Spike's Law of Master and Servant in 1872, and his Alkibiades, A Tale of the great Athenian War was posthumously published in 1905.

The Times, 16 April 1907, 27 July 1904; The Mercury, Hobart, 18 April 1907; J. H. B. Mace, Henry Bodley Bromby, A Memoir; Crockford's Clerical Directory, 1907.

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BROMBY, JOHN EDWARD (1809-1889),

schoolmaster and divine,

son of the Rev. J. H. Bromby and brother of C. H. Bromby (q.v.), was born at Hull, England, on 23 May 1809. He was educated at Hull Grammar School, Uppingham, and St John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated ninth wrangler and third in the second class of the classical tripos in 1832. He was elected a fellow of St .John's College, and was ordained deacon in 1834 and priest in 1836. He was appointed second master at Bristol College and then for some years conducted a private school at Clifton. From 1847 to 1854 he was principal of Elizabeth College, Guernsey, was university preacher at Cambridge in 1850, when he obtained the degree of D.D., and after 1854 was curate for two or three years to his father at Hull. He was then appointed headmaster of the newly founded Church of England Grammar School at Melbourne, where he arrived in February 1858. The school opened on 7 April 1858 with 86 students and the number of boys soon began to grow rapidly. There were nearly 200 at the school in 1861 and it prospered for many years. About 1871 the numbers began to fall off, partly on account of the foundation of other secondary schools, and in 1874, feeling that it might be for the benefit of the school to have a younger headmaster, Bromby resigned and was succeeded by E. E. Morris (q.v.). He was appointed incumbent of St Paul's, Melbourne, in 1877 and held this position until his death. On the completion of his seventy-fifth year in 1884 he was presented with an address and £1000. He died at Melbourne on 4 March 1889. He was married twice and was survived by his second wife and two sons and three daughters of the first marriage. He was the author of a volume of Sermons an the Earlier Chapters of Genesis, and several of his lectures and sermons were published as pamphlets.

Bromby was a just and good headmaster, who encouraged games and relied more on a good moral tone than strict discipline. But though his personal influence was great, he was not a good man of business, and he could scarcely be called a great headmaster. He was for many years a member of the council of the university of Melbourne, and was its first warden of the senate. As a clergyman, though he claimed to belong to no school, he was in sympathy with the broad church section of the Church of England, and was one of the best preachers of his period, scholarly and fearless in his independence of thought, with a pleasant voice and delivery. Though apparently somewhat reserved and austere, he was really thoroughly kindly in his disposition, and was a good conversationalist, with much appreciation of wit and humour.

The Argus, 5 March 1889; The Church of England Messenger, 5 April 1889; Liber Melburniensis, 1937; H. Willoughby, The Critic in Church.

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was born at Dublin on 25 April 1818. His father, Gustavus Brooke, was a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, his mother was Frances, daughter of Matthew Bathurst. He was educated at a school at Edgeworthstown under Lovell Edgeworth, a brother of the novelist Maria Edgeworth, and afterwards at Dublin at a school kept by the Rev. William Jones. There he showed talent in a school play, and when he was allowed to see Macready perform in Dublin in March 1832 he resolved that he must go on the stage. He interviewed Calcraft, the manager of the Dublin Theatre, and early in 1833 on account of the failure of Edmund Kean to fulfil his engagement at Dublin, Brooke was given an opportunity to appear in the part of William Tell. He was billed as "a young gentleman under 14 years of age" (he was really almost 15) and played with some success. Other appearances followed as Virginius and Young Norval. In October 1834 he appeared at the Royal Victoria Theatre, London, as Virginius with little success. He was in the provinces for three years, and then played a season at Dublin in October 1837. He had a qualified success, which was followed by a more successful season at Belfast in January 1838. He continued to play in the provinces and in Ireland, and in 1841 accepted an engagement with Macready's company in London, but finding himself cast for a small part declined to play. He returned to the provinces and refused several offers of parts in London before his appearance as Othello at the Olympic Theatre in 1848. During the intervening six years he had successful seasons at Manchester, Liverpool and other large towns, among his characters being Richard III, Romeo, Macbeth, Virginius, Hamlet, Othello, Iago and Brutus. He played Othello to Macready's Iago at Manchester. Later on he was with Edwin Forrest, and in October 1846 took the part of Romeo at Dublin to the Juliet of Helen Faucit. Other parts played with her included Claude Melnotte, Orlando, Hamlet, Macbeth, Richard III, Sir Giles Overreach, Leontes and Faulconbridge. On 3 January 1848 Brooke had a triumphant success as Othello at the Olympic Theatre, London. In the same season his rendering of Sir Giles Overreach was pronounced by one critic as not falling far short of Edmund Kean's, and more than one writer called him the greatest tragedian of the day. Brooke, however, did not have the temperament to make the best use of his success. He was not a man of business and was drinking more than was good for him. After playing for some time in the country his magnificent voice began to fail, and in 1850 he was obtaining advice from a London specialist who would not allow him to appear more than once or twice a week. However, in November of that year he was playing with Helen Faucit again and drawing crowded houses. In October 1851 he was married to Marianne Bray. In December 1851 he went to America, and during the next 18 months had much success. On his return to England he played several of his old parts at Drury Lane, and for the first time, Macbeth, with such success that he not only re-established his own reputation but saved the fortunes of the theatre. In 1854 he met George Coppin (q.v.) and agreed to go to Australia. He left at the end of November and arrived at Melbourne on 22 February 1855. He stayed in Australia for more than six years. When he arrived he had a repertoire of some 40 characters, and before he left he had almost doubled the number. His voice had regained its beauty, his art had matured. Probably he did his best work while in Australia. The critics were unanimous in placing him as one of the great actors of all time, although occasional failures were admitted, Romeo being one of his less successful characters. He excelled particularly in tragedy, but also played comedy and Irish parts with success. In early life he was careless about money matters, but in Australia for a time lived comparatively carefully, and while in partnership with Coppin at one time thought himself to be a rich man. But his ventures were not always successful. He eventually lost everything, and unfortunately began drinking again. On his return to England about the middle of 1861 he played a season at Drury Lane, beginning in October with so little success that at its conclusion he found himself in financial difficulties. In February he married Avonia Jones, a young actress of considerable ability whom he had met in Australia. Unfortunately his dissipated habits continued and he was often in great difficulties. His wife, who had been away playing an engagement in America, got in touch with George Coppin, then on a visit to England, who offered him an engagement for two years in Australia. Brooke pulled himself together to play a farewell season at Belfast, and his last performance as Richard III on 23 December 1865 was enthusiastically received. He left Plymouth for Australia on 1 January 1866 in the S.S. London which went down in a storm ten days later. Brooke toiled bravely at the pumps of the sinking vessel, and when all hope was gone was seen standing composedly by the companion way. As the only surviving boat pulled away he called "Give my last farewell to the people of Melbourne". His wife, who felt his loss keenly died of consumption in the following October.

Brooke was five feet ten in height, of good figure, and handsome in feature. He had a beautiful voice and much fire and passion, but depending too much upon the emotion of the moment his performances tended to vary from night to night, and he did not always do himself justice. At his best he played upon his audience with a master hand, and no other actor ever had such a reputation in Australia. An excellent suggestion of his powers both as a tragedian and a comedian will be found in an article by James Smith (q.v.) in The Cyclopedia of Victoria, vol. III, p. 26.

W. J. Lawrence, The Life of Gustavus Vaughan Brooke; J. W. Marston, Our Recent Actors; The Cyclopedia of Victoria, vol. III; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography.

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first Anglican bishop in Australia,

son of Grant Broughton and his wife Phoebe Ann, daughter of John Rumball, was born at Bridge-street, Westminster, on 22 May 1788. He was educated at the Barnet Grammar School and King's School, Canterbury, where he was a King's scholar. He gained an exhibition at Cambridge university and wished to qualify for the church. His father, however, had died, and it was necessary that he should earn his own living, and through the influence of the Marquis of Salisbury he obtained a clerkship in the East India House in 1807. In October 1814, having in the meanwhile received a bequest of £1000 from a relative, he decided to go to Cambridge, and entered at Pembroke College. He graduated B.A. in 1818 (6th wrangler), and M.A. in 1823. He was ordained deacon and priest in 1818, and was given the curacy of Hartley Wespall, Hampshire. During the next few years Broughton did some scholarly work, and in 1823 published his An Examination of the Hypothesis--that the Text of the Elzevir Greek Testament is not a Translation from the Latin. This was followed in 1826 by A Letter to a Friend touching the Question "Who was the Author of Eikon Basilike?", and in 1829 by Additional Reasons in Confirmation of the Opinion that Dr Gauden and not King Charles the First was the Author of Eikon Basilike. He was transferred to the parish of Farnham in Surrey in 1827. While in Hampshire he had come under the notice of the Duke of Wellington who obtained his appointment to the chaplaincy of the Tower of London in 1828. He could hardly have taken up this position before, in October of that year, again through the Duke of Wellington, he was offered the archdeaconry of New South Wales at a salary of £2000 a year. After a week's consideration he accepted the position, sailed for Sydney on 26 May 1829, and arrived there on 13 September.

Immediately Broughton arrived in Australia he was appointed a member of the legislative council and of the executive council. The population of New South Wales was then about 36,000 of whom nearly half were convicts. There were eight churches and 12 clergymen, and Broughton lost little time before making a visitation of the country centres. On 3 December he delivered his first charge to his clergy, and in February 1830 went to Tasmania and visited the parishes there. Before starting on this journey he had drawn up a "Plan for the Formation and Regulation of the King's Schools Preparatory to the institution of a College in New South Wales". This provided for a school for day boys in Sydney and another for day boys and boarders at Parramatta. The plan was submitted to Governor Darling (q.v.) and the eventual result was the founding of the well-known King's School at Parramatta which was opened on 13 February 1832. The history of this school, published in 1932, speaks of Broughton as "the virtual founder of the King's School". The questions of a vigorous educational policy and the need of more clergy were continually in his mind, and in November 1832 Broughton applied for leave of absence to enable him to visit England and bring his views before the colonial authorities. Leave was granted and he left for England about the end of March 1834. He was not successful in obtaining any help from the imperial revenue, but the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel undertook to contribute the sum of £4000, which encouraged Broughton very much. While in England the question of appointing a bishop for Australia had again been raised. Governor Bourke (q.v.) had suggested it in a dispatch dated 11 March 1834, and in a dispatch dated 30 November 1835 Bourke was informed that the suggestion was being carried into effect and that Broughton had been nominated to the new see. He arrived at Sydney on 2 June 1836, and was installed at St James church three days later under the title of bishop of Australia. In 1838 he visited Port Phillip and Tasmania, and at the end of that year took ship to New Zealand to visit the missions there. In January 1839 he went to Norfolk Island and soon after returned to Sydney. He found that the education question had again been raised and that it was proposed to grant £3000 a year for schools available for Protestants, and that £1000 should be granted to Roman Catholic schools. Broughton made a speech that took two hours to deliver and at its conclusion the proposals were withdrawn. His opposition was not only on account of the proposed grant to the Roman Catholics. He felt strongly that the attempt to provide religious instruction for children of the Church of England with those of the various sects of English nonconformity was fallacious in principle and impossible in practice. There is but one step he said "from the persuasion that all forms of religion are alike, to the more fatal persuasion that all religions are unimportant".

During the years between 1840 and 1850 Broughton's efforts were largely directed to encouraging the building of churches and parsonages throughout New South Wales. A small divinity school for the training of clergy was also at Sydney, and a suggestion Broughton had made during his visit to England came to fruition. In 1848 St Augustine's College, Canterbury, was opened, and began a great career as a training school for the ministry in missionary dioceses. In Australia the building of St Andrew's cathedral, Sydney, was begun, and by 1850 the nave and aisles were nearly completed. The discovery of gold in 1851 so disorganized the colony that much of the work on the cathedral had to be postponed, and the building was not ready for use for many years.

Broughton had long felt the need for the subdivison of his enormous diocese and frequently raised the question in letters to England. Tasmania was made a separate diocese in 1842, and Broughton offered to give tip half his income towards the provision of bishops for Melbourne and Newcastle. He was allowed to contribute £500 a year and in 1847 bishops were appointed for Melbourne, Adelaide and Newcastle. Broughton became bishop of Sydney. In 1850 a conference of the six bishops of Australia and New Zealand was held at Sydney, a second conference followed in 1852, and at each the question of a constitution for the Church of England in Australia was fully considered. On 16 August 1852 Broughton left for England in connexion with some of the constitutional issues that had been raised. He went by steamer to Panama, and crossing the isthmus joined the West Indian mailboat which had a most unfortunate voyage, the captain and several members of the crew dying of yellow fever. Broughton was himself very ill and never completely recovered. In January 1853 he was working hard interviewing the Archbishop of Canterbury and many others in connexion with his mission. He was invited to preach at St Paul's cathedral but his medical advisers ruled against it. In February he became seriously ill and he died at London On 20 February 1853. He was buried in Canterbury cathedral and a Broughton scholarship at St Augustine's College, Canterbury, and two Broughton prizes at The King's School, Parramatta, were founded in his memory. In addition to the books already mentioned his Sermons on the Church of England was published in 1857, and many of his sermons and charges were published separately. He married in 1818 Sarah Francis, who died in 1848. He was survived by two daughters who both married in Australia.

Broughton was short and slender and as a result of an accident in his undergraduate days walked with a limp. He was extremely conscientious and hardworking, a good business man, somewhat autocratic in the management of his diocese, yet humble about his own ability. As a preacher he was logical rather than eloquent. He appears to have been a moderately high churchman; he was accused by two of his clergy of desiring to Romanize his church, but he was a vigorous fighter against the claims of the Roman Catholic Church, and he would have nothing to do with Pusey's defence of the attempt to reconcile the articles of the Church of England with the teachings of the Roman Church. He fought hard but without success for the retention of the "established" status of his Church in Australia, but outside his Church he was in no sense a party man, and was always interested in any movement that seemed likely to lead to the social advantage of the colonists.

F. T. Whitington, William Grant Broughton Bishop of Australia; S. M. Johnstone, The History of the King's School, Parramatta; J. R. Tanner, The Historical Register of the University of Cambridge, p. 479; H. R. Luard, Graduati Cantabrigiensis; Historical Records of Australia, vols. XV to XXI, XXIII to XXVI; P. A. Micklem, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XXII, pp. 190-202.

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BROWN, GEORGE (1835-1917),


son of George Brown, barrister, was born at Barnard Castle, Durham, England, on 7 December 1835. He was educated at a private school and on leaving, became an assistant in a doctors surgery, was afterwards with a chemist, and then in a draper's shop. He was, however, anxious to go to sea, and when 16 years old sailed in a large East Indiaman chartered by the government as a troop-ship. After going to the Mediterranean it went to Quebec. There Brown had an accident and broke his leg, providentially in his case, as the vessel was lost with all hands on her next voyage. After a short stay in Canada Brown returned to England but could not settle down. In March 1855 he sailed for New Zealand, among the other passengers being Bishop Selwyn and the Rev. J. C. Patteson, afterwards bishop of Melanesia. He joined Patteson's bible class, but "could not remember receiving any great spiritual benefit at that time". Landing at Auckland he went to Onehunga where he was kindly received by an uncle and aunt, the Rev. T. and Mrs Buddle. Under their influence he experienced a conversion and became a local preacher. In 1859 he decided to offer himself as a missionary to Fiji, and at the Sydney Methodist conference of 1860 was appointed. On 2 August he was married to Miss S. L. Wallis, daughter of the Rev. James Wallis. They left next month for Sydney where Brown was ordained, and going on to Samoa, arrived on 30 October.

When Brown began his work most of the natives were already professing Christians, and he immediately set to work building churches and mission houses and attending to the education of the children. He quickly learned the language, and every condition seemed favourable, but there was one disturbing feature. Germany was extending her influence in the islands, and some of her traders far from trying to keep the peace were selling arms and ammunition to the natives. One day war broke out between the natives of an adjoining district and those of his own centre, and Brown immediately hastened to place himself between the contending parties, and sat for the remainder of the day in the sun trying to make a truce between them. In this he was not successful and there was much fighting for some time. Brown, however, became a great figure among the Samoans. His varied experiences as a youth in the doctor's surgery and chemist's shop helped him in the simple doctoring of native ills, and his career as a sailor had taught him many things which were useful to him. His mastery of the language was a great asset, and his human charity helped much in all his relations with both the natives and the white beachcombers living on the islands. He left Samoa in 1874 with the intention of being transferred to New Britain and New Ireland, and travelled through Australia appealing for funds. In August 1875 Brown went to the New Britain group of islands and began his work there. In the early days he was constantly in danger of losing his life, as he worked among cannibalistic natives who were constantly fighting among themselves. Gradually he succeeded in winning his way among them, and after about a year had passed, the situation was so much better that his wife could join him. He was there a little more than five years and returned to Sydney in the beginning of 1881. During the next six years he was engaged in deputation and circuit work. He also wrote a series of anonymous articles in the Sydney Morning Herald dealing with the necessity of British control of the islands of the Pacific. He was thoroughly familiar with German methods, and was convinced that they constituted a menace both to the natives and the world in general. In 1887 he was appointed secretary of the board of missions of the Methodist Church and held this position for many years. In the following year he was appointed a special commissioner to report on the position in Tonga, where there had been serious trouble for some years during the premiership of S. W. Baker (q.v.). He was able to speak the language of the natives and gather evidence for himself. He compiled a comprehensive and valuable series of Reports by the Rev. George Brown, Special Commissioner of the Australasian Wesleyan Methodist General Conference to Tonga, printed at Sydney in 1890. He continued for many years to keep in touch with missionary work in Papua, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomons, Samoa, Fiji and Tonga. In the islands in the German sphere of influence he had to walk warily, but his knowledge and experience were of the greatest value not only to his own church but to the British government. He resigned his position of general secretary of missions in 1907, and in the following year brought out his autobiography George Brown, D.D., Pioneer-missionary and Explorer. In 1910 he published Melanesians and Polynesians Their Life-histories Described and Compared, a valuable record of the manners, customs and folklore of the islanders written by a man who had spent much of his time among them over a period of 48 years, and who was familiar with the Samoan, Tongan, Fijian and New Britain languages. He died at Sydney on 7 April 1917. His wife survived him with two sons and three daughters. In addition to the books already mentioned Brown was the author of various pamphlets and articles, and was associated with the Rev. B. Danks in the preparation of a Dictionary of the Duke of York Language New Britain Group.

Brown as a young man belonged to the type that is always seeking adventure. Yet when he offered himself as a missionary it was feared he was too meek and mild, too wanting in spirit to be a suitable candidate. Yet this was the man who in 1875 went to the New Hebrides with his life in his hands, and in 1878 led a punitive expedition against a cannibal chief responsible for the massacre of Christian native teachers. He was essentially brave, honest, broad minded and sympathetic, much loved by his brother missionaries, everywhere respected and trusted by traders, officials and governors. He was a fine linguist and excellent ethnologist, who had a great influence for good throughout the Pacific islands.

George Brown, D.D., Pioneer-missionary and Explorer, an Autobiography; C. Brunsdon Fletcher, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society vol. VII, pp. 1-54; C. Brunsdon Fletcher, The New Pacific; The Sydney Morning Herald, 9 April 1917.

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son of R. Brown, F.G.S., London, was born at Sydney, Nova Scotia, on 23 August 1844. Educated at King's College, Nova Scotia, and the Royal School of Mines, London, he came to Australia in 1865 to work on the geological survey of Victoria under A. R. C. Selwyn (q.v.) In 1869 he went to New Zealand as a goldfields surveyor, but in 1870 received a two years' engagement as government geologist of Western Australia. During this period Brown prepared a geological map of the colony, did exploratory work which included the discovery of the Weld Range, and drilled the first artesian bore hole near Perth. For many years after, artesian bores were an important part of the Perth water-supply. After private practice in Victoria and New Zealand he was on the geological survey of Canada for two years, and then returned to Australia. In 1881 he was appointed assistant-geological surveyor of New South Wales, but in December 1882 became government geologist of South Australia, and held the position for 29 years.

Brown did an immense amount of exploring of remote country, often with only an Afghan or aboriginal assistant. He knew the country between the Queensland border and Western Australia probably better than any other man of his time, and his geological map of South Australia, which appeared in 1899 was a notable achievement. His reports on mineral claims, were always cautious and sober, he would do nothing that would encourage wild-cat schemes. He was equally esteemed by his ministerial heads and the prospectors whom he was always willing to advise. Among his most notable achievements was the fixing of the limits of the artesian basin in the centre of Australia, and the discovering of sites for bores. He married in 1911 Hannah M., daughter of John Thompson, and retired in the same year. He died at Adelaide on 22 January 1928 leaving a widow and a daughter.

The Advertiser, Adelaide, 24 January 1928; The Register, Adelaide, 24 January 1928; Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia, vol. 52; E. W. Skeats, Some Founders of Australian Geology.

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BROWN, ROBERT (1773-1858),


was born at Montrose, Scotland, on 21 December 1773, the second son of the Rev. James Brown, Episcopalian minister at Montrose, and Helen, daughter of the Rev. Robert Taylor. He was educated at the Grammar School at Montrose, and in 1787 was entered at Marischal College, Aberdeen. He obtained a Ramsay bursary but two years later transferred to Edinburgh university intending to do a medical course. Having developed an interest in botany he wrote a paper for the Natural History Society before he was 18. In 1795 he obtained a commission in a Fifeshire regiment as ensign and assistant-surgeon, and remained in the army until December 1800, when he received a letter from Sir Joseph Banks (q.v.) offering him the position of botanist to the expedition for surveying the coast of New Holland under Captain Matthew Flinders (q.v.). He resigned his commission and on 18 July 1801 sailed with Flinders in the Investigator, and accompanied him on all his voyages until Flinders left for England on the Porpoise in August 1803. Brown remained at Sydney to continue his researches, and paid visits to Kent's Group in Bass Strait, Port Dalrymple (Launceston), Port Phillip and Hobart, where he arrived with Colonel Collins (q.v.) in February 1804. He left for England in June 1805 and arrived at Liverpool on 13 October. Unfortunately a large number of his best botanical specimens was lost in the wreck of the Porpoise, but in spite of this he was able to bring to Europe about 3000 species (H.R. of N.S. W., vol. VI, p. 11 ). Soon after his arrival he became librarian to the Linnean Society, and in 1810 published the first volume of his Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen, which was followed by various other publications including his General Remarks Geographical and Systematical on the Botany of Terra Australis, printed as appendix No. III to Flinders's Voyage to Terra Australis. Towards the end of 1810 he had been appointed librarian to Sir Joseph Banks and in 1811 he was made a fellow of the Royal Society. Sir Joseph Banks died in 1820 and left Brown the use of his house, library and collections for the rest of his life. In 1827 the collections were transferred to the British Museum, Brown was appointed keeper of the botanical collections there, and held this office for the remainder of his days. In 1839 he received the Copley medal from the Royal Society, and in 1849 he was elected president of the Linnean Society. His name was renowned not only in the scientific societies of Great Britain but also on the continent as one of the greatest of botanists. The author of the obituary notice in the Proceedings of the Royal Society said of his writings: "The pervading and distinguishing character is to be found in the combination of the minutest accuracy of detail with the most comprehensive generalization." He died on 10 June 1858.

Personally Brown was a man of the finest character. He was very modest, and his apparent reserve only hid his real kindliness. His simple-mindedness, devotion to truth, excellent judgment and sense of humour, made him a wise councillor and endeared him to his many friends. Towards the end of his life he was given a civil list pension of £200 a year. His Miscellaneous Botanical Works were collected and published by the Ray Society in three volumes, 1866-8.

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. IX, p. 527; J. H. Maiden, Sir Joseph Banks; Historical Records of New South Wales, vols. V and VI; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. IV and V.

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son of James Brown, was born at Mintaro, South Australia, on 29 March 1868. He was educated at Stanley Grammar School, Watervale, South Australia, and after teaching for a while in state schools, proceeded to St John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1890 with a double first class in the law tripos. He was called to the bar of the Middle Temple in 1891 and elected Macmahon student at St John's College in 1892. In 1893 he was appointed professor of law and modern history at the university of Tasmania and held this position until 1900, except that in 1898 he acted as professor of law in the university of Sydney. In that year he published as a pamphlet Why Federate, which had been read before the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. It was a critical year for the cause of federation, and Brown did good service in pointing out that the difficulties were mostly of a mechanical character. In 1899 appeared his thoughtful study The New Democracy, and in 1900 he left Australia to become professor of constitutional law and history at University College, London. In the following year he was appointed professor of comparative law at the University College of Wales. He was examiner for the Cambridge law tripos from 1902 to 1905, and for the university of London from 1905 to 1906. In 1906 he became professor of law at the university of Adelaide and held the position for 10 years. His The Austinian Theory of Law, an edition with critical notes and excursus of lectures I, V and VI of Austin's Jurisprudence and of his Essay on the Uses of the Study of Jurisprudence, was published in 1906 and has since been several times reprinted. In 1912 appeared The Underlying Principles of Modern Legislation, which was welcomed as a real contribution to political thought. The fifth edition appeared in April 1917. In this volume Brown points out that the likelihood of greatly increased state activity in the future throws a great responsibility on the teacher and the brains and character of the community; and that problems will arise that will demand enlightened statesmanship no less than reforming zeal. Brown did not attempt to set out his own view's on the settlements of particular problems. The book was planned as a university textbook, and he held that the writer in a book of that kind "ought to be careful in expressing personal opinions about problems of which the precise solution is very debatable". In his next volume The Prevention and Control of Monopolies, he is more constructive, but always endeavours to hold the scales evenly. In 1916 he was appointed president of the industrial court of South Australia and showed great industry, courtesy and ability in carrying out his duties. His experiences as chairman of the sugar commission in 1912-14 and on other occasions as chairman of the price regulations commission, the foodstuffs commission, and the gas commission, enabled. him to gain much knowledge of the conditions in industry. His health, however, began to fail and in July 1927 he resigned his position. He died at Adelaide of pneumonia on 27 May 1930. Brown held the LL.D. degree of Cambridge, and received the degree of Litt. D. from the university of Dublin for his The New Democracy. He married in 1900 Aimée Loth who survived him with a son. In addition to the works mentioned, Brown contributed a long essay "The judicial Regulation of Industrial Conditions" to Australia, Economic and Political Studies, edited by Meredith Atkinson. He also wrote largely for the reviews, including the Law Quarterly Review, the Hibbert Journal, the International Journal of Ethics, the Westminster Review, the Independent Review, the Juridical Review, the Columbia Law Review, and the Yale Law Journal.

The Advertiser. Adelaide, 27 July 1927, 28 May 1930; The Register News Pictorial, Adelaide, 28 May 1930; Who's Who, 1930.

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BROWNE, JOHN HARRIS (1817-1904),

explorer and pioneer pastoralist,

[ also refer to John Harris BROWNE page at Project Gutenberg Australia]

was born in England on 22 April 1817. He was well educated and qualified for the medical profession at Edinburgh university. He went to South Australia in 1840, took up land, and in 1844 was asked by Charles Sturt (q.v.) to join his expedition to central Australia as surgeon. During this journey he was of the greatest assistance to Sturt, and when his leader fell ill with scurvy, took command of the party on the return journey and brought it to safety. He afterwards became a highly successful squatter and held an enormous amount of land in South Australia. In his later years he lived for long periods in England, and died there in January 1904. He married and was survived by a son and daughter. He was a kindly, modest and courageous man who never sought publicity; but both in the official biography and in Sturt's own account of the journey to central Australia we have many references to Browne's ability as an explorer and his loyalty to Sturt, who probably owed his life to him.

Browne's elder brother, William James Browne (1815-1894), who also qualified as a physician, arrived in South Australia in 1839 and became a very successful pastoralist. He was a member of the house of assembly from 1860 to 1862. He left South Australia for England with his family in 1878 and in 1880 was an unsuccessful candidate at an election for the house of commons. He died at Eastbourne, England, on 4 December 1894. As a pastoralist he did valuable work in experimenting with grasses and fodder plants, and with fine wools from crossbred Lincoln and Merino sheep.

Pastoral Pioneers of South Australia, vol. I; Mrs Napier George Sturt, Life of Charles Sturt; Charles Sturt, Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia; John Blacket, History of South Australia, p. 322.

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BROWNE, THOMAS ALEXANDER, "Rolf Boldrewood" (1826-1915),


[ also refer to Rolf BOLDREWOOD page at Project Gutenberg Australia]

was born in England on 6 August 1826. His father, Captain Sylvester John Browne, formerly of the East India Company's service, emigrated to Australia in 1830. His mother, Eliza Angell Alexander, was his "earliest admirer and most indulgent critic . . . to whom is chiefly due whatever meed of praise my readers may hereafter vouchsafe" (Dedication Old Melbourne Memories). The boy was sent to W. T. Cape's (q.v.) school at Sydney, and afterwards to Sydney College, when Cape became its headmaster. When his father moved to Melbourne in 1840, he remained for some time at the school as a boarder. In 1843, though only 17 years old, Browne took up land near Port Fairy and was there until 1856. He visited England in 1860 and in 1864 had station property in the Riverina; but bad seasons in 1866 and 1868 compelled Browne to give up squatting, and in 1871 he became a police magistrate and goldfields commissioner. He held these positions for about 25 years. In 1865 he had two articles on pastoral life in Australia in the Cornhill Magazine, and he also began to contribute articles and serial stories to the Australian weeklies. One of these, Ups and Downs: a Story of Australian Life, was published in book form in London in 1878. It was well reviewed but attracted little notice. It was re-issued as The Squatter's Dream in 1890. In 1884 Old Melbourne Memories, a book of reminiscences of the eighteen-forties was published at Melbourne, "by Rolf Boldrewood, author of My Run Home, The Squatter's Dream and Robbery Under Arms". These had appeared in the Sydney Town and Country Journal and the Sydney Mail, but only The Squatter's Dream had been published in book form and then under the title of Ups and Downs. In 1888 Robbery Under Arms appeared in three volumes and its merits were immediately recognized. Several editions were printed before the close of the century. Other novels appeared in quick succession, including The Miner's Right, and A Colonial Reformer in 1890, A Sydney Side Saxon (1891), Nevermore (1892), A Modern Buccaneer (1894), The Sphinx of Eaglehawk (1895), The Crooked Stick (1895), The Sealskin Coat (1896), My Run Home (1897), Plain Living (1898), A Romance of Canvas Town (1898), War to the Knife (1899), Babes in the Bush (1900), In Bad Company and Other Stories (1901), The Ghost Camp (1902), The Last Chance (1905). Few of these can be compared in merit with Robbery Under Arms. The Miner's Right has possibly ranked next in popularity and The Squatter's Dream and A Colonial Reformer give interesting and faithful pictures of squatting life in the early days. Browne lived near Melbourne from the time of his retirement in 1895 until his death on 11 March 1915. He married in 1860, Margaret Maria, daughter of W. E. Riley, who survived him with two sons and five daughters, one of whom, "Rose Boldrewood", published a novel The Complications at Collaroi in 1911. Mrs Browne was the author of The Flower Garden in Australia, published in 1893.

Browne was tall and big framed, fond of hunting and shooting. He began to write as the result of an accident. He had been kicked on the ankle by a horse and wrote his articles for the Cornhill while confined to his house. Most of his work after he became a magistrate was written before breakfast and in the evening. There was no waiting for inspiration; once having got his characters together and made a start he could always see the way to the finish. Robbery Under Arms became a classic in the author's lifetime, and will continue to rank as one of the best Australian novels. He knew his subject perfectly, every detail of the life was familiar to him, and all is set down with a simplicity and sincerity that will prevent the story from becoming old-fashioned. Some of his novels are the merely pedestrian work of a ready writer, but his Old Melbourne Memories is a valuable record of the conditions soon after the founding of that city, and interesting sketches of Browne's boyhood at Sydney will be found in the volume In Bad Company and Other Stories.

The Argus, 12 March 1915; The Lone Hand, August 1913; E. Morris Miller, Australian Literature; Rolf Boldrewood, In Bad Company and other Stories, H. G. Turner, The Development of Australian Literature; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography; J. H. Heaton, Australian Dictionary of Dates.

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agricultural chemist,

son of a Lutheran pastor, was born at Gorizia, then a part of Austria, on 11 September 1861. He was educated in Switzerland and obtained his knowledge of chemistry at the federal polytechnic school at Zurich. He travelled in Russia and for a period was chemist in a sugar-mill in Bohemia. Meeting Dr Mueller of Gayndah, Queensland, he decided to emigrate to Australia and arrived in Brisbane early in 1885. In the year 1887 he became chief chemist and mill manager for the Colonial Sugar Refining Company at Homebush, Mackay, and early in 1897 was appointed chemist in the Queensland department of agriculture. For about 35 years he advised the department on a multiplicity of problems relating to agriculture in Queensland, and drafted many bills for the government relating among other things to fertilizers, stock foods, pure seeds and the destruction of pests. He also made scientific investigations into the prickly pear problem, the use of dipping fluids, and the provision of phosphatic licks for stock. He did valuable pioneer work in his studies of pasture composition and set a high standard in the work of his department. Generally he was a strong influence in the development of applied chemistry during his time. He retired from the agriculture department in September 1931 and died on 3 July 1933. He married in 1886 Kate Terry, who survived him with two sons and three daughters. He was elected a fellow of the Institute of Chemistry in 1905.

The Brisbane Courier, 4 July 1933; The Daily Mail, Brisbane, 4 July 1933; The Journal of the Chemical Society, 1934. p. 559.

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artist, always known as Charles Bryant,

was born at Sydney on 11 May 1883. He was educated at Sydney Grammar School and then obtained a position in the Bank of New South Wales. He studied painting at Sydney under W. Lister Lister, and was an exhibitor at the Royal Art Society of New South Wales for some years. He went to London in 1908 and studied with John Hassall at London and Julius Olsson, A.R.A., at St Ives. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Paris Salon, where he received an honourable mention for "Morning Mists" in 1913, and with many well-known societies. He was appointed an official artist on the western front in 1917 and did many paintings for the Australian government. After the war he came to Australia in 1922, and in 1923 was sent to the mandated territories in New Guinea to paint scenes of the occupation by the Australians. In 1925 he painted a picture of the American fleet which was presented by Sydney citizens to the U.S.A. government. This picture is now at the Capitol, Washington. Returning to England, some 10 years passed before Bryant was in Australia again. He had a very successful one man show at Sydney towards the end of 1936, which was followed by another at Melbourne. He died at Sydney on 22 January 1937. He was unmarried.

Bryant was an able painter in oils mostly of marine subjects. He held various official positions in connexion with art societies, having been a member of the council of the Royal Institute of Painters in Oil, a vice-president of the Royal Art Society, Sydney, and president of the London Sketch Club. He is represented in the Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Castlemaine and Manly galleries, the Australian war museum at Canberra, and the Imperial war museum, London.

W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; Who's Who in Art, 1929: The Argus, Melbourne, 23 January 1937; Who's Who in Australia, 1933; Art in Australia, February 1922.

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pioneer pastoralist and explorer,

[ also refer to Nathaniel BUCHANAN page at Project Gutenberg Australia]

son of Lieutenant C. H. Buchanan, was born near Dublin in 1826. He arrived in New South Wales with his father in 1832, and as a young man was part owner with two brothers of Bald Blair station. In 1850 the brothers went to the Californian gold rush, but returned to Australia after a short stay to find that their station had been mismanaged and lost in their absence. During the next few years Buchanan had much experience of overlanding. In 1859, with William Landsborough (q.v.), he explored new country, principally on the tributaries of the Fitzroy, Queensland, when both suffered many privations and were found just in time by a rescue party. Buchanan then joined Landsborough and others as owners of Bowen Downs station near Longreach, which for a time prospered. However, a time came when cattle were almost unsaleable, and the price of wool dropped so low that the station had to be given up and Buchanan was practically penniless. After much experience in droving and mining Buchanan, in October 1877, with a companion, S. Croker, began to investigate the country from the known regions round the Rankine to the overland telegraph line, some 500 miles away. They discovered much good new land, which forms part of the Barkly Tableland, and has since carried some of the largest herds in Australia. Throughout the seventies and eighties Buchanan did a large amount of pioneering, working principally in northern, Queensland and the Northern Territory. He had another property, Wave Hill, for a period, but he lost this in 1894 on account of a great fall in cattle prices and the difficulty in getting markets. His son, Gordon Buchanan, had taken up land at Flora valley in 1887 and Buchanan now made this his headquarters. About two years later, with another man and a black boy, he started with camels and equipment provided by the South Australian government to find a stock route from northern Queensland. He went from Oodnadatta up the line to Tennant's Creek, and then westward to Sturt's Creek. About 40 miles mi from Hooker's Creek he sighted the hills now named Buchanan Hills, and next day came to a branch of Hooker's Creek. From there he went to Hale's Creek and the Sturt, and then to Flora valley. Attempts were made to find a practicable stock route to the west without success. Returning to Flora Creek he prepared a report for the South Australian government which added much to the knowledge of the country, though Buchanan had failed in his main object. In 1899 Buchanan, now 73 years of age, bought a farm on Dungowan Creek, 22 miles from Tamworth, and he died there in 1901 still working. He married in 1863 Catherine Gordon who survived him with a son.

Buchanan was a great bushman, and though he never led an important expedition, a fine explorer. Probably no other man knew the country from northern Queensland round an arc to Western Australia so well as he did. He seldom made much money for himself though he was a pioneer on Bowen Downs, on the Barkly Tableland, on the Roper River, and on the Victoria River, and pioneered the trail from the Kimberleys towards Perth. But he made possibilities for other men who in many cases reaped where he had sown.

Gordon Buchanan, Packhorse and Waterhole; E. Favenc, The History of Australian Exploration, p. 432.

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BUCKLEY, WILLIAM (C. (1780-1856),

the wild white man,

was born at Macclesfield, Cheshire, England, about the year 1780. He received some elementary education though in his later years he was unable to read or write. He was apprenticed to a bricklayer, but when about 20 years of age enlisted in the army and fought on the continent. On returning to England he fell into bad company, was convicted of receiving stolen property and sent to jail. It was later decided that he should be transported, and in 1803 he arrived at Port Phillip as part of the expedition under Collins (q.v.) that was intended to form a settlement. While at Port Phillip Buckley escaped with three companions. One of the party was shot, but the others got away and eventually found their way to the other side of the bay. Finding it almost impossible to obtain food Buckley's two companions decided to try to return to the settlement. Buckley subsisted for some days on shellfish and water, very nearly starved to death, but eventually fell in with some aborigines who befriended him. He lived with the aborigines for about 32 years, and in July 1835 was found by Batman's (q.v.) party under J. H. Wedge (q.v.). He made himself useful to the party in their dealings with the natives and a free pardon was obtained for him. The suggestion was made that he should be appointed a protector of aborigines, but he was a man of small mentality, and though he could do useful work in connexion with the natives in the districts he had lived in, he had no knowledge that could be made use of when other tribes were concerned. In 1837 he was sent to Tasmania and given a position as a porter, and in 1841 was gate-keeper at the female factory at Hobart. About this time he married a widow with two children. He was later on given a pension of £12 a year to which an additional £40 was added by the Victorian government in 1852. He died at Hobart on 30 January 1856 and was buried in the grave-yard of St George's church.

Buckley was a huge man, about six feet six inches in height. Any little ability he may have had appears to have atrophied during his residence with the blacks. He was unable to tell much about the habits and customs of the aborigines, his most sensible saying being a suggestion that there should be no interference with their customs. He was gentle and harmless in his later days, apparently content to have found a home and sustenance. His biographer, John Morgan, endeavoured to obtain particulars of his life from Buckley, but the style of his narrative suggests that he was compelled to supply a good many gaps in it.

John Morgan, The Life and Adventures of William Buckley; James Bonwick, The Wild White Man; W. T. Pyke, Thirty Years Among the Blacks of Australia; Marcus Clarke, Stories of Australia in the Early Days; Hobart Mercury, 23 May 1907.

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politician and judge,

son of James Bundey and his wife Harriett Lockyer, was born in Hampshire, England, on 30 January 1838, and came with his parents to South Australia in 1848. His father died about a fortnight after his arrival, and the boy, though under 11 years of age, had to go to work in a solicitor's office. In 1856 he was appointed clerk of the Onkaparinga local court, but gave this position up about six years later to became articled to a solicitor. Bundey was practically self-educated but he was a good law student, and he was admitted to the bar in 1865. He became a most effective advocate, especially in criminal cases, one reason being that he declined to defend prisoners unless he believed in their innocence. In 1872 he was returned to the South Australian house of assembly for Onkaparinga, and from July 1874 to March 1875 was minister for justice and education in the third Blyth (q.v.) ministry. One of the measures he put through was the bill to establish the university of Adelaide. He did not seek re-election in 1875, but entered parliament again in 1878 and was attorney-general in the Morgan (q.v.) ministry from September 1878 to March 1881. His health had failed more than once, but a trip through Europe and the east improved it very much. Bundey returned to Adelaide at the end of April 1882. In 1884 he was appointed a judge of the supreme court and held the position for 19 years. He was appointed president of the board of conciliation in 1894 but resigned some 15 months later. He retired on a pension in 1903, was knighted in 1904, and died on 6 December 1909. He married in 1865 Ellen Wardlaw, daughter of Sir William Milne (q.v.), who survived him with a daughter, Ellen Milne Bundey. Miss Bundey, who wrote under the name of "Lyell Dunne", published several volumes of verse.

Bundey was a handsome man of fine presence who had many interests. As a young man he was a captain of volunteers and later became an expert yachtsman. He published his Reminiscences of 25 Years' Yachting in Australia in 1888. As a politician he was much interested in education and the simplification of the law, and was responsible for the supreme court act, the district courts act, and insolvency and public trustee acts. As a judge he was courteous and painstaking, particularly anxious to preserve the rights of the subject, and watchful that prisoners who were not defended should receive justice. He published several pamphlets including Land Reform, Education, Trades Unions (1889), Some Thoughts on the Administration of the Criminal Law (1891), Conviction of Innocent Men (1900).

Burke's Colonial Gentry, vol. I, 1891; The Register, Adelaide, 7 December 1909; The Advertiser, Adelaide, 7 December 1909.

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BURKE, ROBERT O'HARA (1821-1861),


[ also refer to Robert O'Hara BURKE page at Project Gutenberg Australia]

was the third son of James Hardiman Burke, an officer in the British army. He was born at St Clerans, County Galway, Ireland, in 1821 and was educated partly at home and partly in Belgium. He entered the Austrian army as a cadet and reached the rank of captain, but in 1848 returned to Ireland and obtained a position in the police force. He emigrated to Australia in 1853 and became a district inspector of police. He obtained leave of absence to go to Europe to fight in the Crimean war, but arrived too late and returned to Australia in December 1856. In 1858, when he was at Castlemaine, the movement to send an exploring expedition across Australia was begun, and there was much discussion before a leader was appointed. It was not until 1860 that Burke was selected. G. J. Landells was given the second position and W. J. Wills (q.v.) the third. On 20 August 1860 the expedition left Melbourne. It included 15 other men of whom three were Asiatics in charge of the 26 camels and 28 horses. At Swan Hill Charles Gray was added to the party. At Balranald Burke discharged his foreman, Ferguson, and Gray was given his position. Menindie was reached on 23 September where, in consequence of a quarrel with his chief, Landells resigned and returned to Melbourne. Dr Beckler the medical officer also resigned. Wills was appointed to the second position and Wright to the third. The latter was an ignorant man who had been recently added to the party and proved a bad choice. Cooper's Creek, about 400 miles from Menindie, was reached on 11 November and early in December Burke resolved to make a dash for the Gulf of Carpentaria taking only Wills, King and Gray with him. William Brahe was left at Cooper's Creek in charge of a small party, with instructions not to leave unless from absolute necessity. Wright had previously gone back to Menindie with instructions to bring up further stores. He' however, did not return until it was too late.

Burke and Wills left Cooper's Creek on 16 December with six camels and one horse, and on 9 February 1861 found themselves almost on the shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria. The ground was too swampy to enable them to actually reach the shore, but they were close enough to be able to claim that the continent had been crossed. On 13 February they began the return journey, but wet weather made progress very slow at first and the animals gradually became weaker and weaker. Gray fell ill and died about four days before the party reached Cooper's Creek on 21 April, to find that Brahe and his men had left on the morning of that very day. Burke felt that it was hopeless for him to try to catch up with Brahe's party and decided to make south-west to Mount Hopeless, an outlying police station less than half the distance to Menindie, but the provisions gradually gave out, the remaining camel died, and they had to return to Cooper's Creek which was again reached on 30 May. They lived for some time on nardoo seed, gradually getting weaker. Both Burke and Wills died about the end of June 1861. King was befriended by aborigines and was rescued by the relief party, which had been sent out under A. W. Howitt (q.v.), on 15 September. A royal commission inquired into the circumstances, and, while not completely exonerating Brahe, found that Wright's delay was the main cause of the whole of the disasters of the expedition with the exception of the death of Gray. It found too that Burke was partly responsible, as he had given Wright an important command in the expedition without previous personal knowledge of him. It is clear that Burke had not the particular qualifications needed by a great explorer. He was a brave man but he did not show high qualities as a leader, and he was not a bushman. His tragic fate, however, has made him better known than several others of the early explorers who have better right to fame. A statue to the memory of the two explorers is at Melbourne.

Andrew Jackson, Robert O'Hara Burke; W. Wills, A Successful Exploration Through the Interior of Australia; The Exploring Expedition, Diary of Burke and Wills, Howitt's Journal and Dispatches, Melbourne, The Age office; F. Clune, Dig.

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BURN, DAVID (C. 1800-1875),

Tasmanian pioneer and dramatist,

was born about the end of the eighteenth century and after being in the navy emigrated to Tasmania in 1825. He returned to England in 1828, and in September 1829 his play, The Bushrangers, was acted with success at the Caledonian Theatre, Edinburgh. Early in January 1830 his farce, Manias and Maniacs, afterwards re-named Our First Lieutenant, was played at the same theatre for several successive nights. Burn went to Tasmania again in that year but revisited England in 1838. He remained until 1840; the dedication of his pamphlet Vindication of Van Diemen's Land is dated 18 February 1840, and in 1841 he brought out another pamphlet, The Chivalry of the Mercantile Marine, published at Plymouth. He returned to Tasmania and published his Plays and Fugitive Pieces in Verse in 1842; the dedication to Lady Franklin (q.v.) is dated November 1842. This book, in two well-printed volumes, always found bound in one, was the first volume of plays published in Australia. About this time he probably wrote his An Excursion to Port Arthur in 1842, of which an edition was published at the Examiner office, Launceston, some 60 years later. He was editing the South Britain or Tasmanian Literary Journal in 1843, and afterwards went to Sydney and Auckland, where he lived for many years. He was connected with the New Zealand press, at first on the New Zealander and subsequently as a partner in the New Zealand Herald. He died in prosperous circumstances at Auckland on 14 June 1875. He was married twice and had two children. He was a voluminous writer and many of his manuscripts are preserved at the Mitchell library, Sydney, including his reminiscences and diaries. His plays have a special interest on account of their early date, and though they have been decried as literature, they are not badly constructed and have the merit of being readable. The title-page of his volume states that he was also author of Van Diemen's Land, Moral, Physical and Political, and Strictures on the Navy.

The New Zealand Herald, 15 June 1875; E. Morris Miller, Australian Literature; Notes to the plays in Plays and Fugitive Pieces in Verse; The Argus, Melbourne, 12 January 1926.

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BURNS, SIR JAMES (1846-1923),

founder of Burns Philp and Co. Ltd and philanthropist,

the son of David Burns, an Edinburgh merchant, was born near that city on 10 February 1846. He was educated at Newington academy and Edinburgh high school, and at 16 years of age went with an elder brother to Queensland, arriving at Brisbane, then a very small town, in 1862. He immediately went to the back country to get colonial experience, and afterwards joined his brother in a business at Brisbane. Hearing of the gold discovery at Gympie Burns rode 120 miles and was the first to arrive on the field. Before he was 21 he owned stores at Gympie, One Mile Creek, and Kilkivan. In 1870 his father having died he sold his interests and returned to Scotland. Two years later he was established at Townsville as a storekeeper, where he was joined by Robert Philp (q.v.). In 1877 Philp was left in charge of the Townsville business while Burns made a new headquarters at Sydney. From there a line of sailing ships and steamers was established trading between Sydney and Queensland ports. This became the Queensland Steam Shipping Company Limited. Much competition followed with the Australian Steam Navigation Company, and after a few years Burns negotiated terms under which the Q.S.S. Co. took over the A.S.N. fleet. In 1883 Burns Philp and Company Limited was formed by amalgamating the various businesses in Sydney and Queensland carried on in the names of James Burns and of Robert Philp and Company. With Burns as chairman of directors the company expanded rapidly and lines of steamers were run to the Pacific islands and the East Indies. Its activities were not confined to shipping, and the trading business became one of the most varied in Australia. Burns also took up pastoral interests and was a director of many important companies. In his private life he took much interest in the old volunteer movement in which he was a captain in 1891. In 1897 he was in command of the New South Wales lancer regiment with the rank of colonel, and he was afterwards in command of the 1st brigade of the Australian light horse until his retirement in 1908. In that year he was nominated to the legislative council, and during the war of 1914-18 he brought forward a scheme for the insurance of men with dependants to which he contributed £2000 a year during the duration of the war. Another activity was his interest in the Caledonian Society, of which he was president for nearly 20 years. During the last years of his life the Burnside Homes for Scottish orphans near Parramatta, for which he gave the land, and very largely founded, were a great interest to him. He died at Parramatta on 22 August 1923. His wife had died some years before and two sons were killed in the war. His third son, James Burns, who also went to the war and was mentioned in dispatches, succeeded his father as chairman of directors of Burns Philp and Company. He was also survived by three daughters. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1917.

Burns was a man of great activity and vision; a true empire-builder. He did much in the development of Queensland, and his courage, shrewdness and hard work earned the admiration and respect of all his associates. Somewhat thin and austere in appearance, he had great sympathy for those in need. As a young man he had helped in the relief of Paris after the Commune in 1871. In his later days he contributed something like £100,000 to the Burnside Homes, an avenue of cottages housing about 200 orphans.

The Sydney Morning Herald, 23 August 1923; The Brisbane Courier, 23 August 1923; The Bulletin, Sydney, 30 August 1923; A. B. Paterson, The Sydney Morning Herald, 4 March 1939.

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first chief justice of Western Australia,

son of George Henry Burt, was born in 1810 and educated at a private school at Richmond, England. He was called to the bar in 1845 and went to the island of St Christopher in the West Indies, where he was attorney-general from 1849 to 1860. He was then appointed commissioner of the civil court and court of quarter sessions at Perth. Shortly after his arrival in 1861 he discovered that under the constitution he was unable to issue writs of habeas corpus or certiorari. An ordinance was then passed creating a supreme court with Burr as chief justice. He was the only judge in the colony for many years, and in 1870 much feeling was caused by his arbitrary conduct in fining (Sir) S. H. Parker, who was appearing for a prisoner, for "malpractice and misconduct" and afterwards fining and imprisoning two editors of newspapers for, in the one case printing a letter from Parker, and in the other for commenting on the case. The bitterness arising from these cases did not die down for some years. Burt no doubt took this stand because he thought the dignity of his position was involved. Apart from this incident he established a high reputation as a courteous and capable chief justice. He died on 21 November 1879 while still in office. He was knighted in 1873. He married in 1836 Louisa Emily Bryan and there was a large family. His seventh son, the Hon. Septimus Burt, K.C., born on 25 October 1847, was the first attorney-general of Western Australia under responsible government from 1890 to 1897. Another son, Octavius Burt, I.S.O., born in 1849, filled many offices before becoming comptroller-general of prisons and chief electoral officer; and a third son, Alfred Earle Burt, I.S.O., became registrar of titles and deeds of Western Australia.

The West Australian, 25 and 28 November 1879; J. 8. Battye, Western Australia, A History; J. G. Wilson, Western Australia's Centenary, p. 145; P. Mennell, The Dictionary, of Australasian Biography.

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judge and president of the legislative council, New South Wales,

son of Edmund Burton and Eliza, daughter of the Rev. John Mather, was born at Daventry, Northamptonshire, England, on 31 January 1794. He was educated at Daventry Grammar School and entered the royal navy as a midshipman in 1807 on the Conqueror. He saw service off Toulon in 1811 and at New Orleans in 1814. Leaving the navy to study law he entered at the Inner Temple in November 1819, and was called to the bar in November 1824. He was recorder of Daventry in 1826-7, and a judge of the supreme court at the Cape of Good Hope from 1828 to 1832, when he was transferred to the supreme court at Sydney. In July 1834 he went to Norfolk Island to try some convicts who had mutinied. Many were sentenced to death, but as no clergy were on the island, Burton reprieved them until their cases could go before the executive council and clergy could be sent to the island. He endeavoured also with some success to improve the miserable conditions of the convicts, and himself a religious man, arranged that two of the prisoners should act as catechists to the others until clergy could be procured. Eventually both Protestant and Roman Catholic chaplains were appointed. Burton gave an account of the position at Norfolk Island in his book The State of Religion and Education in New South Wales, which was published in 1840. Two years later he brought out a volume The Insolvent Law of New South Wales, with Practical Directions and Forms. In 1844 Burton was appointed a judge at Madras, and left New South Wales on 6 July of that year. Had this appointment been delayed for a few months he would have become chief justice as Sir James Dowling (q.v.) died in September. He carried out his duties at Madras in a capable way and on his retirement came to Sydney again in 1857. He was nominated to the legislative council, and in March 1858 was elected its president. In May 1861, on account of the council having insisted on amendments to two measures brought forward by the government, the crown lands alienation bill and the crown lands occupation bill, an attempt was made to swamp the chamber by appointing 21 new members. When the council met and the new members were waiting to be sworn in, Burton stated that he felt he had been treated with discourtesy in the matter, resigned his office of president and his membership, and left the chamber followed by several others. The house was adjourned, and as the session had nearly closed it was impossible to do anything until the next session. When the council was reconstituted later a compromise was come to, under which practically the whole of the 21 proposed new members were not again nominated; but Burton also was not nominated. He shortly afterwards went to England and lived in retirement. He was blind in his later years and when about 90 dictated a letter congratulating G. W. Rusden on his History of Australia which had been read to him. He died in his ninety-fifth year on 6 August 1888.

Burton was an upright and thoroughly capable judge, and his retiremerit from the council with others, which left it without a quorum, was the means of effectually preventing an action which the Duke of Newcastle in a dispatch to Governor Young afterwards described as both "violent" and "unconstitutional" (Rusden's History of Australia, vol. III, p. 172). Burton married (1) Margaret, daughter of Levy Smith, and (2) Maria Alphonsine, daughter of John Beatty West. He was knighted in 1844.

The Times, 13 August 1888; P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography; G. W. Rusden, History of Australia; An Epitome of the Official History of New South Wales; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. XVII to XIX, XXIII: Burke's Peerage, etc., 1888.

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BUSBY, JAMES (1801-1871),

viticulturist and administrator,

son of John Busby (q.v.), was born in Edinburgh on 7 February 1801. He was well educated, and had made a study of viticulture in France. He came to Australia with his father on 24 February 1824, obtained a grant of land, and before May 1825 was given a position at the male orphan school at Bull's Hill near Liverpool, his duties including the teaching of viticulture and the supervision of the institution's farm. His salary was £100 a year, with "one third of the gross increase of the stock and of the net profits of the soil". In 1825 his A Treatise on the Cultivation of the Vine was published at Sydney, one of the earliest volumes printed in Australia. It was based principally on the work of the Count de Chaptal, published at Paris in 1819, but Busby also used his own notes. When the orphan school was placed in charge of the trustees of the clergy and school lands in 1826 they terminated Busby's appointment, but he made various claims which were submitted to arbitration, and in March 1828 Governor Darling (q.v.) stated that after the payment of certain sums to him, there was a balance of over £1000 still due. He was made a member of the land board, and he also sat on other boards and showed himself to be a capable public servant. He had also been appointed collector of internal revenue, with the understanding that it was not to be considered a permanent position. Busby, however, was dissatisfied when he was superseded by William Macpherson, and on 10 January 1831 drew up a statement of his claims and went to London to bring his case before the colonial office. He had in the previous year published another volume at Sydney, A Manual of Plain Directions for Planting and Cultivating Vineyards.

In London Busby's intelligence and knowledge of colonial conditions evidently impressed the English officials, as in a dispatch dated 18 March 1832 Governor Bourke (q.v.) was advised that Busby had been appointed resident of New Zealand at a salary of £500 a year. While in Europe he had visited continental vineyards, and in 1834 another little volume was published at Sydney, Journal of a Recent Visit to the Principal Vineyards of Spain and France. He had collected a large number of vine cuttings which were sent to Sydney for propagation at the botanical gardens. This collection unfortunately was neglected and many of the vines were eventually destroyed. In New Zealand Busby found himself in the position of an official with no power of enforcing his decisions. He established good relations in most cases with both the missionaries and the Maoris, though his house was attacked on one occasion and he was slightly wounded. Busby's position was abolished in May 1839, but he remained on the spot, and when Captain Hobson (q.v.) became lieutenant-governor of New Zealand in January 1840, Busby worked with him and actually drafted the famous Treaty of Waitangi with the Maoris. On 1 September 1840 Hobson wrote a letter of thanks to Busby saying "through your disinterested and unbiased advice, and to your personal exertions, I may chiefly ascribe the ready adherence of the chiefs to the treaty". Busby could have had a good position under Hobson, but having purchased land from the Maoris he preferred to become a grazier. The New Zealand government, however, would not allow his title to it, and much of the rest of his life was taken up in a struggle to obtain the land or to obtain compensation. Busby's speech to the house of representatives of New Zealand on 1 August 1856 was printed in that year as a pamphlet under the title The First Settlers in New Zealand and their Treatment by the Government. In April 1870 Busby was awarded £36,800, considered to be the value of scrip for 73,000 acres of land. But the cash value of this was estimated at only £23,000 and that sum was finally accepted by Busby. He had spent many thousands of pounds in prosecuting his claims, and when his debts were paid only about £3000 remained for himself. He travelled to England calling at Sydney on the way, and died near London on 15 July 1871. He married Agnes Dow, who survived him with two sons and a daughter. In addition to the works already mentioned Busby was the author of Authentic Information Relating to N.S.W. and N.Z (1832), The Australian Farmer and Land Owner's Guide (1839), The Constitutional Relations of British Colonies to the Mother Country (1865), The Rebellions of the Maories traced to their True Origin (1865), Our Colonial Empire and the Case of New Zealand (1866), and other pamphlets.

E. Ramsden, Busby of Waitangi and Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XXVI, pp. 361-86 and vol. XXVII, pp. 154-65; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. XIV, XV, XVI; G. W. Rusden, History of New Zealand.

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BUSBY, JOHN (1765-1857),


came of an old Northumberland family and was born at Alnwick in that county in 1765. He became a mineral surveyor and civil engineer in Scotland, and was engaged on various public works, including the providing of a water-supply for Leith fort. In December 1821 he applied for employment in New South Wales and Earl Bathurst, in a dispatch dated 31 July 1823, stated that he hoped "the arrangement with Mr Busby of which you will be informed will enable you to adopt measures for securing a better supply of water for the town of Sydney". Another dispatch dated 19 August enclosed a copy of the terms of engagement of Busby, who was to be mineral surveyor and civil engineer to the colony at a salary of £200 a year for 200 days in each year. Apparently he also had the right of private practice. He arrived at Sydney on 24 February 1824 and in June 1825 made an interesting report on the then state of the water-supply of Sydney, and suggested that a supply could be drawn from "the large lagoon in the vicinity of the paper mill" to a reservoir in Hyde Park from which it would be distributed throughout the city by pipes (H.R. of A., ser. I, vol. XI, p. 682). The mill referred to was in the neighbourhood of the present corner of Bourke- and Elizabeth-streets, Waterloo. In January 1826 he made a second report, in which he suggested expense could be saved by driving a tunnel into Sydney. This was begun, and in February 1829 Governor Darling (q.v.) stated in a dispatch that it was "quite impossible to dispense with Busby so long as the work in which he is employed introducing water into Sydney is in operation". Busby's salary had in the meantime been increased to £500 a year, and the colonial office had questioned the necessity of retaining his services any longer. The water-supply scheme was not completed until September 1837. It had involved the excavation of a tunnel about 12,000 feet long, but the proposed reservoir at Hyde Park with pipes throughout the city was not gone on with. Busby's appointment terminated on the completion of the waterworks, and in August 1838 the payment to him of a sum of £1000 was sanctioned by way of gratuity. He retired to the country on land on the Hunter which had been granted to him and died there on 10 May 1857. He married Sarah Kennedy and was survived by children. One of his sons, James Busby, is noticed separately.

E. Ramsden, Journal and Proceedings Royal Australian Historical Society, vol. XXVI, p. 362; Historical Records of Australia, ser. I, vols. XI to XVII, XIX, XXVI; E. Ramsden, Busby of Waitangi.

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BUTLER, SIR RICHARD (1850-1925),

premier of South Australia,

son of Richard Butler, pastoralist, was born at Stadhampton, near Oxford, England, on 3 December 1850. He was brought to South Australia by his parents and arrived at Adelaide on 8 March 1854. He was educated at St Peter's College, Adelaide, and afterwards spent many years as a farmer and grazier. He attempted to enter parliament early in 1890 when he stood for Yatala and was defeated. A few months later he won the seat at a by-election. On 13 April 1898 he succeeded Cockburn (q.v.) as minister of agriculture in the Kingston (q.v.) ministry which resigned in December 1899. He was treasurer in the Jenkins (q.v.) ministry from 15 May 1901 to 1 March 1905, and was also commissioner of crown lands and immigration from 1 April 1902 to 1 March 1905. Jenkins then went to London as agent-general and Butler succeeded him as premier, still keeping his previous portfolios. His ministry was defeated on 26 July and he was in opposition for about four years. On 22 December 1909 he joined the first Peake (q.v.) ministry as treasurer and minister for the Northern Territory, but the ministry was defeated on 3 June 1910. He was commissioner of public works in the second Peake ministry from 17 February 1912 to 10 November 1914 and minister of mines and of marine from 17 February 1912 to 3 April 1915. He was treasurer again in Peake's third ministry from 14 July 1917 to 7 May 1919, minister of railways for the same period and minister of agriculture from 19 December 1918 to 7 May 1919. He left the ministry in unfortunate circumstances. The report of the royal commission on the wheat scheme appeared to reflect on the actions of Butler while he was the minister in charge of it, and Peake asked Butler to resign. He refused to do so because he considered that would admit the justice of the charges. The executive council, on the advice of the government, thereupon dismissed Butler from his offices. He felt this keenly. The report of another royal commission presented some 14 months later was, however, accepted as exculpating him, and the fact that he was elected speaker in 1921 suggests that he had suffered some injustice. He was defeated at the general election of 1924 after having represented the same district for 34 years. At the beginning of 1925 he went on a trip to England and died there on 28 April. Butler was knighted in 1913. He married (1) in 1878 Helena Kate Layton and (2) in 1894 Ethel Pauline Finer, who survived him with eight children by the first marriage and three by the second. One of his sons, Sir Richard Layton Butler, born in 1885, was twice premier of South Australia between 1927 and 1938.

Butler was a good debater and an excellent administrator, though inclined to overwork himself by giving too much attention to detail. He had remarkable financial ability and great grasp of the intricacies of accounts. It was his fate to be treasurer more than once in a period of drought or depression, and the measures he adopted did not always improve his popularity. But he was quite fearless, and his courage and determination more than once saved the position, and gave him a place among the abler Australian treasurers.

The Times, 29 April 1925; The Advertiser, Adelaide, 29 April 1925; The Register, Adelaide, 29 April 1925.

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was born on 3 March 1814 at Morges, Switzerland. His father, François Simeon Buvelot, was a postal official who had married Jeanne Louise Heizer, a school teacher. Louis Buvelot, he disliked his first name and never used it, worked under Arland at Lausanne, and continued his studies at Paris with Camille Flers, a well-known landscape painter of the day. After a few months in Paris he migrated to Bahia in Brazil where he worked on his uncle's plantation. Four years later he removed to Rio de Janeiro and attracted the notice of the emperor Don Pedro II, who bought some of his pictures and decorated him with the order of the rose. Buvelot returned to Switzerland in 1852 and in 1856 was awarded a silver medal for a picture exhibited at Berne, but having lived in a warm country, he found the cold of Switzerland trying to his health and sailed for Melbourne in 1865. For a few months he was in business as a photographer in Bourke-street but soon resumed his painting. He lived for some years in Latrobe-street East, and then removed to George-street, Fitzroy. His wife helped by teaching French, and presently he began to find buyers for his pictures, of whom James Smith (q.v.) was one of the earliest. In 1869 the trustees of the national gallery of Victoria bought two of his pictures, and in 1870 paid £131 for the "Waterpool at Coleraine". In 1873, 1880 and 1884 he was awarded gold medals at exhibitions held in Melbourne, and he also received a silver medal at the Philadelphia exhibition of 1876. His reputation became established, his only interest was his work, and he went on steadily painting until his death on 30 May 1888. He was married twice, (1) to Marie Félicité Lalloutte, (2) to Julie Beguin. His widow, also an artist, survived him for many years. There were no children. In July 1888 a memorial exhibition of his work was held at the national gallery, Melbourne, and one of the galleries in that building was subsequently named after him.

Buvelot was a simple, kindly, sincere man who walked about "in the clothes of a peasant with the air of a king". In his old age he sometimes reminded people of the well-known portrait of Leonardo da Vinci. He would go into the country and steep himself in the landscape he intended painting, making pencil and water-colour sketches until he had complete possession of it. His drawing and composition were both good, and he was easily the best painter of his time in Victoria. He is represented in the galleries at Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide, Perth and Castlemaine, and his bust by Bertram Mackennal (q.v.) and a portrait in oils by J. C. Waite are also in the Melbourne gallery.

F. A. Forel, Louis Buvelot, Peintre Vaudois; W. Moore, The Story of Australian Art; Catalogue of his pictures sold by Beauchamp Brothers.

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journalist and politician,

was born at Torrington, Devonshire, England, on 1 August 1835. He came to Sydney with his parents in 1852 and joining the Empire newspaper learned to be a compositor. In 1860 he went to Maryborough, Queensland, and founded the Maryborough Chronicle, but four years later sold it, went to Clermont, and started the Peak Downs Telegram, which he edited until 1870. In that year he bought the Rockhampton Bulletin and in 1873 he became member of the Queensland legislative assembly for Rockhampton. In 1874 and again in 1876 he brought in bills to establish an eight-hour day in Queensland, but he was in advance of his times and did not succeed in getting them past the committee stage. He resigned from the assembly in 1877, in 1878 removed to Brisbane, and became a leader writer on the Courier. Having been returned to the assembly again, in January 1879 he became postmaster-general in McIlwraith's (q.v.) first ministry, and was responsible for the drafting of the divisional boards measure which was the foundation of later Queensland local government acts. He was an active minister, and during his two years of office he united the hitherto separate post and telegraph departments, and succeeded in having tenders called for a Torres Straits service between Brisbane and London. The telephone was also introduced during his period. Pressure of other business compelled him to give up politics at the end of 1880. He subsequently bought a large interest in the Brisbane Newspaper Company and became its managing director until 1894. After a period as an occasional contributor to the Courier, he bought the Rockhampton Argus and converted it into an evening paper the Daily Record. He was a member of the legislative council from 1894 to 1901 but did not hold office again. He founded the Daily Mail, Brisbane, in 1904, and in spite of his advancing years carried it through its early difficulties as editor and managing director. He retired to Stanthorpe in 1906 but continued to make occasional contributions to the press until not long before his death on 19 July 1918. He married in 1857 Louisa Whiteford who survived him with three sons and two daughters.

The Brisbane Courier, 20 July 1918; The Daily Mail, Brisbane, 20 July 1918; P. Mennell, Dictionary of Australasian Biography; The Bulletin, 25 July 1918; C. A. Bernays, Queensland Politics During Sixty Years.

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premier of Queensland,

was born of Irish parents at Spring Hill, Queensland, on 11 November 1860. When six years old his parents removed to Bowen where he attended the local state school. In 1873 he competed for a scholarship of the annual value of £50, and was top of the list for all Queensland. Going on to Brisbane Grammar School for some years, he sat for the matriculation examination in Melbourne in 1878, and won the scholarship for history, geography, English and French. He began the course for the degree of LL.B. and at the end of his first year was awarded the exhibition for Greek, Latin and logic. He graduated LL.B. in 1884, returned to Brisbane, and after reading for a year with P. Real (afterwards a judge of the supreme court of Queensland) began to practise as a barrister. He was quickly successful and within a few years was making a large income. In August 1890 Sir Samuel Griffith (q.v.) offered him the portfolio of solicitor-general in his ministry with a seat in the upper house. Byrnes accepted but in 1893 stood for the legislative assembly and was elected for Cairns. He was attorney-general in the next ministry under Sir Thomas McIlwraith (q.v.), and held the same position in the succeeding Nelson ministry. When Nelson became president of the legislative council early in 1898, though Byrnes was easily the youngest man in the ministry, there was a general feeling that he should be the next premier. He took office in April 1898 and almost at once made a tour of the colony, so that he might become familiar with the general conditions. Shortly after the opening of parliament, though apparently in robust health, he took ill and died of pneumonia at Brisbane on 27 September 1898.

Byrnes was in office for the whole of his political life of over eight years; a record that is probably unique. He was a man of fine character, urbane, broad-minded and tactful, one of the most able men who ever entered the Queensland parliament. He was thought by some people to be too conservative, others considered him a radical. The truth possibly was that he was content to move one step at a time and was constitutionally unable to promise the people more than could be performed. He was in favour of federation, and had he lived there was scarcely a position in federal politics to which he might not have aspired.

The Queenslander, 1 October 1898; The Review of Reviews, Australasian edition, October 1898; C. A. Bernays, Queensland Politics During Sixty Years. There is an interesting estimate of Byrnes, discriminating and objective, by A. G. Stephens in The Bulletin, 8 October 1898.

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