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BRAINMAPS.ORG - BRAIN ATLAS, BRAIN MAPS, BRAIN STRUCTURE, NEUROINFORMATICS, BRAIN, STEREOTAXIC ATLAS, NEUROSCIENCE

 

Abbreviations used for the  monkey

In naming structures in the macaque monkey brain, the atlas follows what is established English usage and as far as possible is consistent with the terminology applied in other mammalian species. The names of structures and their abbreviations derive from a number of archival sources and no novel names or abbreviations have been created. Gyri and sulci of the cerebral hemisphere are named according to Von Bonin and Bailey (The Neocortex of Macaca Mulatta, 1947). The delineation of areas of the cerebral cortex derives from many sources that deal with the various regions of the cortex, including: Amaral et al. (J Comp Neurol 1987, 264:326), Burton and Jones (J Comp Neurol, 1976, 168:249), Carmichael and Price (J Comp Neurol, 1994, 346:366), Desimone and Ungerleider (J Comp Neurol, 1986, 248:164), Felleman and Van Essen (Cerebral Cortex, 1991, 1:1), Jones et al. (J Comp Neurol, 1978, 181:291), Mesulam and Mufson (Cerebral Cortex Volume 4, 1985, p.179), Seltzer and Pandya (J Comp Neurol, 1989, 290:451), Vogt et al. (J Comp Neurol, 1987, 262:256). In the basal ganglia Heimer et al. (Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 15 Part III, p. 57) were followed. In the thalamus the nomenclature is that of Jones (The Thalamus, Second Edition, 2007). In the hypothalamus and adjacent regions the nomenclature is mainly derived from Saper (The Human Nervous System, Volume 17, 2004, p.513). In the brainstem primarily Olszewski and Baxter (Cytoarchitecture of the Human Brain Stem, 1982) were followed, with additional names derived from Berman (The Brain Stem of the Cat, 1968).

Currently, the high resolution images of coronal sections of the rhesus monkey brain and the lower resolution atlas made from the same sections are fully labeled using these abbreviations and labeling of the sagittal and horizontal series of sections is currently underway.


1-2 cortical areas 1 & 2 3a cortical area 3a 3b cortical area 3b 3V third ventricle 4 cortical area 4 4V fourth ventricle 5ME mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus 6 cortical area 6 7A cortical area 7A 7M cortical area 7M 8 cortical area 8 9 cortical area 9 12 cortical area 12 13 cortical area 13 14 cortical area 14 17 cortical area 17 18 cortical area 18 23 cortical area 23 24 cortical area 24 25 cortical area 25 30 cortical area 30 36 cortical area 36 45 cortical area 45 46 cortical area 46 AAA anterior amygdaloid area AAB accessory basal nuclei of amygdala ABL basolateral nucleus of amygdala ABM basomedial nucleus of amygdala AC anterior commissure ACC nucleus accumbens ACE central nucleus of amygdala ACN nucleus of anterior commissure ACO anterior cortical nucleus of amygdala ACX decussation of anterior commissure AD anterodorsal nucleus of thalamus AHA amygdalo-hippocampal area AHy adenohypophysis AI auditory cortex core, AI field AIN intercalated cell islands of amygdala AL ansa lenticularis ALA lateral nucleus of amygdala Am amygdala AM anteromedial nucleus of thalamus AMB nucleus ambiguus AME medial nucleus of amygdala AMTS anterior middle temporal sulcus AOD dorsal terminal nucleus of accessory optic tract AOL lateral terminal nucleus of accessory optic tract AP area postrema AQ cerebral aqueduct AR auditory cortex core, R field AS arcuate sulcus AV anteroventral nucleus of thalamus BAAM belt auditory cortex, anteromedial field BAL belt auditory cortex, lateral field BAM belt auditory cortex, medial field BAPM belt auditory cortex, posteromedial field BC brachium conjunctivum BCS brachium of superior colliculus BCX decussation of brachium conjunctivum BIC brachium of inferior colliculus BNM basal nucleus of Meynert BP brachium pontis CA caudate nucleus CAM cornu ammonis CAS calcarine sulcus CB cerebellum CBIN interposed nucleus of cerebellum CBL lateral nucleus of cerebellum CBM medial nucleus of cerebellum CC corpus callosum CD dorsal cochlear nucleus CeM central medial nucleus of thalamus CeS central sulcus CF cuneate fasciculus CG cingulate gyrus CGr central gray CGS cingulate sulcus CI interstitial cochlear nucleus CL central lateral nucleus of the thalamus Cl claustrum CM centre median nucleus of thalamus CNF cuneiform nucleus CNM central nucleus of medulla oblongata CP cerebral peduncle CR central lineal nucleus of the raphe CS central sulcus CST corticospinal tract CSX commissure of superior colliculus CTT cortico-tectal tract Cu cuneate nucleus CV ventral cochlear nucleus CX external cuneate nucleus D nucleus of Darkschewitsch DAS dorsal acoustic stria DBH horizontal nucleus of diagonal band DBV vertical nucleus of diagonal band DCH dorsal chiasmatic nucleus DG dentate gyrus DH dorsal horn DP dorsal prelunate area DR dorsal raphe DSCT dorsal spinocerebellar tract DX dorsal vagal nucleus E endopiriform nucleus ECS ectocalcarine sulcus ENT entorhinal cortex EW nucleus of Edinger & Westphal F fornix FF field of Forel FI fimbria FP precommissural fornix FST area FST of temporal cortex FTC central tegmental field FTG gigantocellular tegmental field G gustatory cortex GF gracile fasciculus GPe globus pallidus, external division GPi globus pallidus, internal division Gr gracile nucleus HAA anterior hypothalamic area HC habenular commissure HD dorsal hypothalamic nucleus HDA dorsal hypothalamic area HDM dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus Hl lateral habenular nucleus HLA lateral hypothalamic area HLmc magnocellular nucleus of lateral hypothalamus Hm medial habenular nucleus HMA medial hypothalamic area HPA posterior hypothalamic area HPT habenulopeduncular tract HS hippocampal sulcus HY hypophysis IC internal capsule ICA interstitial nucleus of Cajal ICAS inferior ramus of calcarine sulcus ICC central nucleus of inferior colliculus ICP pericentral nucleus of inferior colliculus ICX external nucleus of superior colliculus IG indusium griseum III oculomotor nucleus IIIN oculomotor nerve IIN optic nerve INF infundibular (arcuate) nucleus InsA insular cortex, agranular field InsD insular cortex, dysgranular field InsG insular cortex, granular field IPA area IPA of temporal cortex Ipo interposed nucleus IO inferior olivary complex IOD dorsal accessory nucleus of inferior olivary complex IOM medial accessory nucleus of inferior olivary complex IOP principal nucleus of inferior olivary complex IOS inferior occipital sulcus IP interpeduncular nuclei IPS intraparietal sulcus ISC island(s) of Calleja ITG inferior temporal gyrus ITS inferior temporal sulcus IV trochlear nucleus IVS supratrochlear nucleus IVN trochlear nerve IXN glossopharyngeal nerve KF Kolliker-Fuse nucleus L limitans nucleus of thalamus LC locus coeruleus LCN lateral cervical nucleus LCS lateral corticospinal tract LD lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus LF lenticular fasciculus LGd dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus LIP lateral intraparietal area LL lateral lemniscus LLD dorsal nucleus of lateral lemniscus LLV ventral nucleus of lateral lemniscus LM medial lemniscus LMX decussation of medial lemniscus LOP lateral occipito-parietal area LOT lateral olfactory tract LP lateral posterior nucleus of thalamus LPO lateral preoptic area LR lateral reticular nucleus LS lateral sulcus LT lamina terminalis LUS lunate sulcus LV lateral ventricle MD mediodorsal nucleus of thalamus ME median eminence MGad anterodorsal nucleus of medial geniculate complex MGmc magnocellular nucleus of medial geniculate complex MGpd posterodorsal nucleus of medial geniculate complex MGv ventral nucleus of medial geniculate complex MIP medial intraparietal area ML lateral mamillary nucleus MLB medial longitudinal bundle MM medial mamillary nucleus MP mamillary peduncle MPO median preoptic nucleus MPOS medial parieto-occipital sulcus MR median raphe nucleus MS supramamillary nucleus MST medial superior temporal area MT middle temporal area MTT mamillothalamic tract MV medioventral nucleus of thalamus NB nucleus of brachium of inferior colliculus NC central nucleus of brainstem NHY neurohypophysis NLOT nucleus of lateral olfactory tract NOT nucleus of optic tract NPC nucleus of posterior commissure NS nucleus of solitary tract NST nucleus of stria terminalis NTB nucleus of trapezoid body NY neurohypophysis OAN anterior olfactory nucleus OB olfactory bulb OCX optic chiasm OFS orbitofrontal sulcus OLS olfactory sulcus OLT olfactory tubercle OlT olfactory tract OPT olivary pretectal nucleus OR optic radiation ORS orbital sulcus OT optic tract OTS occipito-temporal sulcus Pa paraventricular nuclei of thalamus PAG periaqueductal gray PAH paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus PAM periamygdaloid area PASB parasubiculum PB parabrachial nucleus PBG parabigeminal nucleus Pc paracentral nucleus of thalamus PC posterior commissure PCO posterior cortical nucleus of amygdala PCS precentral sulcus Pe periventricular hypothalamic area PF perifornical nuclei Pf parafascicular nucleus of thalamus Pg paragigantocellular reticular nucleus PGA area PGA of temporal cortex PGr pontine gray PI parainsular cortex PIN pineal PIP posterior intraparietal area PL paralaminar nucleus of amygdala Pll lateral nucleus of pulvinar Plm medial nucleus of pulvinar Pla anterior nucleus of pulvinar Pli inferior nucleus of pulvinar Plil inferior nucleus of pulvinar, lateral division Plim inferior nucleus of pulvinar, medial division PM premammillary nucleus PMR paramedian reticular nucleus PMTS posterior middle temporal sulcus PnC caudal pontine reticular nucleus PnO oral pontine reticular nucleus PO parieto-occipital area Po posterior nucleus of thalamus POA preoptic area PoCS postcentral sulcus Pons pons POS parieto-occipital sulcus PPH nucleus prepositus hypoglossi PPN peripeduncular nucleus PPT pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus PR prerubral field PRC perirhinal cortex (area 35) PRCO precentral opercular cortex PrC precommissural nucleus of pretectum Prg pregeniculate (ventral lateral geniculate) nucleus PRP prepiriform cortex PRS principal sulcus PSB presubiculum Pt parataenial nucleus of thalamus PT pretectum PTA anterior pretectal nucleus PTM medial pretectal nucleus PTP posterior pretectal nucleus Pu putamen Py pyramid PyX pyramidal decussation R reticular nucleus of thalamus RA retroambiguus nucleus RB restiform body Rh rhomboid (central) nucleus of thalamus RI retroinsular area RM raphe magnus RN red nucleus RNm red nucleus magnocellular division RNp red nucleus parvocellular division RO raphe obscurus ROS rostral sulcus RP raphe pallidus RPn pontine raphe nucleus RS rhinal sulcus RSP retrosplenial cortex (areas 29, 30) RTP reticulotegmental pontine nucleus Sag nucleus sagulum Sb subthalamic nucleus SbCS subcentral sulcus SB subiculum SC superior colliculus SCAS superior ramus of calcarine sulcus SCD deep layers of superior colliculus SCI intermediate layers of superior colliculus SCN suprachiasmatic nucleus SCO subcommissural organ SCS superficial layers of superior colliculus SDN dorsal septal nucleus SeH septohippocampal nucleus SFN septofimbrial nucleus SFO subfornical organ SFS superior frontal sulcus SG suprageniculate nucleus of thalamus SGe supragenual nucleus SHN septohypothalamic nucleus SI substantia innominata SII second somatosensory area of cerebral cortex SbCS subcentral sulcus SCAS superior ramus of calcarine sulcus SLN lateral septal nucleus SM stria medullaris of thalamus SMN medial septal nucleus SNc pars compacta of substantia nigra SNr pars reticulata of substantia nigra SOL lateral superior olivary nucleus SOM medial superior olivary nucleus SON supraoptic nucleus SOX supraoptic commissure SP septum pellucidum SPf subparafascicular nucleus SPS subparietal sulcus SpTV spinal tract of trigeminal SSII second somatosensory areas SSp supraspinal nucleus ST solitary tract STC superior temporal cortex STG superior temporal gyrus STN triangular septal nucleus STr stria terminalis STS superior temporal sulcus TAA area TAA of temporal cortex TB trapezoid body TD dorsal tegmental nucleus TE inferotemporal cortex TEA area TEA of temporal cortex TEO area TEO of temporal cortex TF area TF of parahippocampal cortex TLD lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus TM tubero-mamillary area TP temporal polar cortex TPO area TPO of temporal cortex TSp tectospinal tract TT taenia tecta TU lateral tuberal nucleus TX tegmental decussations V motor nucleus of trigeminal VA ventral anterior nucleus of thalamus VAmc ventral anterior nucleus of thalamus, magnocellular division VCN vestibulocerebellar nucleus VH ventral horn VI abducens nucleus VII facial nucleus VIIN facial nerve VIIIN cochlear nerve VIN abducens nerve VIP ventral intraparietal area VLa ventral lateral anterior nucleus of thalamus VLp ventral lateral posterior nucleus of thalamus VM ventral medial nucleus of thalamus VMH ventral medial nucleus of hypothalamus VN trigeminal nerve VP principal trigeminal nucleus VPa ventral pallidum VPI ventral posterior inferior nucleus of thalamus VPL ventral posterior lateral nucleus of thalamus VPM ventral posterior medial nucleus of thalamus VR ventral raphe VSC ventral spinocerebellar tract VSI inferior vestibular nucleus VSL lateral vestibular nucleus VSM medial vestibular nucleus VSp spinal trigeminal nucleus VSpC spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal division VSpI spinal trigeminal nucleus interpolar division VspO spinal trigeminal nucleus oral division VSS superior vestibular nucleus VTA ventral tegmental area V3 visual area 3 V3v visual area 3, ventral division V4 visual area 4 XII hypoglossal nucleus ZI zona incerta