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From the Cover: Metal stocks and sustainability

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Title:
From the Cover: Metal stocks and sustainability Authors:
Gordon, R. B.; Bertram, M.; Graedel, T. E. Affiliation:
AA(Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06511; Center for Industrial Ecology, Yale University, 205 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511), AB(Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06511; Center for Industrial Ecology, Yale University, 205 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511), AC(Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06511; Center for Industrial Ecology, Yale University, 205 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511) Publication:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 103, Issue 5, 2006, pp.1209-1214 Publication Date:
01/2006 Category:
SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Origin:
PNAS DOI:
10.1073/pnas.0509498103 Bibliographic Code:
2006PNAS..103.1209G

Abstract

The relative proportions of metal residing in ore in the lithosphere, in use in products providing services, and in waste deposits measure our progress from exclusive use of virgin ore toward full dependence on sustained use of recycled metal. In the U.S. at present, the copper contents of these three repositories are roughly equivalent, but metal in service continues to increase. Providing today's developed-country level of services for copper worldwide (as well as for zinc and, perhaps, platinum) would appear to require conversion of essentially all of the ore in the lithosphere to stock-in-use plus near-complete recycling of the metals from that point forward.
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