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The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens

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Title:
The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens Authors:
Lieberman, Daniel E.; McBratney, Brandeis M.; Krovitz, Gail Affiliation:
AA(Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138; and Department of Anthropology, George Washington University, 2110 G Street NW, Washington, DC 20052), AB(Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138; and Department of Anthropology, George Washington University, 2110 G Street NW, Washington, DC 20052), AC(Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138; and Department of Anthropology, George Washington University, 2110 G Street NW, Washington, DC 20052) Publication:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 99, Issue 3, 2002, pp.1134-1139 Publication Date:
02/2002 Category:
Anthropology-BS Origin:
PNAS DOI:
10.1073/pnas.022440799 Bibliographic Code:
2002PNAS...99.1134L

Abstract

Despite much data, there is no unanimity over how to define Homo sapiens in the fossil record. Here, we examine cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to "anatomically modern" H. sapiens (AMHS) from those attributed to various taxa of "archaic" Homo spp. (AH) and to test hypotheses about the changes in cranial development that underlie the origin of modern human cranial form. In terms of pattern, AMHS crania are uniquely characterized by two general structural autapomorphies: facial retraction and neurocranial globularity. Morphometric analysis of the ontogeny of these autapomorphies indicates that the developmental changes that led to modern human cranial form derive from a combination of shifts in cranial base angle, cranial fossae length and width, and facial length. These morphological changes, some of which may have occurred because of relative size increases in the temporal and possibly the frontal lobes, occur early in ontogeny, and their effects on facial retraction and neurocranial globularity discriminate AMHS from AH crania. The existence of these autapomorphies supports the hypothesis that AMHS is a distinct species from taxa of "archaic" Homo (e.g., Homo neanderthalensis).
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