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Politics and government of
Officially registered political parties
Bhutan has two political parties that are officially registered:
The People's Democratic Party was founded on March 24, 2007.
The Druk Phuensum Tshogpa came into being as a merger of the Bhutan People's United Party and the All People's Party on July 25, 2007. Both of these parties have been registered with the Election Commission of Bhutan (ECB). However, the application of the Bhutan People's United Party (revived again by a breakaway faction of Druk Phuensum Tshogpa) for registration was rejected by the ECB on November 27, 2007.
Other political parties
The following parties are all based in exile, many of them identified as extremist or terrorist groups for their involvements in bomb blasts and militancy.
- Bhutan Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist-Maoist)
- Bhutan Democratic Socialist Party
- Bhutan Gorkha National Liberation Front
- Bhutan National Congress
- Bhutan National Democratic Party
- Bhutan National Party
- Bhutan Peoples' Party
- Bhutan Tiger Force
- Bhutanese Movement Steering Committee
- Druk National Congress
On August 26, 2010, Bhutanese political parties in exile formed an umbrella group to pursue a "unified democratic movement led by Rongthong Kunley Dorji, President of the Druk National Congress. The group's offices opened in Kathmandu in November 2010, and it seems to receive some measure of support from the Nepalese government.
Political parties are regulated under the Constitution of 2008. The Constitution sets forth a multi-party system under which two parties at a time occupy either ruling or opposition positions in the National Assembly. All other government bodies are non-partisan. Substantive and procedural requirements for all political parties, such as registration, are codified in Article 15. The Article also sets forth sets of mandated and prohibited practices, two examples of the latter being receipt of money or assistance from outside Bhutan and political association on the basis of religion, region, or ethnicity.
- Penjore, Ugyen (2007-03-24). "The Race is On". Kuensel online. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
- Penjore, Ugyen (2007-07-35). "Druk Phuensum Tshogpa, the new party in town". Kuensel online. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
- Chandrasekharan, S. (2010-12-08). "BHUTAN: Political Parties in Exile Form an Umbrella Organisation: Update No. 88". South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG). Retrieved 2011-05-20.
- "Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan (English)" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2010-10-13.