Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh

Jaunpur
Sheeraz-e-Hind
city
Shahi bridge, Jaunpur
Shahi bridge, Jaunpur
Jaunpur is located in Uttar Pradesh
Jaunpur
Jaunpur
Coordinates: 25°44′N 82°41′E / 25.73°N 82.68°E / 25.73; 82.68
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Jaunpur
Founded 1359
Founded by Feroz Shah Tughlaq
Named for Muhammad bin Tughluq, whose given name was Jauna Khan
Area
 • Total 2,038 km2 (787 sq mi)
Elevation 82 m (269 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 4,476,072
 • Rank 43 in UP
 • Density 1,108/km2 (2,870/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi, Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Sex ratio 1000 males per 1018 females /

Jaunpur (Hindi: जौनपुर, Urdu: جون پور‎) is a city and a municipal board in Jaunpur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

Jaunpur district is located to the northwest of the district of Varanasi in the eastern part of the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Jaunpur has a population of 4,476,072[1] people according to official census report of India 2011. Demographically, Jaunpur resembles the rest of the Purvanchal area in which it is located: a primarily rural agricultural population with low human development index.

History

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Jaunpur historically known as Sheeraz-e-Hind having its historical dates from 1359, when the city was founded by the Sultan of Delhi Feroz Shah Tughlaq and named in memory of his cousin, Muhammad bin Tughluq, whose given name was Jauna Khan.[2] In 1388, Feroz Shah Tughlaq appointed Malik Sarwar, a eunuch, as the governor of the region. The Sultanate was in disarray because of factional fighting for power, and in 1393 Malik Sarwar declared independence. He and his adopted son Mubarak Shah founded what came to be known as the Sharqi dynasty (dynasty of the East). During the Sharqi period the Jaunpur Sultanate was a strong military power in Northern India, and on several occasions threatened the Delhi Sultanate.

Silver coin of 32 rattis issued by Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur.
It depicts the elephant Citranand attacking another, called Udiya, during the Mughal campaign against the rebel forces of Khan Zaman and Bahadur Khan in 1567.

The Jaunpur Sultanate attained its greatest height under the younger brother of Mubarak Shah, who ruled as Shams ud-din Ibrahim Shah (ruled 1402-1440). To the east, his kingdom extended to Bihar, and to the west, to Kanauj; he even marched on Delhi at one point. Under the aegis of a Muslim holy man named Qutb al-Alam, he threatened the Sultanate of Bengal under Raja Ganesha.[3]

During the reign of Husain Shah (1456–76), the Jaunpur army was perhaps the biggest in India, and Husain decided to attempt a conquest of Delhi. However, he was defeated on three successive attempts by Bahlul Khan Lodi. Finally, under Sikandar Lodi, the Delhi Sultante was able to reconquer Jaunpur in 1493, bringing that sultanate to an end.

The Jaunpur Sultanate was a major center of Urdu and Sufi knowledge and culture. The Sharqi dynasty was known for its excellent communal relations between Muslims and Hindus, perhaps stemming from the fact that the Sharqis themselves were originally indigenous converts to Islam, as opposed to descendants of Persians or Afghans. Jaunpur's independence came to an end in 1480, when the city was conquered by Sikander Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi. The Sharqi kings attempted for several years to retake the city, but ultimately failed.

Although many of the Sharqi monuments were destroyed when the Lodis took the city, several important mosques remain, most notably the Atala Masjid, Jama Masjid (now known as the Bari (big mosque) Masjid) and the Lal Darwaza Masjid. The Jaunpur mosques display a unique architectural style, combining traditional Hindu and Muslim motifs with purely original elements. The old bridge over the Gomti River in Jaunpur dates from 1564, the era of the Mughal emperor Akbar. The Jaunpur Quilla, a fortress from the Tughlaq era, also remains in ruined form.

Jaunpur district was annexed into British India based on the Permanent settlement of 1779, and thus was subject to the Zamindari system of land revenue collection. During the Revolt of 1857 the Sikh troops in Jaunpur joined the Indian rebels. The district was eventually reconquered for the British by Gurkha troops from Nepal. Jaunpur then became a district administrative center.

Modern day

Jaunpur shares the underdevelopment of most of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. There are currently some major industries operating in the city, and traditional industries such as perfume making have become increasingly unviable. Under the initiative of the UP government, an Industrial Area has been set up in the Sathariya region of the district to promote industrial growth and expansion.[citation needed] Land is being allotted to budding industrialists and the government has plans to help people of this region develop more and more industries.[citation needed] During the past three years Jaunpur city has experienced a growing corporate presence in financial services as well as in the organized retail sector.[citation needed]

Jaunpur is the district headquarters. The district has 2 Lok Sabha and 9 Vidhan Sabha constituencies.

Demographics

As per provisional data of 2011 census, Jaunpur had a population of 430000out of which males were 200063 and females were 229937. The literacy rate was 89.11 per cent.[4]

Religions in Jaunpur
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
61%
Muslims
  
37%
Jains
  
1.7%
Others†
  
0.3%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

Rivers of Jaunpur

Gomti, Sai, Varuna, Pili, and Basuhi are the five rivers which make its land fertile.[5] It is one of the most densely rural districts in UP.

Transportation

Rail

Jaunpur is well-connected with all major cities of India thanks to Indian Railways. It has four major railway stations: Jaunpur City Station (JOP) and Jaunpur Junction (JNU), Shahganj Junction (SHG), Janghai Junction, Kerakat Station (KKT).

Mughalsarai, Varanasi and Allahabad railway stations are easily reachable from here. Godaan express is a daily train to Mumbai, Doon, Jamu Tawi and Amritsar Express are daily from JNU to Kolkata (HWH); Shramjeevi is daily train to Delhi. Farraka and sadbhavana express are other trains which run to Delhi.

Road

Jaunpur is well-connected to Lucknow, Gorakhpur, Varanasi, Allahabad and other cities like Azamgarh, Mirzapur, Janghai, Sultanpur, Ghazipur etc. NH-56, SH-36 are the roadways connecting all major cities to Jaunpur.

Rulers

Sharqi Dynasty

Sher Shah Suri

Educational institutes

Jaunpur district has more than 50 Graduate and post graduate institutes and more than 200 undergraduate colleges and more than 300 colleges up to high school. In recent years, some professional and Management institute opened such as Prasad Engineering, IPM etc. There are many major educational institutions in Jaunpur City which are famous throughout the nation. There is also a Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya situated 21 km south from the district headquarters on Lumbini - Duddhi Road in Katghara Village near Mariahu Tehsil.

University

Engineering Institutes

Industries

Shivansh Offset Industries The bigest producer of answersheet and paper converter. In the memory of Lt. Shri Raj Narayan Pathak

SIDA (Satharia Industrial Development Authority)

Satharia Industrial Development Authority was established in November 1989 by the Govt. of Uttar Pradesh, under U.P. Industrial Area Development Act, 1976 to facilitate concentrated effort on Industrial development of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

In its 1st phase of activity, the authority has a fully developed growth center area on 508 acres of land, under growth center scheme of Govt. of India.

Virtually all kind of industrial, commercial and social infrastructural facilities, such as Medical, Educational, Residential, Roads, Transportation, drainage, Telecommunication, dedicated industrial power 33/11 KV supply, post office, bank, water supply, community center, shopping center, field hostel etc., have been fully established and are operative.[6]

Landmarks

There are a number of tourist attractions in Jaunpur. Every year thousands of visitors come from every corner of the world to visit Jaunpur. The tourist attractions in Jaunpur include monuments, museums, and holy places.

Monuments

Holy places

Jaunpur Atala Masjid.
Jaunpur Jama Masjid

Local products

References

  1. ^ "Jaunpur Population Census 2011, Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh literacy sex ratio and density". Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  2. ^ Stan Goron and J.P. Goenka: The Coins of the Indian Sultanates, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2001.
  3. ^ Goron and Goenka, p. 343.
  4. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  5. ^ Cf. "Jaunpur" article in 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, p.282.
  6. ^ "About SIDA". 
  7. ^ "Jaunpur's raddish". Retrieved 16 March 2012. 

External links

Wikisource-logo.svg "Jaunpur". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.