Amongst land animals, forage is plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock. Historically, the term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is also used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals, especially as hay or silage. Amongst aquatic animals, the term forage fish refers to small schooling fish that are preyed on by larger aquatic animals.
While the term forage has a broad definition, the term forage crop is used to define crops, annual or biennal, which are grown to be utilized by grazing or harvesting as a whole crop.
- Bentgrasses (Agrostis species)
- Andropogon hallii
- Brachiaria decumbens
- Brachiara humidicola
- Bothriochloa pertusa
- Bothrioochloa bladhii
- Heteropogon contortus
- Themeda triandra
- Guinea grass (Panicum maximum)
- Cenchrus ciliaris
- Melinis minutiflora
- Setaria sphacelata
- Chloris guyana
- Cynodon dactylon
- Paspalum dilatatum
- Hyparrhenia rufa
- Echinochloa pyrmaidalis
- Leersia hexandra
- Hymenachne amplexicaulis
- Entolasia imbricata
- Intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium)
- Bluegrasses or meadow-grasses (Poa species)
- Bromegrass or brome (Bromus species)
- False oat-grass (Arrhenatherum elatius)
- Fescues (Festuca species):
- Orchard grass or cock's-foot (Dactylis glomerata)
- Reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea)
- Ryegrasses (Lolium species):
- Timothy-grass or timothy (Phleum pratense)
- Stylosanthes scabra
- Stylosanthes humilis
- Chamaecrista rotundifolia
- Macroptilium atropurpeum
- Macroptilium bracteatum
- Medicago truncatula
- Glycine wightii
- Clitoria ternatea
- Arachis pintoi
- Vigna parkeri
- Alfalfa or lucerne (Medicago sativa)
- Bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
- Clovers (Trifolium species):
- Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia)
- Sweetclover or melilot (Melilotus species)
- Vetches (Vicia species)
Silage may be composed by one of the following
- Corn (maize) stover
- Soybean stover
- Grass-fed beef
- Forage fish
- Forage (honeybee) can also refer to the plants that produce nectar, in the context of the animals that gather it, such as honeybees.
- Foraging, a method of finding food
- Hunter-gatherers, humans who survive by foraging
- Fageria, N.K. (1997). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. NY,NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 595.
- Fageria, N.K. (1997). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. NY,NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 583.
- Karpouzi V, R Watson and D Pauly (2006) "Forage fish consumption by marine mammals and seabirds" Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 14 (3): 33–46.
- Givens, D. Ian (2000). Forage evaluation in ruminant nutrition. CABI. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-85199-344-7.
- Murphy, Bill (1998). Greener Pastures On Your Side of the Fence. Colchester, Vermont: Arriba Publishing. pp. 19–20.
- "Pasture". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- Murphy, Bill (1998). Greener Pastures On Your Side of the Fence. Colchester, Vermont: Arriba Publishing. p. 20.
- George, J. Ronald (1994). Extension Publications: Forage and Grain Crops. Dubuque,Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. p. 152.
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